Hannibal Lecter did not seem to be very successful in his life. How to evaluate his tactics and ability?

Hannibal is known as the greatest strategist in history. From the achievements of his life, it is worthy of the name. It is certainly not too much to say that he is a genius, not to mention that he is a strategic genius. It is just that he was born at an untimely time. The hero is useless and fell into a sad hero. According to Levi, there was no enemy in Roman history that made Rome tremble. What kind of person is Hannibal? Let’s take a look at Li Wei’s Description: he shows incomparable confidence and courage when he is with the soldiers. He is no bolder in the face of danger and no calmer in danger. His body and mind are indomitable. He can be shocked and endure extreme cold and heat, regardless of the soft bed or quiet environment, He was often seen sleeping on the ground wrapped in a military cloak. He took the lead in the battle. After the battle, he was the last to leave the battlefield. It can be seen from these descriptions that Hannibal, like the Romans, had the main qualities of barbarians, such as courage, responsibility and determination. In this way, Hannibal was fighting alone, while Rome was not fighting alone. The great Roman Legion inherited the glorious tradition of Mars, the God of war, and did not give Hannibal any chance. In this way, how Hannibal could defeat Rome reminds me of Aetius at the end of the Empire, known as the last Roman, although brave, wise, strategic vision With the same ideal as Hannibal, but it is also an untimely time to save Rome in danger with personal ability, but man can’t save the collapse of Rome, and Hannibal can’t save the decline and destruction of Carthage.

Hannibal has a persistent ideal, which is to take Rome as the enemy and destroy Rome. This is to dominate Hannibal with this oath and ideal he had since childhood, so that Hannibal always lives for his ideal and insists on fighting Rome with his ideal, because he has this ideal and will to dominate him, He fought in Italy for more than ten years without supplies or assistance from his motherland, and he did not lose. If such a person fails, the only reason is that he has a strong opponent, and this strong opponent is not a strong force. Practice has proved that the miscellaneous army or mob led by Hannibal can also defeat the well-equipped Roman regular army and win all the way from trabia to Cheney, The once arrogant Romans never expected to meet such a powerful opponent. The piros with the Macedonian array is just a thing of the past, and so are the barbaric Gauls. No one has brought so many failures and fears to the Romans like Hannibal. If the Romans only have strong combat power, Hannibal will win, World history will be rewritten. But what Hannibal never understood was that the real powerful opponent he faced was the Roman system. This system is embodied in the two party. The aristocratic system of separation of three powers not only guarantees the full expression of public opinion, but also maximally uses the power of elite and elite to govern the country. From today’s perspective, the system of separation of powers is the best political system. With the success of today’s United States, we have no reason to doubt the superiority and rationality of this system, but the aristocratic separation of powers in Rome is played without slaves, which is the biggest defect criticized by future generations. What are the characteristics of this system? The first is the participation of the whole people, which can call on and gather the strength of the whole people; The second is boldness. What people decide together is often bolder and more radical than individual decisions. The third is to treat all citizens more fairly and equally. What are the disadvantages? The biggest disadvantage is that the efficiency is low. Sometimes one thing quarrels for a long time and cannot be decided. In addition, the policy implementation is discontinuous and may change frequently. In contrast, what are the advantages of Hannibal? First of all, he has talented strategic vision and excellent tactical command ability; Secondly, with shining personal charm, it can not only stabilize the miscellaneous teams of different nationalities and languages from different regions, but also continuously attract many people to join his team.

let’s compare the war between Hannibal and Rome in detail. From strategic and tactical command, supply, personnel, equipment, diplomacy and geographical advantage.

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strategies must be a little better than Hannibal. Hannibal left the base of Cartagena, crossed the Ebro River, crossed the Alps and out of the trough. It is an absolutely imaginative strategic planning in the history of ancient wars. Today’s war strategies are similar to the Normandy landing and the surprise attack on France by bypassing the Maginot line, With this, Hannibal was able to firmly sit in the first position of western historical strategist. However, although Hannibal’s spear is sharp enough, the Roman shield is not paper paste. After the Senate figured out that Hannibal can’t be hard hit, Fabian was re used, and the procrastination strategy was implemented. If you can fight, you can’t defend. Some areas adopted the scorched earth strategy, but you won’t fight with Hannibal. Fabian’s shield is strong enough, It is difficult for the sharp sword of Hannibal to be used. It can be said that Fabian blocked Hannibal’s first and most violent attack momentum from the Alps. Otherwise, if it is completely hard, the spear of Rome may be broken directly. Therefore, Hannibal had a slight advantage in the early stage of strategy, but the advantage was not so obvious. We know that later, due to the disadvantages of the Roman system, Fabian was replaced, and varo gave Hannibal eight legions, which also achieved Hannibal’s battle of Cheney, which occupies an important position in world history. Hannibal’s spirit in heaven has to thank varo. In the later stage of the Second Punic War, the comparison of strategic situation was different. Rome also had a commander with the same ability as Hannibal, that is, sippia. This king was born into a noble, young and rich in military career. He was not inferior to Hannibal in terms of strategy and tactics, but was aggressive. Therefore, the strategies of this period were tied with each other. Throughout the war, Hannibal had only a slight advantage over Rome. The reason why such a strategic genius only had a slight advantage over Rome was mainly due to the Roman system, which could gather the strength of all elites against HannibalPull. In terms of

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tactical command, Hannibal had an absolute advantage in the early and middle stages. Hannibal had not lost a battle in the Italian battlefield. Except for valo, smart people such as old Fabian were far away from him, which is enough to show that Hannibal had no one in Rome at that time. From trabia to Cheney, all are Hannibal’s Classics and masterpieces, fully demonstrating his tactical ability and talent. In the later period, sippia in Rome was a tactical genius with Hannibal’s ability. Of course, sippia learned a lot from Hannibal, but the back waves of the Yangtze River pushed the front waves, and the green came out of the blue and was better than the blue. Finally, in Zama, although Hannibal was well prepared, he was defeated and fled by sippia, a sacrificial calf. It has been discussed before that xipia defeated Hannibal mainly because the Roman Legion was too strong and Hannibal’s mob was too bad. If the two managers were changed, xipia would fail. In fact, some of the Carthaginian army against sippia were veterans brought back from Italy and some were recruited by Hannibal back to Africa, mainly nubidians and Moors. Moreover, sippia’s Legion was not the regular army of Rome, but several legions recruited in Sicily with the permission of the Roman Senate, There is also a gap between the combat effectiveness and combat experience of the regular army in Rome. In this way, there is absolutely no big gap in the ability of the two armies. The flanks of sippia and Hannibal are nubidian cavalry. In the end, Hannibal’s failure is attributed to the fact that he met a commander with the same ability level, and sippia is more energetic and offensive, And Hannibal is just going downhill. Therefore, in terms of tactical command, although sippia saved a lot for Rome in the later stage, Hannibal had the upper hand on the whole. The most important issue is to compete for the strategic and tactical resources of the two countries. The most important issue is not to compete for the strategic and tactical resources of the two countries, but to compete for the strategic and tactical resources of the two countries, On the other hand, luck accounted for a lot of ingredients. In addition, it took many years for the mountain of pressure to really control Persia. Hannibal had problems in the supply of resources and personnel. During the Second Punic War, the sea power in the Mediterranean was completely controlled by Rome, otherwise Hannibal didn’t have to go around a big circle to Italy. Therefore, Hannibal could hardly get the supply of resources from Spain and Carthage from the sea. What he could do was to rob constantly, sometimes he could grab it, sometimes he couldn’t, Therefore, and resource supply are very bad and painful for Hannibal. After taking japuya, the situation is a little better. After a long drought and sweet dew, those soldiers who have been living in the wind and rain for a long time suddenly eat well, sleep well, bathe and have beautiful women, so that they can understand that the original war is just like this. Is the war they are engaged in for today, Therefore, later historians have always believed that japua has seriously weakened the fighting spirit of Hannibal’s forces. This is Hannibal’s “Hackney”. In addition, in terms of personnel supply, Hannibal can only get personnel supply from Gauls when he was in northern Italy, but Gauls have poor combat effectiveness and tactical skills, and can only be used as cannon fodder at most, His core fault is that the nubidian cavalry and Spanish infantry can not be effectively supplied, and there are not many non Latin city states in Italy, so personnel supply is Hannibal’s most fatal weakness. In contrast to the logistical supplies of Rome, it’s no wonder that the local operations, regardless of resources and personnel, are great. Although Rome’s living forces have been destroyed by almost half after two serious blows of trabia and Cheney, due to the advantages of Rome’s political system, the people are not frightened by Hannibal, nor complain about the incompetence of conquest, But more actively joined the army. Rome soon recruited four legions. Of course, Rome, which experienced two major failures, also showed a state of hopelessness. The newly recruited four legions included 8000 slaves. More importantly, none of the Roman allies, especially the Latin alliance, abandoned Rome, and both resources and auxiliary forces continued to support it. I think this is the most important factor in Rome’s victory over Hannibal. After such a major failure, the Latin alliance still firmly supported Rome, It is mainly due to the superiority of Rome’s political system to the Latin alliance. It gives citizenship and freedom to the Latin alliance. To put it bluntly, I conquer you, but now you and I are equal. It is really attractive. From the perspective of human nature, the pursuit of freedom and citizenship is a higher realm that everyone pursues. Just like in the ninth legion, iska, as a British man and a Roman slave, followed Marcus against his tribe wholeheartedly. Its greatest attraction lies in Roman citizenship and freedom. Hannibal hoped that the Roman alliance would betray Rome after Cheney, but no Latin alliance betrayed Rome except some Greek city states and other non Latin city states. Completely deviating from Hannibal’s expectations means that Hannibal’s most powerful, deadly and most drastic strategy after hacking Nigeria was broken by the solid city-state alliance brought by the strong institutional foundation of Rome. This was beyond Hannibal’s expectation, otherwise Hannibal would still attack Rome. However, according to Hannibal’s siege ability at that time, it was not so easy to win the Rome City painstakingly managed by Romulus. You should know that Hannibal’s mistake was very close to Rome. Hannibal was a smart man. He must have analyzed the price of winning Rome, Even if Hannibal took Rome, with his strength at that time, it would be difficult for Hannibal with difficult supply to face the counterattack of the Romans. At that time, Rome could recruit legions in other provinces, and the city-state alliance could also provide sufficient auxiliary forces. Therefore, Hannibal had little chance of winning the attack on Rome. You know, the Gauls tried and failed more than 100 years ago. Generally speaking, in terms of supply, the Romans had an absolute advantage over Hannibal, which was also the most critical and fatal advantage. In terms of

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equipment, Buni’s equipment is slightly inferior to that of Rome. For example, the equipment of many Gauls is actually uneven, it is particularly exaggerated in the film Hannibal. There are unified oval shields in Rome, the same javelin and short sword. Then look at Hannibal, especially the Gauls in the central phalanx. Some have round shields and square shields. Some shields are irregular, and it is even more outrageous to look at weapons. But Hannibal’s main forces, such as nubidian cavalry and Spanish infantry, were not badly equipped, at least not much worse than Rome. Hannibal captured a large amount of equipment in Rome after hacking Ni. It is recorded that mag (Hannibal’s brother) carried a basket of rings of Roman soldiers who died in battle. Then the shield Javelin and Spanish dagger don’t have a train yet, so the equipment of Buni’s army should be similar to that of Rome. The most impressive thing is that Hannibal still has 5000 slingshot troops. Does this slingshot have such lethality? It may be mainly used for interference and fire suppression. This reminds me of a game: urban management vs. nail households, Among them, Ding Xiaoxiao uses a slingshot, which is very easy to use. He specializes in those urban management who don’t have much blood left. Therefore, in terms of equipment, Rome and Hannibal should be equal and difficult to compete. In terms of

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diplomacy, Rome is not weaker than Hannibal. In order to attack Rome, Hannibal allied with Philip V of Macedonia, who has been in constant friction with Rome, hoping to make Rome fall into the situation of two-line war. In addition to thinking about petty profits, where did the poor son of Alexander have any strategic vision and where could he realize that the end of the war would affect his own destiny, Know the fate of the Mediterranean and where the war will end. Although Macedonia gave Hannibal strategic support and restrained many Roman legions, so that Rome had to allocate a lot of troops in the East, there was no substantive support for Hannibal in the end. Rome was not idle. They understood the truth of manoeuvring, allied with the Greeks who were incompatible with the Macedonians, and let the Greeks contain Macedonia, so that Rome had much less pressure on itself. It is said that Philip supported Hannibal in the battle of Zama. Historians think it is unlikely, and Hannibal has always hated the famous Macedonian phalanx and thought it was too cumbersome. In this way, Hannibal’s diplomatic strategy of attacking Rome with Macedonia was basically unsuccessful, and everyone was tied in diplomacy.

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in terms of geographical advantages, the ancients should pay attention to the harmony of heaven, earth and people. People and people have focused on the analysis from the perspective of system. Look at the second important geographical factor in the three conditions. In terms of geographical advantages, Hannibal certainly has an advantage over Rome. Rome is fighting at the door of his home. Hannibal is far away, a foreign country and a stranger, From a distance, the mountains are colored, and from a distance, the water is silent. The residents that Apennine moved to were not only Latinos but also Greeks. These people were more distant from the Carthaginians from the Semitic civilization and were not easy to enter. How can such a situation be compared with Rome, so Hannibal doesn’t have the upper hand at all. There’s no need to compare it in detail.

after writing the main content of this article, I re-examine the ultimate purpose of writing this article, that is, why to write Hannibal. He is a hero, a tragic hero, a person who has a dream and has the courage to put it into practice, struggles for it all his life, and practices his promise at the cost of life and family.

the most impressive moment in Hannibal’s story is the scene of Hannibal seeing his wife and children back to Carthage. His wife emiles came from the beautiful daughter of the Spanish tribal chief and gave birth to a son for Hannibal during the siege of sagontum. They stood quietly on the coast of Iberia and looked at each other. After a long time, Emily said: do you have to go. Hannibal Lecter said: Yes, I must go. There are my ideals and my promises. Of course, I made up the above dialogue. There is no record in history. Hannibal’s mood at the moment is most accurately described by Liu Yong’s rain Bell: this past year should be a good time and a good scenery in vain. Even if there are thousands of customs, who do you talk to. We can’t stop her husband’s great ambition. Although this seemingly just cause is so unfair to her, she had to leave Spain before Hannibal set out for Italy. After the ship to Carthage left, Emily was in a mixed mood. She didn’t know how long it would take her husband-in-law to go to Italy to practice her dream, More worried about the safety of her husband’s going deep into the dragon’s pool and tiger’s den this time, she kept staring at the coast of the West tooth extraction until the coast drifted away and left her sight. She described the scene at that time with a lyrics she was listening to:

the love of the sea is too deep and the time is too short. How can your heart run aground? TA tightly holds the faith of love, and the sails of years are drifting away.

has been more than ten years since then. Later, Hannibal returned to Carthage and did not mention this beautiful woman in his history book. We have to be melancholy about the love story of how much suffering and pain war and hatred have brought to mankind. In the face of love, family and war, men often choose war, which is also the sorrow of human women.

Hannibal’s story is over. It’s a tragic story, a story full of blood, a story that no one applauded. Finally, I want to summarize why the Romans did not win Hannibal, but the system war won Hannibal. First, The civil rights system of Rome ensured that the alliance city states of Rome knew that they had got what they asked for, and there was no need to “toss around”, and the same thing was obtained by taking refuge in Carthage.

second, the simple universal values based on Roman citizenship unite all Roman city states and closely unite around the center centered on Rome.

third, the collective wisdom of the Senate can not only ensure that the elite are in power, but also ensure that the collective courage can not be deterred by the powerful enemy. At that time, Pyrrhus hoped to negotiate peace with Rome, but the elder represented by Claudius resolutely refused to give in. As long as Pyrrhus was still on the land of Rome, he would not negotiate peace with him. It’s different from the imperial era, except for the emperorsIn addition to meeting their own requirements, peace is more in sharp contrast.

think about when the Chinese nation showed such spirit in the history of resisting foreign aggression (don’t tell me what it was like to have someone). We didn’t see this spirit later except in the Han Dynasty. Look at how we resisted the Khitans, the Jin people and the Mongols, How to resist the female reality is mostly to open the gate and warmly welcome the enemy, because tyranny makes them unable to get what they want, and they must hope to change their needs and opportunities. The system of

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has its advantages, but it was eventually replaced by the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. I still can’t fully explain this.