after the 1960s, the political leaders of the Soviet Union gradually lost their political beliefs and began to waver in their ideals and beliefs. Finally, they fell into the so-called “democracy and human rights” and other political traps set by western countries.

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in 2011, the 20th anniversary of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Soviet Communist Party. The drastic changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 20 years ago brought serious setbacks to the world socialist movement and changed the world political landscape. History shows that the disintegration of the Soviet Union is the result of the loss of the party spirit and degeneration of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the later stage. Gorbachev’s blind political reorganization and hasty democratization are the accelerator and fuse of this process.

in 2009, Steve Cohen, an expert on the history of the U.S. Soviet Union and a supporter of Gorbachev’s reform, wrote in his book the fate and lost choices of the Soviet Union: from communism to the cold war that Gorbachev’s “democratization reform” in the Soviet Union eventually led to the disintegration of the state and the collapse of political power.

political path: reform or change? After the victory of the October Revolution of

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, the new Soviet Socialist regime has aroused strong hatred of Western imperialism since its establishment, and has been wildly damaged and disturbed by hostile forces at home and abroad. After more than 50 years, in addition to maintaining strong military pressure, the Western camp chose “peaceful evolution” as a means of political and ideological competition with the Soviet Union.

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after the cold war, western countries actively used the pretext of “democracy and human rights” as an effective weight and weapon to attack the Soviet political system, successively established various forms of democracy foundations to find political representatives in the Soviet Eastern camp. Larry diamond, a political scientist and one of the two editors in chief of democracy magazine, a publication of the national foundation for democracy in the United States, has made no secret that the implementation of “human rights” and “democratization” by the United States and Western countries in socialist countries such as the Soviet Union is to change the political systems of these countries.

after the 1960s, the political leaders of the Soviet Union gradually lost their political beliefs, their ideals and beliefs began to waver, and finally fell into the political trap of “democracy and human rights” set by western countries. Gorbachev himself admitted that he did not believe in the vitality of scientific socialism for a long time, so after taking office, he tried to transform the Soviet Communist Party with “Western European style social democratic thought”. “In 1988, we realized that the system itself must be fundamentally reformed. As a result, we entered the second stage of reform with rich content, which should be based on other ideological views, based on the idea of social democracy,” he wrote Shortly after taking office, Gorbachev put forward slogans such as “openness, democratization and transformation”, trying to cooperate with the diplomatic “new thinking” of concession and compromise to the west through “democratization” within the Soviet Union.

in 1983, after visiting several socialist countries in Eastern Europe, former US President Nixon came to the conclusion that the Communists in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe had lost their faith. Jack F. Matlock, then the US ambassador to the Soviet Union, the famous Soviet Tong, and Brzezinski, an American politician, were also insightful. Brzezinski wrote in 1989: Gorbachev has gradually embarked on the path of revisionism in the process of reform. He not only wants to change the economic structure of the Soviet Union, but also modify the ideological basis of the Soviet system, Even to a certain extent, the political procedures of the Soviet Union should be changed. The impact of the emergence of a revisionist general secretary in the Kremlin is huge. The world communism will be in danger of disintegration. One day, the Soviet Communist Party will lose its monopoly control over society and the Soviet Union may disintegrate.

the main leaders of the late Soviet Communist Party abandoned their political beliefs and denied the history of the Soviet Communist Party, which is tantamount to “ideological suicide” for a proletarian political party. In a short period of about six years, this political trend of thought under the banner of “democracy and humanity” not only led the reform of the Soviet Union astray, but also buried the 74 year socialist cause of the Soviet Union and the most influential Soviet Communist Party with a history of 90 years in the international communist movement.

leaders of the Soviet Communist Party: insist or give up?

the Soviet Communist Party is the foundation and core of the Soviet regime and political system. The Soviet building is maintained on the important political pillar of the Soviet Communist Party. After Gorbachev came to power, he first weakened and then abandoned the leadership of the Soviet Communist Party. In about five years, the Soviet Communist party suffered the tragic fate of being reformed, weakened, marginalized, divided and abandoned. Without the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, there would be no Soviet Union.

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are ideologically weakened. At the beginning of the reform, the fate of the Soviet Union and the reform also depended on the Soviet Communist Party to a great extent. However, under the impact of the ideological trend of “democratization” and “openness” advocated by Gorbachev, the Soviet Communist Party began to gradually lose its ability to guide reform and national development, and was gradually marginalized in political life. “Spekds”, “spokds” the former leader of the Russian Communist Party: “At the beginning of the reform, there were major mistakes, exaggerating the danger of conservatism in the party, Party members and cadres and state organs, desperately attacking the party and artificially cultivating the opposition. We should have started from the party and made it a powerful tool for socialist reform. We should have strengthened organization to promote democratization, but Gorbachev went the opposite way. This lesson is very profound. ”

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all these gradually led to the Soviet Communist Party becoming the target of public criticism, and many people were worried about the swing of the party’s ideological principles. In the program adopted by the 28th National Congress, the purpose of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union has undergone fundamental changes, and the organizational foundation has been completely changed. The Congress also stipulated that the Communist Party of each Union Republic has unlimited independence.

split and dismembered on the tissue. If the top leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had the idea of splitting as early as the middle and late 1980s, the fate of the collapse of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the failure of reform has long been doomed. In December 1985, yakovlevli, the propaganda minister of the CPC Central Committee, wrote to the general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and proposed a series of comprehensive political reforms, such as democratization, openness, multi-party system and presidential systemLeather recommendations. It is suggested that the party should be divided into two parts: the socialist party and the people’s Democratic Party, the president should be elected by referendum, the government should be led by the general secretary of the party who won the national election, etc.

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are legally abolished – from the leading Party to the parliamentary party. As early as 1988, some informal organizations such as the “Democratic League” raised the issue of abolishing the leadership of the Soviet Communist Party. At the first National People’s Congress in May 1989 and the second National People’s Congress in December of the same year, representatives of the “Democrats” repeatedly proposed to repeal the provisions on the leadership of the Soviet Communist Party in the constitution. On the eve of the February plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1990, 200000 people in Moscow held a rally and parade, shouting slogans such as “Abolishing the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, trying the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and implementing a multi-party system”.

at the same time, affected by the upheaval in Eastern Europe, Gorbachev began to recognize the multi-party system. At the February plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the constitution was amended to abolish the legal leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union over the state power. At the 28th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev stated that the Communist Party of the Soviet Union would play the role of parliamentary party.

according to academician Ge a. albatov, former director of the Institute of American and Canadian Studies of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and former political adviser to the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the supreme leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union also discussed this plan at that time and believed that it was feasible. The party could be divided into two or three parties, one of which was a powerful social democracy.

the failure of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union began with the division of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and nationalism tore the rift of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The political program adopted at the 28th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union left room for continued separation according to ethnic groups and regions. As the Russian scholar wrote, “the establishment of Federal Relations between the Communist parties of the republics was the most important factor leading to the later negation and dismemberment of the Soviet Union”.

is finally abandoned and buried. In the later period of the Soviet Communist Party, the Soviet Communist Party had actually been abandoned by Gorbachev and other high-level leaders. Around 1990, Gorbachev had lost confidence in the party and began to arrange his retreat: he proposed the establishment of the post of president. During the 28th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in July 1990, the domestic situation in the Soviet Union became more critical, anti Communist and anti socialist rallies and demonstrations continued, and a large number of Party members withdrew from the party. Rezhkov, a member of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union who was once prime minister, said sadly: “the party was slowly on the verge of death by 1990.”

according to the Soviet Union’s “dialogue” magazine, the number of people who withdrew from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was 40000 in 1985, 45000 in 1986, 49000 in 1987, 140000 in 1989 and 371000 in the first half of 1990. After the 28th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, another 311000 people withdrew from the party in July and August, showing a climax of withdrawal. In July 1991, according to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, a total of 4.2 million Party members withdrew from the party in the last year. The Soviet Communist Party has been reduced from 19 million Party members to 15 million, returning to the level of 1973. The official statistics of the Soviet Union show that among the retired party members, the proportion of workers is large. In the first five months of 1990, workers accounted for 57.4% of the 11000 retired party members in Moscow. On June 15, 1990, when the all Soviet miners’ Congress passed the no confidence motion against the government, it declared that the miners “do not think that the current form of the Soviet Communist Party is the workers’ own party”.

under the attack of internal and external hostile forces, by the summer of 1991, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, a large party with more than 90 years of glorious history and more than 70 years of ruling experience, was in danger.

constitutional system: perfection or demolition?

since the middle and late 1980s, some senior leaders of the Soviet Union decided to completely break away from the current Soviet socialist system. Around 1990, Gorbachev actively promoted the revision of the Soviet constitution and abolished the leadership of the Soviet Communist Party; Declare political pluralism and implement a multi-party system; Establish a presidential position of power.

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began in 1988. Under the tide of political pluralism and multi-party system, the national separatist forces of the Soviet Union quickly gained power in the participating republics, launched a “legal war” and “sovereignty war” against the Central Committee, and declared “sovereign independence” one after another. The democratization movement started by Gorbachev fell into a trap, the Soviet Union became the hostage of “reform”, and the political reform also came to a dead end.

political heat and governance failure. Gorbachev believed that the Soviet Bureaucratic class was the “culprit” of the Soviet Union’s backwardness. Therefore, the spearhead of political reform should turn to power institutions at all levels. The differential election in 1989 and the debate of the Soviet assembly triggered a “political fever” that had never existed in the Soviet society, and various forces aroused invested in the political upsurge one after another. Economic reform has not achieved any results, people’s lives are deteriorating, the central authority has been lost, all localities have resisted paying taxes, and the phenomenon of economic separatism has become more serious. Separatist and radical forces took the opportunity to target the Soviet Union and its state system. In less than two years, the social, political and economic order of the Soviet Union was completely out of control.

political chaos and out of control order. With the advancement of Gorbachev’s openness and democratization policy, the problems of informal organizations and underground publications have sprung up again. In December 1987, there were 30000 informal organizations, which increased to 60000 in February 1989 and 90000 in 1990. Most of them are targeted and organized anti Communist and anti socialist political organizations. Some are under the banner of safeguarding the interests of their own nation, some are under the banner of western style freedom, and some call for the restoration of the rule of the Czar aristocracy, and so on. After the end of 1987, some organizational ideas and ideas began to evolve. These informal organizations can be called primary Party schools for cultivating liberalism or some extremist forces.

ethnic conflict and national disintegration. In the late 1980s, Gorbachev’s political reform led to the deterioration of social economy. Nationalism and separatism became the catalyst and detonator for the disintegration of Soviet society. A few years later, the Soviet Union was crushed by an avalanche.

the Almaty incident in December 1986 was the first large-scale national unrest since Gorbachev took office. Since February 1988, Armenia and Azerbaijan have focused on the status of Nagorno Kara PrefectureThere was an increasingly fierce armed conflict that lasted for many years. In January 1990, another bloody incident occurred in Baku. With the exception of the Republic of Turkmenistan, large-scale ethnic conflicts have occurred in all 14 participating republics. In the four years from 1988 to 1991, there were 175 ethnic conflicts in the Soviet Union, resulting in 10000 deaths and tens of thousands of injuries. Behind these ethnic conflicts are manipulated by the forces of national separatism.

after 1990, Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia took the lead in declaring national sovereignty and proposed to withdraw from the Soviet Union. Soviet leaders headed by Gorbachev were indecisive and connived at nationalist separatist forces everywhere, and the Soviet state was on the verge of disintegration.

by August 1991, the political crisis, economic crisis and national crisis of the Soviet Union had not eased, but deepened sharply. On August 19, some leaders of the Soviet Union hastily planned the “national emergency committee”. However, due to the lack of political will and social support, the desperate effort to save the Soviet Union failed in less than three days. Subsequently, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union announced its dissolution. On December 25, 1991, the Soviet flag fell from the sky over the Kremlin, and the union of Soviet Socialist Republics completely disintegrated.

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the lesson of the loss of the party’s soul caused by the failure of the Soviet Communist Party’s political reform warns future generations that political reform is the self-improvement of the socialist system and must adhere to the correct direction. Political reform must be conducive to national stability and national unity, improve political democracy, political stability and political efficiency, and embark on a comprehensive and scientific path of political development under the strong leadership of the party.

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