described Salazar in an anecdote of “the favorite food of single husbands” as follows: “3 extreme saving Salazar Salazar felt that he was devoted to Portugal and had no time to marry and start a family. Dona Maria, the housekeeper, is in charge of his usual meals. Salazar is very restrained about the cost of food and wine. Breakfast is only coffee and tea with white toast, without cream or butter. Lunch starts with Turkey minced meat soup or fish bone soup, sometimes even cabbage soup. He likes sardine and love beans best because he can recall the poor memories of childhood, when he was poor, and a sardine should eat with his hands and feet. But few information about him can be found on the Internet. Or you can briefly introduce salacha you know (the following Chinese materials are compiled from the network). A low-key private life, lonely by nature, simple life, in order to manage the country and even not married all his life; Inclined to monarchy, after taking power, it established a fascist state system and supported Franco’s Spanish regime, but remained neutral during World War II; Spain has been ruled by dictatorship for 30 years, but it is called an authoritarian country without dictators. In 2007, it was judged by the media as the dictator of “the greatest Portuguese”.
Anthony Salazar’s unique personality and ruling style make him unique among dictators, which interests me very much. I wrote an essay about Anthony Salazar about a year ago. I’d like to share it with the subject.
Dr. Antonio Salazar (1889-1970) was a legendary dictator. Among the dictators of the 20th century, it is unique. This unique temperament emanating from him mainly comes from his identity, his way of governing the country and his ending.
(Dr. Salazar is still very temperament). Before discussing Salazar, let’s review the history of Portugal in the early 20th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, Portugal’s glory in the era of great navigation had already fallen away. After being jointly ruled by Spain in the 16th century and regaining independence, Portugal became a vassal of Britain since Portugal followed Britain to join the Habsburg camp in the war of succession to the Spanish throne in the early 18th century. In the early 19th century, Lisbon was captured and the Portuguese royal family moved to Brazil. In the 1830s, Brazil became independent. After these series of twists and turns, Portugal has become a small state under the wings of Britain. Under the British people’s best means of “divide and rule”, domestic political struggles are frequent and economic development is slow. Therefore, after entering the 20th century, it has become one of the poorest and backward countries in Europe.
Salazar’s rise history
the revolution established the Republic in Portugal in 1910. However, due to the long-standing disadvantages, the new democracy is very unstable. The cabinet has been elected for a total of 45 terms, and the president has been elected for 6 years. Due to the failure of the parliamentary system to solve domestic problems and the influence of the popular right-wing thought in Europe at that time, a military coup broke out in Portugal in 1926. Most of the military governments that came to power after the coup were military men. Although they received the support of most social strata, they lacked the skills of governing the country. The fiscal deficits in 1927 and 1928 were 425% and 60% higher than those in the last years of the Republic, respectively. The whole Portuguese economy is on the verge of collapse. In this case, Salazar stepped on the stage of Portuguese history as the Savior.
salacha was born in 1889 in a traditional and conservative rural family in the central interior of Portugal. Because his family was not rich, he had to go to church schools without tuition, where he received a systematic and complete Catholic education. After graduating from middle school, he was admitted to Coimbra University. He studied law for undergraduate and economics for postgraduate. Finally, he obtained a doctorate in political economics and finance and stayed in school to teach. After that, he published articles in various newspapers and periodicals many times, expounded his views on the current situation of Portugal’s economy and attacked the government’s economic policies, which won the favor of the conservative forces on the right. He also participated in the activities of the Catholic democratic academic center and the Portuguese Catholic Central Party, and participated in the municipal council election of gemarians as a representative of the Catholic Central Party in 1921. But he soon found that democratic politics was not his taste at all. He soon resigned as a member of Parliament and returned to the university to continue to be his teacher.
until the successful military coup in 1926, the coup leader kabosadas tried to invite salacha to participate in the financial work of the government, and salacha tried to stay in the government for a while. Thirteen days later, he dropped the challenge again on the grounds that there were too many restrictions for him to fully implement his economic philosophy. In 1928, the helpless general sent an invitation to Salazar to take the post of finance minister. This time, Salazar put forward the conditions for me to be the Minister of finance, but to meet my requirements. After receiving a positive reply, he officially took office on April 27. “I know exactly what I want and where I’m going.” This sentence in his inaugural speech became a turning point in the modern history of Portugal. The next year, Portugal’s finance “turned losses into profits”, which not only eliminated the high deficit, but also realized the surplus in one fell swoop! Since then, until Salazar’s death, Portugal has never had a fiscal deficit. “Antonio, you are the hero sent by God to save Portugal!” The whole country was jubilant. The general also breathed a sigh of relief.
salacha, as an economics professor, the main ways to save Portugal’s finance are the following two aspects: 1. Strictly control fiscal expenditure and establish strict monetary management measures, which is so strict that almost every fiscal expenditure must be reviewed and approved by him personally (fortunately, Portugal is a small country); 2. Increase taxes. At the end of his first year in power, Portugal had a surplus for the first time in 15 years, with a surplus of more than 275000 holes. Such an effective political achievement made Salazar the “savior” of Portugal.
the superb ability and high prestige soon brought great power to Salazar, and its prestige even exceeded that of the coup leaders. thisAll this makes Salazar, an idealistic scholar, realize that he has the opportunity and ability to transform his poor and weak motherland into an ideal country in his mind. In 1930, Salazar formed his own political party, the National League. In 1932, Salazar became prime minister – in fact, Salazar never served as president in his life. In 1933, Salazar announced the establishment of a country governed by one party of the National League in Portugal through elections (manipulated, of course), and established his lifelong rule.
Salazar’s way of governing the country
Salazar established in Portugal is neither a typical (i.e. German and Italian) fascist country nor a communist class struggle country, but a corporatism country full of scholars, idealism and conservatism.
as a conservative economist who has received systematic church education, Salazar, like many other contemporary European Catholic scholars, believes in corporatism. Like socialism, corporatism emphasizes social justice, but opposes class struggle and the abolition of private ownership. Instead, it advocates unity and cooperation among all classes. The specific way is to form a country’s social economy into various interest groups (associations) according to different industries. Representatives of these associations solve problems together through consultation. The foundation of cooperative philosophy is Catholicism, which advocates the spirit of harmony and cooperation and teaches people to respect and maintain the “natural order” created by God, and the task of the state is to maintain this sacred natural order. Therefore, corporatism opposes both socialism and anarchism that destroy the natural order and liberal capitalism that violates the natural order.
Salazar, on the basis of corporatism, also mixed with some philosophical ideas unique to himself and Portugal, such as Portugal’s unique Nationalism (the “great spirit” of the great navigation era and other Portuguese “glorious traditions” rooted in the Catholic tradition), as well as some non xenophobic, Moderate and conservative guiding ideology (including religious idealism and vigilance against German Italian Fascist holism. Salacha even suppressed a holism riot in 1936).
based on these foundations, Salazar has established many cooperatives in China, such as workers’ associations, employers’ associations, freelancers’ associations, farmers’ associations, landlords’ associations, agricultural workers’ associations and so on.
of course, we have no intention to beautify the cruel side of Salazar as a dictator.
in 1936, the paramilitary organization “Portuguese Legion” and “Portuguese youth” were successively established. The former is voluntarily participated by fanatical fascists, which is similar to the early Nazi stormtroopers, while the latter forces primary and secondary school students to participate, in order to instill fascist totalitarianism into teenagers. Catholicism is Salazar’s tool to paralyze the people. From top to bottom, from the state machine to ideology, a complete set of fascist regime has been established.
Salazar also established the spy organization “national surveillance and defense police”, which was later reorganized into “national defense international police” (pide) in 1945. Its main function is to secretly search for dissidents. The organization also hired instructors from Germany and Italy to teach torture skills. In these 40 years, I don’t know how many people died under the fist and whip of pide because of occasionally blurting out words, let alone members of the Portuguese Communist Party. Pide haunts the city, and the National Guard (GNR) runs rampant in rural areas. This organization had existed as early as the Republic period and was mainly responsible for rural and border security. Now it has become the running dog of dictatorship. Under the white terror, Salazar managed this small country in the corner of Western Europe with peace of mind.
although Salazar’s rule contains certain rationality, due to excessive idealism and complacency, Portugal’s economic development has been stagnant for more than 30 years. Until the 1970s, it was still one of the poorest and backward countries in Western Europe.
Salazar’s character and ending
Salazar is a very strange and special dictator. In his lifetime, although he cruelly persecuted political prisoners, suppressed freedom of speech and tried his best to preserve his position; But he never used his power for personal gain, nor was he corrupt, nor did he take bribes, nor did he place positions in his family. After decades of dictatorship, he still lived an ordinary life, without paying any attention to luxury. Salazar wears simple clothes and always wears black clothes. Although he is the actual supreme ruler of Portugal, he always asks others to call him “Mr. Minister”. Salazar is used to living in seclusion and seclusion. He likes to be alone very much. He likes recording and analysis and meditation. Throughout his life, Salazar never married. From all aspects, he is like an idealist and paranoid who wants to build his “ideal country” well. He still retains the reverence of a priest and the way of thinking and temperament of a scholar.
Salazar fell and was seriously injured while reviewing documents in 1970 and died in 1972. Before his death, he handed over power to Marcello caetano, who was also a university professor. Caenota, who once taught history at the University of Lisbon, gradually pursued the policy of democratization and liberalization after his succession, but still maintained a considerable dictatorship. In 1974, the left launched a military coup, which was named “carnation revolution” because the soldiers involved used carnations instead of bullets, ending Portugal’s two-generation “Professor dictatorship”.
Salazar is a firm dictator, but his strong theological and scholarly atmosphere and his lonely personality make him unique in the dictator group, and make us fully aware of the complexity and diversity of politics.