English history multi picture warning!!!!

is a more professional answer at the paper level. I leave it to English college students to answer. I just write something fun.

1. What is the relationship between English as a Germanic language and Latin language family?

it can be seen from this picture that English is a branch of Germanic language, which is accurately a language handed down by the West Germanic tribe, while Latin, which is also an Indo European language family, has five small branches. Among them, the Germanic language that has the deepest influence on English is Latin itself and French from Latin family. Later, we will talk about

2 How many words in modern English are made up of Latin or Latin families?

French words: 28.3%, Latin words: 28.24%, Germanic words: 25%, Greek words: 5.32%, proper nouns: 3.28%, other words: less than 1%. If French and Latin are included, nearly 60% of modern English words come from Latin or Latin family, which is why root affixes go to the source, I will find Latin, because I come from Latin.

3. What stages can English development be divided into?

English is actually divided into four stages:

Old English (Beowulf era) II Middle English (Chaucer era) III Early modern English (ERA) IV Modern English (ever since the sun sets)

4 How did old English come from?

in 383 ad, Rome faced a great threat from the barbarians to the center of the Empire and had to withdraw the troops stationed in Britain to serve as a source of troops, but Britannia, a province of Rome, was not followed by the Celtic Britons, Because it’s their own home, living in Scotland now, Picts (Pitt people) who opened and blocked the Roman Legion certainly couldn’t help flirting with the British, and then staged the classic introduction of wolves into the house, Briton wanted to hire these four Germanic tribes as mercenaries. Of course, the four brothers (angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians) ran away. As a result, the salary after the war was not settled. Directly say that you Celts took the property mortgage and occupied the current England.

ancient English formation time: four Germanic tribes in the 5th century (Chinese period):

1 Angles 2 Saxon 3 Jutes 4 Frisians,








, the four Germanic people who went to Britain to earn extra money, did not all take root. They did not cut off the connection with the place of departure, so that Frisians finally returned home, that is, the language they use in frissis Province in the Netherlands, It is said that the three tribes left behind by








, which are the closest to ancient English, naturally have the problem of land division. Later, Anglo was rich and powerful, and divided into the north, middle and east of England. The lesser Saxon shared the south of England with the jute. Now you know why Anglo should be ahead?

Britain has entered the legendary “Seven Kingdoms era”

list of stolen goods distribution Kingdom:


East Anglia East Anglia Kingdom (the name of England comes from this, the root is Miao Hong), Northumbria Northumbria Kingdom Mercia Kingdom Saxons:

Wessex kingdom of Wessex corresponds to “West” Essex Kingdom corresponds to “East”

Sussex Kingdom corresponds to “south”

Jutes: Kent Kent Kingdom (don’t you think you came all the way with the names of counties and universities in Britain?) Of course, a million Celts survived the West Germanic massacre, but were beaten to pieces. This is the past and present lives of Scots and Welsh. The word wealas meant foreigners and slaves 1500 years ago, and later converted to Welsh. Of course, they left a lot of distinctive things for English, such as English Celtic place names: Thames, Avon, Dover, London, etc. English Germanic place names: – ing (the people of), – ton (Village), ham (farm), etc.

5 Are there any representative works of Old English?

representative works of Old English: Beowulf (Beowulf) although this is a story about Northern Europe, some sentences to feel the charm of Old English, the difference looks really great. Old English is more like German


Old English: HW? t! w ē G ā r-Denainge ā r-dagum,teod-cyninga,trymgefrunon,huea? telingasellenfremedon. OftScyldScefingsceatenatreatum,monegumm? gtum,meodosetlaofteah,egsodeeorl. Syeean? restweare,feasceaftfunden,het? sfrofregebad,weoxunderwolcnum,weoremyndumtah,oet? thim? ghwylctaraymbsittendra,oferhronradehyranscolde,gombangyldan. T? tw? sgodcyning! Modern English: “listen! We have heard of the gloryof the spear Danes, of the kings of the people, inday of yore, [and] how those princes didded of glory. Oftenscyldscefing privedarmedbandsfoffes, manyclansom”ead-benches,[and]terrifiedwarriors. Sincehefirstwasfoundhelpless(heexperiencedcomfortforthat),hegrewundertheheavens,thrivedwithhonours,untileachofthenearbypeoplesovertheseawereobligedtopayhimtribute. Thatwasagoodking!”

6. Is old English Latin?

actually had a beginning, but it was not so boastful after the French came.

in 597 ad, the international friend Augustine traveled thousands of miles from Rome to the kingdom of Kent to preach, bringing the standard language of the Christian world – why is Latin the kingdom of Kent? You can see from the map that the capital of Kent is Canterbury. The church was built early and the business is good.

of course, in addition to religion, they also bring a lot of Latin words:

for example: canticle, Cantor, abbot, candle, devil, aggregation, discipline, eternal, martyr, offer, Chris, dirty, font, prophet, Sabbath, alms, discipline, miner, mass, monk, nun, pop, paradise, saint, creed, in fact, religious words are still the main words 7 Is there any other language in Old English besides Latin? The biggest influence of




should be the oldnose brought by the Vikings (Danes). In 865 ad, the Viking Army (Danes) landed in East Anglia for five years and controlled the north and east of England. Their language is oldnorse.

although the Germans are good at bullying the Celts, they are basically crushed in the face of the Vikings. The war situation is as follows:

later, a great God appeared in the kingdom of Wessex,

“Alfred the great (Alfred the great)

the great was granted in the Victorian era, not by himself, because the battles he participated in were basically thousands of people, but he was respected as the first monarch of England without him, Now England should be the last to speak Danish, and the result is maintained as follows:

the Danelaw (Danish rule) is the boundary of the Vikings (Danes), and Wessex is the British orthodoxy:

the Vikings left to English:

British Danish place name: – by (Danish farm), -Thorpe (Danish village), a person’s name characteristic of Britain and Denmark: ending with – son, for example: Harrison, Gibson, Hudson, Robson, Sanderson, Dickinson, Simpson, Watson, Pattinson, Johnson, Rawlinsonoldnose words left in the northern English dialect (the former is old Norse and the latter is standard English) Beck = stream (stream) GART = paddock (paddock) Slattery = shower (shower) slope = slippery (slippery) yet = gate (door) lap = leap (jump) Yek = Oak (oak) yam = home (home) oldnorse words left in English, for example:

score Nick, sky, slice, anger, bull, fleck, knife, neck, root, scowl, window, etc. old nose and old English each have a word that refers to the same thing, But they are all accepted by modern English as




for example:

Old English: craft = Old Norse: skill Old English: hide = Old Norse: skin Old English: sick = Old Norse: ill Old Norse has also changed Germanic grammar and word order, The biggest contribution of Danes is the introduction of prepositions into English.

8. How did medieval English come from?

to be exact, William I from France in 1066 changed the process of English development. King Edward the Council needed someone to be king of England after no children died King Edward’s mother’s nephew and grandson is William I. Harold II is Edward’s uncle. At that time, Harold was having a good fight with the Danes. William I directly led the troops to land. As a result, Harold II’s emergency rescue took place in the famous battle of Hastings, The result was the death of Harold II. The biggest impact of the battle on English was that the kings of England could not speak English 300 years after Harold’s death.

in 300 years, at least 10000 French words have been included in the English vocabulary. There are more than 500 French words about food in English. The French as conquerors use different words from the local British:

the words used by the French conquerors (after cooking), Lower English words (before cooking)

beef = ox (bull) orcow (cow) mutton (mutton) = sheep (veal) = calf (calf) venison (venison) = deer (deer) pork (pork) = pig (pig) the British are responsible for cooking and the French are responsible for eating. After the French French name: Richard, Robert, Simon, John, Jeffery Williams in Britain after William is Latin. French and English coexist. Latin belongs to God, French belongs to officials, and English belongs to the common people. If you want to speak Latin, the scale is not small. Of course, English loanwords are also concentrated in science, literature, military, law, theology and medicine. In normal life, a lot of Old English words are retained. 9 What are the representative works of early modern English?

“kd”The Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer

the most outstanding poet in Medieval England and the first poet buried in the poet’s corner of Westminster. Chaucer’s surname “Chaucer” comes from French “chausseur”, which means “shoemaker” In 1324, John Chaucer was kidnapped by one of his aunts in order to marry his daughter in order to preserve his estate in Ipswich. The aunt was fined £ 250 after her arrest, which shows that the Chaucer family is well-off and is recognized as the first book in the history of British printing. Chaucer is therefore regarded as the founder of English poetry.

“other references Shakespeare knows 10 Is the Latinization of modern English and modern English obvious? The influence of

is mainly concentrated in English vocabulary.

the 14th-15th century is the climax of the Renaissance. From 1500 to 1700, about 10000 Latin and Greek words entered English. “Spekds” and “spkds” are the main sources of modern English vocabulary in the 19th century, and “spekds” and “spekds” are also the roots of modern English English: Germanic features vs Latin features


Germanic words are characterized by simplicity and simplicity, while Latin words are characterized by ornate and elegant.

are not only the characteristics of Germanic and Latin words, but also the characteristics of Germanic and Latin languages.

English users tend to focus on Germanic words or Latin words in practical language application, which will often produce very different effects.


people tend to use Latin words in formal occasions, because French words and Latin words are gorgeous and elegant, which match the language requirements of formal occasions. However, in informal occasions, such as gatherings between relatives and friends, people will choose Germanic words as much as possible, because Germanic words are simple and simple, which makes people feel cordial in informal occasions. Therefore, if someone uses Latin words in all friends’ and family gatherings, it will appear to be showing off rhetoric or false Sven, which makes people feel bad.

from the perspective of Linguistics:

the phonetic characteristics of Germanic words are manifested in the initial stress, such as teacher, children, English, etc.

but the stress of Latin words is not fixed (it is called stress indeterminate in Linguistics). There are words with initial stress in English Latin words, such as gent, nation, artist, etc;

also have stressed words in words, such as: significant, extraordinary, nationality, etc;

even have some words with end stress.

in addition, the phonetic characteristics of Germanic words are also prominent consonants, so they sound rigid.

but Latin words have more prominent vowels, so they sound softer.


Germanic has only past tense and present tense, and there is no future tense. But there is a future tense in Latin. The concept of tense here refers to the morphological change of the verb itself, excluding the willdo structure in English. At the same time, Germanic languages basically retain three personalities (masculine, feminine and neutral), two numbers (singular and plural; the even has been incorporated into the plural in the early stage), and have complex case changes (for example, German, a close relative of English, retains four cases); In the Latin language, although Latin itself has three personalities, three numbers and seven cases (but most nouns have only six cases), in the languages of the Latin language family still used today, the cases no longer exist, the neutral has been incorporated into the masculine, and the even has been incorporated into the plural. In other words, the changes of sex, number and case in Germanic language are generally more complex than those in Latin language.

word formation:

Germanic language mostly adopts compound word formation, that is, two or more independent words are combined to form new words;

but Latin languages mostly use derivative word formation, that is, new words are formed from various roots through some morphological changes.




, such as speedboat and expressway in English nouns, are compound words, and forgive, understand and get in English verbs are also compound words.

but submarine, telephone, infrared, etc. in English belong to derivatives. For example, submarine is composed of Latin roots sub (… Lower) and marine (ocean, ocean), and telephone is composed of roots telephone (far) and phone (sound), Infrared consists of the Latin root infra (under…, less than…) and the English word red (red, red).


the Germanic characteristics of modern English have been very weakened. For example, the singular of nouns changes to the plural, and most nouns are suffixed with – s, which is obviously influenced by French. Only a few nouns still retain the variation characteristics of Germanic, such as foot feet, child children, sheet sheet, ox oxen,








1 English Wikipedia 2 History of English Development (Douban) 3 Germanic tradition of English and Latin tradition