for the emperor in the heyday of a great empire, there is little reason to stick to the Chinese and foreigners and treat them differently. With reference to the actual records and historical records of emperors of previous dynasties, Emperor Kangxi is probably the one with the clearest understanding of the western world among the numerous emperors in China, except for the former Emperor who has been through many battles in this dynasty and has never been to any western country.

first of all, from the understanding of Science in the western world, the holy father met few rivals in 5000 years of Chinese history. The record of emperor Shengzu shows that Kangxi’s interest in Western learning is quite extensive, involving mathematics, astronomy, geography, medicine and many other aspects. Moreover, through his study, he not only absorbed all kinds of knowledge, but also presided over several large-scale scientific activities. In the Forbidden City where he lived, there are still hundreds of instruments for him to study and engage in scientific and technological activities.

Kangxi’s favorite science is arithmetic and astronomy. In his early years, Kangxi often went to the observatory in the capital to observe the celestial phenomena, accurately calculated the position of the shadow of the sun displayed on the sundial table at a certain time on a certain day, and pointed out the errors of the imperial celestial supervisor in astronomical calculation. Such a historical fact is recorded in the true records of the emperor of the Qing Dynasty in the 50th year of Kangxi. Kangxi once said vividly to the ministers: “I always pay attention to the astronomical calendar. The Western calendar can’t be wrong, but in terms of specific details, it can’t be wrong for a long time. This year’s summer solstice, Qin Tianjian reported that it was quarter past noon, and I calculated that it was quarter past nine in the early afternoon. If you don’t pay attention to the small problems in front of you, there will be more mistakes accumulated over the past few decades.” Coincidentally, in 1689, Mei wending, a great mathematician in the early Qing Dynasty, wrote the book “calendar calculation questions” and presented it to the palace. Kangxi once said such a comment: “the book is very careful and the discussion is fair. This person has made great efforts. I have been paying attention to calendar calculation for many years, and I can decide whether it is right or wrong.” Such a powerful comment came from the mouth of an emperor who managed everything every day. It shows that Kangxi’s knowledge of mathematics and astronomy has reached the level of accurate evaluation of academic achievements at that time. This is not only a self-confidence that has experienced many battles, but also a rigorous academic attitude.

,

,

and

the following figures are the observatory designed by Nan Huairen, the Belgian celestial supervisor, and it is said that it is the square moment quadrant and ivory ruler made by Emperor Kangxi.

especially Ivory slide rule is called “Gantt slide rule” in the history of mathematics. According to records, this hand-held computer was made by the emperor during the reign of Kangxi. It was a self-made scientific and technological product of the Qing palace at that time. It also added the original addition and subtraction two method to the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division four method, and created the horizontal chip calculation method. Therefore, the hand-held computer has always attracted the attention of the outside world.

Lord Kangxi’s love for astronomy and arithmetic even reached the level of partial obsession. According to the records of the holy ancestor, Emperor Kangxi asked the ministers about astronomy and arithmetic more than once. There are many complex and novel problems. In addition, Kangxi also repeatedly read the classic scientific works introduced into China by foreign countries at that time. The French missionary Bai Jin wrote in his book Emperor Kangxi: “in five or six months, Kangxi has mastered geometry and can tell the theorem and proof process of the geometric figures he painted at any time.” According to his records, the holy father read the original geometry at least 20 times. And interestingly, many exercises in Kangxi’s study of mathematics are related to life. For example, he added up the ages of all his concubines and calculated the average age. There are still records of such interesting digital performances in the Qing palace archives. Imagine a 16th century xie’er yellow skinned Chinese emperor who opened his mouth to mathematics and closed his mouth to astronomy. This scene is undoubtedly amazing. At the same time, it is enough to reflect Kangxi’s profound understanding of the material civilization of the western world from one side.

as an emperor who fought all his life, the holy father was also full of interest in western geography. The picture below shows the Kunyu map of all nations in the late Ming Dynasty and the later Kunyu waiji written by Nan Huairen, which are all favorite readings of Emperor Kangxi.

and whenever missionaries came to the court of the Qing Dynasty or saw missionaries when Kangxi went on patrol, he would ask them about the situation of foreign countries. Although he has never been to any western country, he knows a lot about some countries in Europe, Central Asia and South Asia. He often explains the geography of various countries to ministers and sends envoys to Europe and Russia several times to deepen mutual understanding with other countries. According to this, we can draw a conclusion that for how many numbers there are in the heart of the western world, the holy ancestor can generally summarize it with the words of the former Emperor:

,

,

,

I have experienced many battles and see more.

in addition, Emperor Kangxi himself actively spread Western knowledge. He hired missionaries as teachers of the school of mathematics and asked them to teach western mathematics that had been introduced into China at that time, such as written calculation, calculation, geometry, trigonometry, trigonometric function table, logarithm, etc. He also asked them to translate and edit the original Euclidean geometry, the solution of scale, the usage of measuring instruments, the root of eight line table, the method of Pythagorean phase More than a dozen mathematical books in Chinese, such as “algorithm section of borrowing root square”, “West mirror record” and so on. These books are included in the “ancient and modern book integration” ordered by Emperor Kangxi. At that time, algebra was known as the root borrowing square algorithm, also known as “algebala”. Kangxi, as the first person in China to accept Western algebra, talked about “algebala” to ministers many times and personally taught in mengyangzhai. However, even Sheng Ming such as Kangxi’s understanding of the west can only be to this extent. In the spirit of resolutely not engaging in the construction of Western democracy, Lord Kangxi’s understanding of the material civilization of the western world is basically poor. In addition to his occasional interest and understanding of Western religions, as a king in an era of sudden changes in the mode of world civilization, he has a deep understanding of the spirit of the western world