section I Mussolini established fascist regime.
Fascism is a reactionary trend of thought, political movement and regime form in imperialist countries with great influence on feudalism and militarism tradition in order to overcome crisis, resist revolution and dominate the world.
Fascism came into being after the first World War when the tide of world revolution was rising.
At that time, all capitalist countries had fallen into a political crisis.
The original parliamentary politics, courts and parliaments were no longer enough to maintain the original rule, and the proletariat could not win power because the conditions were not yet ripe.
When the two forces were at loggerheads, fascism took the opportunity to emerge.
The development of Italian Fascist movement has a gradual evolution process.
At first it was just a left-wing movement of the petty bourgeoisie, and then it was used by the ruling class.
The leaders of the fascist movement were willing to combine with the big bourgeoisie and the remnants of feudalism and became a tool in their hands to suppress the workers’ and peasants’ movement internally and to clamor for national chauvinism externally.
Finally, with the support of the ruling class, the Italian Fascist movement rapidly developed into the most important force in the political arena, seized the state power and established the fascist dictatorship led by Mussolini.
Mussolini was born into a blacksmith family in 1883.
In his early years, he tended to socialism and joined the Italian socialist party.
In 1912, he served as the editor in chief of the socialist party organ newspaper Qianjin daily and became one of the leaders of the socialist party.
After the outbreak of the first World War, Mussolini was expelled from the forward newspaper and expelled from the socialist party for publicly expressing his support for the government’s participation in the war.
In October 1914, he joined the first fascist organization “national action revolutionary fascist” in Italy, and founded a new newspaper “Italian people” three weeks later.
In January 1915, “international action revolutionary fascist” was renamed “revolutionary intervention fascist”, and a national organization was established in Milan.
Mussolini soon became the core figure of this organization.
In 1915, the Italian government officially declared war on Austria.
Mussolini and other leaders immediately enlisted in the army.
Although the “revolutionary intervention fascist” has not officially announced its dissolution, it has existed in name only.
After the first World War, Mussolini and others decided to rebuild the fascist organization.
In March 1919, “fighting fascism” was proclaimed.
With the call of “asking the Paris peace conference to honor the territorial promise of the London treaty to Italy”, it expanded its influence among the people and won the support of the petty bourgeoisie, intellectuals and nationalists.
It supports the land claims of veterans and farmers to win their favor.
It also caters to the ruling class to suppress the revolutionary movement in order to seek an alliance with new and old politicians, monopoly capital, feudal landlords and the royal family.
These strategies and measures made the Italian Fascist movement develop rapidly.
May 1920 was an important turning point of the fascist movement in Italy.
The fighting fascists held the second National Congress in Milan, re elected the party’s leading body and adopted the new “basic points of the fascist program”.
This new program shows a clear tendency to turn to the right in terms of politics, economy, society and military.
From then on, the fascist movement turned to reactionary.
Later, the fascist action team with the primary goal of opposing the socialist party was established.
Instead of sympathizing with and supporting the workers’ and peasants’ movement in the past, it used cruel means to madly destroy the workers’ and peasants’ revolutionary organizations, beat and kill the leaders of the socialist party and trade unions, openly participated in the military and police suppression of the mass movement, and conspired with it to create white terror.
The new dynamics of the fascist movement made the ruling class dominated by the monopoly bourgeoisie and the feudal royal family eliminate their doubts about it and began to vigorously support its development.
With the support and support of the ruling class, the fascist movement achieved significant development in a year or two.
By the end of 1920, more than 20000 fascist members had fought.
By the end of May 1921, the number had soared to 180000.
By may 1922, the number of Party members who had changed their name to “national fascist party” was more than 320000.
Italian fascists have leapt from a trivial organization to the largest armed party in the country.
In the face of the rapid development of fascist movement, Mussolini and other leaders are no longer content to only play a secondary role in the camp of the ruling class, and began to be eager to seek to seize national power.
It first seized many local powers in Italy, and then decided to march to Rome.
On October 27, 1922, the March team composed of more than 30000 fascist operation members headed for Rome in three ways.
Prime Minister faquet asked Congress to issue a national martial law, which was rejected by the king and the faquet government was forced to resign.
On the 29th, King Emmanuelle III authorized Mussolini to form a cabinet as prime minister.
On the 31st, the first fascist cabinet was formed.
Mussolini was Prime Minister, interior minister and foreign minister.
Since then, fascist totalitarian rule was established by means of violence, terror and illegality.
In order to ensure the fascist party’s absolute control over the state power, Mussolini, on the one hand, further improved the relationship with monopoly capital, abolished the “progressive tax law”, and provided funds to big capitalists in various names and ways to help them get rid of the economic crisis they faced after the war, so as to win their full support.
On the other hand, strengthen the control over the power of the party and government and the fascist armed forces, dissolve the armed forces of all parties and the Royal Guard composed of 40000 people, establish the national security volunteer militia under his direct control, and establish a “fascist general committee”, the party’s highest leading body “that is” above and above the original political institutions “.
From May 1925, the fascist regime issued a series of decrees to provide legal guarantee for Mussolini’s dictatorship.
On May 16, 1925, the anti secret groups act was promulgated, announcing the abolition of freedom of assembly and association.
On June 20, the fascist press censorship law was promulgated to abolish freedom of expression.
On December 24, the law on the duties and privileges of heads of government and cabinet members was promulgated, granting Mussolini dictatorship and requiring cabinet ministers and deputy ministers to act like soldiers and obey the orders of the “leader”.
On November 26, 1926, the National Defense Measures Act was promulgated to ban all political parties except the national fascist party.
On December 9, 1928, the power law of the fascist Grand Council was promulgated, which stipulates that the head of government and the fascist Grand Council.