for the occupation of the US Army, most intellectuals are quite ambivalent, and their sense of humiliation and liberation are intertwined. “Vegetables and fish can be sold freely. You can listen to foreign broadcasts freely. Women’s right to participate in politics may be recognized. This is all good news.”

[Japan] Gao Jianshun’s Diary of defeat [Japan] the sadness of Japanese intellectuals before and after the defeat of

published by the Tokyo Central public opinion news agency in July 2005

for a long time, the diary of the writer Gao Jianshun (1907-1965) from January 1941 to his death, It is known as the vivid material of Showa history, and it is also the original document to investigate the spiritual history of Japanese intellectuals in this era. One of the most valued is the diary of 1945, which ushered in a great turning point in Japan’s modern history. After part of it was serially published in the July 1958 issue of the spring and autumn of literature and art, it was supplemented and compiled into the diary of defeat the following year, which was published by the spring and autumn society of literature and art. The value of the diary

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lies in that it not only truly records the various aspects of all living beings in Japanese society before and after the defeat of the war, but also truthfully records the psychological process of bitterness, bitterness, resentment and struggle of a Japanese intellectual with the above-mentioned ideological background in such an extraordinary period, showing his reflection and criticism of himself, the Japanese nation and the Japanese country, It shows an important page in the history of Japanese spirit in this period.

“I’m afraid the customs of the Japanese will change completely because of this war. The western-style image of women wearing skirts and socks is now completely invisible. Perhaps because of the lack of skirt materials and socks, what we see now are field overalls and pants in the form of battle clothes.” (January 9, P. 13) one of the main reasons is the serious shortage of materials, but the direct reason is the policy of the authorities to reject British and American colors before and after the outbreak of the war. The “shoe store” has been changed to “Dongtiao shoe store”. Bars and cafes in Tokyo and other metropolises have been closed, and only the so-called “national wine shop” approved by the authorities is struggling. One day in February, Gao Jianshun and others came to a former “national winery” in Akasaka, Tokyo: “It was said that it started at 5:30, but it was only 4:30 at this time. Long lines and two columns had been lined up in the alley. People’s clothes were very different from those six months ago. They were all serious wartime clothes with air defense headscarves and leggings, and they were all the same dirty. Just like the lines on construction sites in the past… The number of people queuing was increasing all the time. I saw that there were people in the line Acquaintances are quietly caught behind him. There are more and more people in front of us. Hey, don’t jump the queue! There was a roar of anger behind him. ” (February 9, page 58) the queue is to get a wine ticket, one for each person, one for a bottle of beer, plus wine money. With limited wine tickets, there are no people in the back row. Sometimes there will be quarrels or even fights because of the congestion. There are no decent tables and chairs in the house. They often drink up standing up.

decent restaurants also disappeared. Occasionally, I saw a food shop with a queue at the door, “Judging from the rapid movement of the team, the food supply is obviously quite crude and small. When I lined up at the checkout counter, I saw a piece of paper pasted with the words’ substitute food one yuan ‘and prepared a change ticket. I glanced in. It was really small. There was a little on the plate. I couldn’t see what the substitute food was. It was white and mixed with black Black things, like exotic vegetables, are obviously very bad to eat and look disgusting. ” (February 13, page 71)

since 1939, the authorities have successively started the rationing system of rice and grain. Since then, the rationing involves almost all daily necessities. With the progress of the war, the supply of goods has become more and more tight. In order to save electricity, the streets are dark. No wonder the writer Takeda Taichun (1912-1976) arrived in Shanghai in June 1944 and found that despite the high prices in Shanghai, compared with Tokyo and other cities, the materials are quite abundant. Rice is not rationed to the Japanese, and there is no fear of air strikes. Neon lights still flicker on the bustling streets, which makes him feel infinite (Takeda Taichun, fireflies in Shanghai, central commune, 1976). Unbelievable Shun * * * * in 1944, the second half of 1944, was also in Shanghai. When he was eating with the writer Abe Tomoji (1903-1973) on Xinghua Lou on the four road, he sighed deeply: “what things are not lacking in Shanghai is incredible. It is said that Japan has won the battle of defeats, but the conquered Japan is not free everywhere. (Gao Jianshun’s diary, Vol. 2, Jincao study, 1966, pp. 840-841) this is really ironic.

on April 18, 1942, the U.S. military launched an air raid on Japan for the first time. The frequency of air raid has gradually increased since November 1944. By 1945, it was very rare for Tokyo and other places to have no air raid warning. In the “Tokyo air raid” that began in the early morning of March 10, the U.S. military dispatched hundreds of bombers, dropped a large number of incendiary bombs, destroyed a quarter of buildings in Tokyo, killed nearly 100000 people and displaced one million people. The novelist Hefeng Yongjing (1879-1959) described in his diary the scene of his hurried escape from his residence on this day: “there is an air raid in the middle of the night, and there is a strange hall at four o’clock next morning (the name of Hefeng’s residence) Burned… The outdoor fire reflected from the window to my pillow, and was startled by the loud call of my neighbors. I hurriedly put the log and draft into my bag and ran to the courtyard. I saw the fire in the valley town, and there was fire in the far north. Mars fell into the courtyard with the strong wind. I looked around and thought it might be difficult to avoid disaster, Then he hurried through the fireworks and ran to the street… “(Volume 29 of the broken intestine pavilion day ride by Yongjing Hefeng, included in volume 25 of the complete works of Yongjing Hefeng, Yanbo bookstore, 1994, page 306).

Gao Jianshun read the main points of the Potsdam announcement from Yomiuri Shimbun on July 28. The next day, he revealed such a trace in his diary: “I’m upset. I don’t know what to do. I’m in a state of uncertainty。 My heart is full of resentment. To whom? Because of what? No objects. That’s why I feel more irritable and resentful. Yesterday, Kawabata (Kangcheng) said that Maoji Saito burned all his books and cried all day. I understand. I really understand… I also want to cry, and I really want to cry in my heart. For mankind, for the world. I’m angry now because I have an impulse to cry. ” (page 266) he may have had such an inner struggle before, but on August 15, his mood seemed very calm, At least on the surface: “Twelve o’clock. Time. Play on behalf of the king. Read the imperial edict. It was really the end of the war. The war finally defeated. I was exhausted by the war. The summer sun was shining. It was a painful light. I learned the news of the defeat in the scorching sun… On the station, as usual. A middle-aged woman asked a middle-school student, ‘what’s the weight at noon Big radio, what’s up? ” The middle school student showed an embarrassed look, lowered his head and answered softly‘ Ah? Ah? ” The woman shouted. The inside of the rail car is also the same as usual. A little more empty than usual. ” (page 310) “they are deceiving each other. The government deceives the people, and the people deceive the government. The military department deceives the government, and the government deceives the military department.” (page 311)

is also worth comparing with overseas Japanese literati. Takeda Taichun and Horita Shanwei, who later became the leaders of post-war writers, were both in Shanghai at that time. According to Horita’s diary at that time, they learned from foreign news agencies that Japan accepted the Potsdam announcement on August 11, That day, he and Takeda saw such a scene in Shanghai: “As the tram gradually approached the Nanjing road from Jingan Temple, the shops closed almost all the doors, and from time to time they hung out the fine day banner. Although all the shops on Nanjing road were closed, people were everywhere. People were walking with a * * * * e look. It was really not easy. The Hongkou people’s stores were also closed. After a while, the poet Louis came with open arms and an excited face, as if to embrace all the people present. As soon as he got close to us, he shouted, peace! Peace! Peace! Then he took out the peace sign of China Daily from his pocket and sent it to everyone. All of us Japanese sitting there looked dignified. At the same time, an unspeakable bitterness rushed into our hearts, and we didn’t know where to look. Takeda opened his eyes and read the number wholeheartedly. I also read… It’s dark. I go home with Takeda. On the way back, they were silent for a moment. After a while, Takeda slowly said, “the Japanese nation may be destroyed. If we stay in Sina in the future, we will tell the Chinese that once there was such a * * a country in the East, we must tell it to ourselves.” (Shanwei Horita’s Shanghai diary, Tokyo Jiying news agency, 2008, pp. 17-24) Horita was sincere and naive. He hoped that the Chinese people would believe that the Japanese were not all demons. He wanted to tell some voices to Chinese intellectuals and hope to get the understanding of the Chinese people, so he mobilized some Japanese intellectuals in Shanghai, An urgent plan was made to compile a pamphlet “a letter to the Chinese literati”, and managed to get the paper that was very scarce at that time and prepare to print one million copies to be distributed by the Japanese aircraft. As a result, the Chinese printers were slow down due to the arrival of the defeat, and the plan was aborted.

in this period of great changes in history, Gao Jianshun’s heart is also full of expectations, fears and doubts about Japan’s future, He has been thinking about the fate of Japan: “before, the power of the terrible military headquarters controlled everything. Will a truly healthy democratic society appear in Japan? Will it become a reality? I’m afraid it’s just an illusion. After all, we lived in such an autocratic society.” (August 18, P. 323) “what will happen to Japan? No matter what happens for a while, I still hope it can become strong and sound. Because the elements of strength and sound are possessed by the Japanese nation. Although it has all kinds of shortcomings, it is not a worthless nation. The shortcomings come from the fact that the nation is too young and has not experienced suffering. I believe in the Japanese.” (August 19, P. 324)

Gao Jianshun, like most intellectuals, is in a contradictory mood, with a sense of humiliation and liberation intertwined. “Vegetables and fish can be sold freely. You can listen to foreign broadcasts freely. Women’s right to participate in politics may be recognized. This is all good news.” (September 10, P. 363) “Yesterday, the publication of newspapers was banned. Today, the headquarters lifted the ban and issued new measures for the freedom of press and expression. In this way, everything can be written freely! Everything can be published freely! Freedom for the first time in my life! Freedom should be given to the people by my own government, but by the foreign army occupying my own country for the first time, I think It’s a shame to get up. As a person who loves Japan, I am ashamed of Japan. It is easy to understand that the war was lost and freedom was lost due to the entry of the occupying forces, but we are on the contrary. The occupying forces guaranteed our freedom. What a shame it is! ” (September 30, pp. 366-367) “The Teko police was abolished. I felt a lot happier at once. The dark cloud in my heart disappeared. But why did I have to wait until the allied command issued an instruction to implement it, and the Japanese couldn’t do it? It’s really shameful. If the Japanese abolished Teko, my joy would be stronger, and I wouldn’t leave this unhappy depression at the same time 。” (October 6, P. 372)

is also a historian from the past. Nagasaro Ka once pointed out that the U.S. occupying forces have great influence on ordinary Japanese Especially the meaning of intellectual man: “when people who have lost their thinking power in the spiritual prison for many years are at a loss, the time has come for them to finally spit out their depression after enduring for a long time. Even if this freedom is the limited freedom under the absolute rule of the occupying forces, it is not conducive to public securityThe complete abolition of the law, the imprisonment of the rulers of the old great Japanese Empire as war criminals, the implementation of the general election for women’s participation in politics, the recognition of the legitimacy of trade union organizations and strikes, the abolition of national textbooks, the liberation of agricultural land, the dissolution of chaebols and so on. These continuous series of reforms have made people realize that a epoch-making new era has come. ” (Volume I of the postwar history of Showa, Tokyo Xiwen she, 1976, pp. 4-5)

what role do intellectual people play in such an era of drastic changes? Relatively speaking, Japan is the first country where modern western thought has been widely spread except Europe and the United States. After the middle of the 19th century, enlightenment, liberalism, nationalism, anarchism, imperialism, socialism and communism from France landed in Japan one after another or at the same time. During the Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895, the fanatical trend of nationalism became the absolute theme of Japanese society. However, when Japan started war against Russia in 1904, there were anti war speeches and anti war movements of famous activists and thinkers such as Kan Liyan, Kenzo UCHIMURA and akishui Xingde. Their basic starting point was socialist and Christian thought. In the Taisho Period around 1920, there was a time when the democratic thought was highly promoted. Soon, the left-wing thought was combined with the social movement. The Communist Party of Japan was born in 1922, and there were doubts about the authorities’ domestic and foreign policies. But then fascism rose in Japan, and the supremacy of national interests became the absolute theme again. Around 1930, the authorities carried out a crazy crackdown on the left-wing movement led by the Communist Party. Under the cruel reality, most left-wing figures turned to cooperate with the authorities (such as writer Lin Fangxiong, Piangang Tiebing, etc.), or gave up their original ideas and compromised with the authorities. Gao Jianshun is the latter. Therefore, when the Japanese authorities launched the war, the anti war speech was almost completely silenced, and the ideological and cultural circles were completely controlled by the authorities. Except that a few big men could dissociate from the main theme for some reason, almost all intellectuals crawled under the obscene authority of the military headquarters, and the left wing thoughts and liberalism were collectively silent, losing or converging the rational criticism.

from Gao Jianshun’s diary quoted above, we can see this ideological context. Not long after Japan announced its surrender, Gao Jianshun, with a dual background of left-wing thought and liberalism, realized that “it is the arrogant warlords who still shout about the war of resistance that have plunged Japan into such a tragic situation. It is the warlords who have made Japan a mess. Do these warlords still want to drag the people into suffering and completely destroy Japan?” (August 18, P. 321) he even reflected that “we have our own responsibility for bringing Japan into such a situation, and we must painstakingly reflect” (August 12, P. 298). However, what he or they pay more attention to is the suffering and fate of the Japanese country and nation. For the great suffering suffered by overseas countries invaded by Japan, especially China and other neighboring countries, we can hardly see the slightest confession and pain in his diary, even if it is mentioned, It is also a “mess” and “no more than the Chins” after the * * (April 21st, page 176). In fact, this was also the ideological reality of the vast majority of Japanese intellectuals at that time. Due to the authorities’ high-pressure policy and the proliferation of extreme nationalist ideas, most intellectuals either actively or passively follow the main melody of the authorities’ so-called “common prosperity in Greater East Asia”. Occasionally, calm thinkers, such as Yuzuo meichengjiro, a researcher at the Institute of Oriental Culture in Tokyo, tried to criticize Japan’s economic aggression policy against China in 1942, He was immediately suppressed by the authorities and was arrested and imprisoned, but no one around expressed sympathy or protest (Yukio yamagen, history of Oriental cultural undertakings, Kiku Academy in Tokyo, P. 131). The same is true in fascist Germany or other authoritarian regimes. This may be the sorrow of Japanese intellectuals and, to a large extent, the sorrow of the whole mankind.