The first section of is the formation of the German Italian Japanese axis.
After the emergence of fascism and the world economic crisis from 1929 to 1933, fascism successively established political power in Italy, Germany and Japan.
The aggressive nature of fascism determines that its regime will try its best to break the shackles of “Versailles system” in order to achieve comprehensive external expansion from the date of its emergence.
Throughout the mid-1930s, due to the expansion of fascism in Japan, Germany and Italy, great changes have taken place in international relations.
In the face of the threat of fascist war, all countries have adjusted their domestic and foreign policies and redefined their international status, resulting in the collapse of the “Versailles Washington System”.
Fascist countries are moving towards alliance in the process of external expansion and breaking the “Versailles Washington System”.
The first challenge to the “Versailles Washington System” is the Japanese militarists.
In September 1931, Japan brazenly sent troops to occupy Northeast China, broke through the shackles of the nine Nation Convention of the Washington Conference, took the step of invading China by force, and fired the first shot to break the “Versailles Washington System”.
This incident intensified the contradiction between Japan and European and American powers competing for China.
In 1933, the League of nations manipulated by Britain and France condemned Japan’s aggression against Northeast China and asked the Japanese army to withdraw to the dependency of Manchuria Railway and recognize China’s sovereignty over “Manchuria”.
Therefore, the Japanese representatives attending the meeting immediately withdrew from the meeting to show “protest”.
On March 27, the foreign minister of Japan officially issued a notice to the Secretary General of the League of nations to withdraw from the League of nations.
This is an important step in Japan’s determination to break the Washington treaty and move towards confrontation with the international community.
In order to redistribute the world, Japan has wantonly expanded its military to prepare for war.
However, the arms limitation imposed by the Washington treaty has become a major obstacle to its military expansion and preparation.
On September 7, 1934, the second year after withdrawing from the League of nations, the Japanese government decided to abolish the Washington naval disarmament treaty.
On October 23, the Anglo American Japan preparatory conference on disarmament was held in London.
After Japan’s request for military expansion was rejected by Britain and the United States, the negotiations broke down.
On December 29, the Japanese government officially notified the United States to abolish the Washington naval disarmament treaty.
In December 1935, the London disarmament conference was officially held.
When the conference could not meet its requirements for large-scale military expansion, Japan announced its withdrawal from the London Disarmament Conference on January 15, 1936.
So far, Japan has completely embarked on the road of confrontation with the international community, and one wing of the “Versailles Washington System” has been broken.
In Europe, with the coming to power in Germany in 1933, Nazi Germany embarked on the road of public rearming.
In order to realize Hitler’s dream of dominating the world, the secret and small-scale military expansion in the past can no longer meet its needs.
In order to rebuild the armed forces, we must break the limitation and supervision of German armaments in the Versailles peace treaty.
On October 14, 1933, fascist Germany withdrew from the international disarmament conference being held at that time, and then announced its withdrawal from the League of nations on October 19, becoming the second country to withdraw from the League of nations after Japan.
Withdrawal from the conference on Disarmament and the League of nations is a sign of Germany’s determination to get rid of the constraints of all international treaties, including the Versailles peace treaty, and to shift from secret military expansion to public military expansion.
In August 1934, Hitler secretly ordered to expand the German army to 300000 people and double the Navy within one year.
In March 1935, Germany resumed the universal compulsory military service system and planned to build a modern air force.
The total strength of the national regular army reached 12 armies and 36 divisions, with a total of 550000 people.
In addition, 300000 special forces adapted from the Stormtrooper were organized.
Hitler also claimed that Germany was no longer bound by the Versailles peace treaty.
In 1936, Germany began to implement the “four-year plan” for arms expansion, and sent troops to reoccupy the Rhineland demilitarized zone in March, removing the last obstacle to its outward aggression and expansion.
Germany entered Rhineland, tore up the Locarno Convention and broke the restrictions imposed on Germany by the Versailles peace treaty.
On March 31, Hitler declared in Hamburg as a winner that “the spirit of Versailles has been destroyed”.
The challenge of Japan and Germany to the “Versailles Washington System”, especially the open armed forces of Hitler Germany, completely broke the “Versailles Washington System” established after the first World War, resulting in the sharp differentiation and reorganization of international political forces.
Facing the threat of fascist countries, some western countries began to adjust their relations with the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union also took measures to get rid of its international isolation.
The unique geographical location and role of the Soviet Union have attracted more and more attention from all countries.
Located in Eurasia, the Soviet Union was the only socialist country in the world at that time.
At this time, in the surging tide of the unprecedented capitalist world economic crisis and military and political conflicts, the Soviet Union was unique and the domestic economic construction was booming.
For the above reasons, the Soviet Union became a political force on the international stage in the 1930s, which attracted more and more attention from all countries.
As Lippmann, a famous American journalist, said, “the Soviet Union, a big country, is between the two dangerous centers of the contemporary world – East Asia and central Europe.
” “The Soviet Union is a barrier against aggression.
It deals with militarist Japan on one continent and Hitler Germany on the other.
” In March 1933, when he became president of the United States, he said at the beginning of taking office that “in order to truly improve the current situation of the world, the normalization of us Soviet relations must be realized”.
Under the guidance of this concept, the United States, which refused to recognize the Soviet Union for a long time, took the initiative to ask the Soviet Union to establish diplomatic relations, and formally established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in November 1933.
Then France, deeply threatened by Germany, further sought to restrict Germany together with the Soviet Union.
Bartou, who became foreign minister of France in 1934, put forward the Oriental convention aimed at preventing the growing danger of aggression and expansion of Germany, and began to contact the Soviet Union on the conclusion of the Franco Soviet mutual assistance treaty.
Although Bartu was assassinated in October 1934, which blocked the Oriental Convention and the Franco Soviet mutual assistance treaty, France and the Soviet Union still signed the Franco Soviet mutual assistance treaty against Germany in Paris on May 2, 1935.
The military expansion, war preparation and aggressive activities of German and Japanese fascists also posed a more and more serious threat to the Soviet Union.
In the East, there is a covetous Japan and in the west, there is a sharpening Germany.
The potential of this kind of thing makes it sharply increase the sense of crisis and insecurity of war.
Therefore, the Soviet Union itself also stepped up its ties with western countriesTo get rid of isolation.
After establishing diplomatic relations with the United States, on December 12, 1933, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolshevik) made a decision on the struggle for collective security and agreed to join the League of nations under certain conditions.
On September 18, 1934, the Soviet Union joined the League of nations and served as a permanent member of the Council of the League of nations, indicating that its diplomatic strategy had been significantly adjusted.
The main attack direction of the Soviet Union’s diplomatic goal in Europe has shifted from Britain and France to Germany, ready to use the stage of the League of nations to promote the establishment of the collective security system.
By 1935, with the acceleration of Germany’s military expansion and preparation for war, Germany had posed a serious challenge to Britain, France and other victors, especially France, which is close to Germany, and deeply felt the threat and pressure from Germany.
However, France does not have the strength to act alone to reverse the situation, and is unwilling to accept the fait accompli of Germany’s breach of contract.
It is eager to strengthen cooperation with Britain and Italy to curb Germany’s military expansion.
To this end, while protesting to Germany, the French government requested the League of nations to hold a special meeting to discuss Germany’s breach of contract.
Before the meeting of the League of nations, France proposed that Britain, France and Italy should hold consultations first in order to prepare for the meeting.
At this time, Britain also felt the threat of German military expansion.
In the spring of 1935, the chief of staff of the British armed forces stressed in the annual inspection report on national and imperial defense that Britain’s national security had reached a serious danger and would no longer exist by January 1, 1939.
In order to compete for hegemony between China and Europe, Italy has contradictions with Germany on the issue of Austria, so it has something in common with Britain and France in its policy towards Germany.
For this reason, the French initiative has received a response from Britain and Italy.
On April 11, 1935, Britain, France and Italy held a meeting in Stresa, northern Italy, to discuss the mutual protection of European peace among the three countries.
Present at the meeting were Italian Mussolini, French Prime Minister Fran ç OIS frattin and foreign minister Laval, British Prime Minister MacDonald and Foreign Minister Simon.
The meeting heard a memorandum read out by France, which protested to the League of nations against Germany’s violation of the military provisions of the Versailles peace treaty.
The representative of France also asked Britain and Italy to take joint action to impose economic sanctions on Germany’s breach of contract.
However, Britain and Italy clearly refused.
British representative Simon believed that the sanctions would not have any effect, but would harm the countries implementing the sanctions.
After three days of talks, Britain, France and Italy issued a joint communique on April 14.
The communique gently condemned Germany’s breach of contract, saying it was regrettable that such behavior “despised the public’s trust in peace and order”.
In their statements, the three countries aimed to “maintain collective peace within the scope of the League of nations” and closely cooperate to “oppose by all practical means the unilateral abolition of the treaty that is sufficient to endanger European peace”.
The result of the Stresa meeting was only a very general communiqu é, but diplomats from Britain and France were convinced that they had made great achievements in consolidating peace.
Newspapers in some Western European countries even exaggerate and boast that Britain, France and Italy have established a “Stresa front” to ensure European peace.
As a matter of fact, this front could not restrain the rearming of Germany at all, and Britain, France and Italy did not realize real cooperation.
Shortly after that, Britain signed the Anglo German naval agreement with Germany, allowing Germany to increase its naval tonnage by more than four times to a level roughly equivalent to and more modern than the French navy, which aroused great dissatisfaction from France and Italy.
The Stresa front collapsed.
In March 1936, Germany sent troops to occupy the Rhineland demilitarized zone.
Both before and after this, Britain and France had no determination and courage to stop Germany’s breach of the treaty by force.
The resolution adopted by the Executive Council of the League of nations only condemned Germany’s violation of the relevant provisions of the Versailles peace treaty and the Locarno convention.
This made Hitler’s adventure easy to succeed.
Thus, after Japan broke the shackles of the Washington treaty in the East in 1931, Germany destroyed the spirit of the Versailles peace treaty in the West.
So far, the “Versailles Washington System” that supported world peace after World War I collapsed.
In the face of the common threat of war caused by the destruction of the “Versailles Washington System” by fascist countries, the major powers in the world have made various attempts to adjust their mutual relations, but due to their respective national interests, strategic environment and ideological differences, there is still a long way to go to jointly limit and threaten Germany and Japan.
Especially when Britain, France, the United States and other western countries turn to appeasing the aggression of Germany, Japan and Italy, this alliance is still far away.
Driven by the unanimous interests of aggression and expansion, fascist countries quickly moved towards alliance.
In 1935, Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia became a major turning point in the transformation of the international pattern and the reorganization of national forces.
Originally, when Hitler came to power in the early 1930s, the relationship between Germany, Italy, Germany and Japan was not very harmonious.
This is because in Europe, Germany and Italy, two fascist countries, have their own expansion plans.
They have contradictions in competing for hegemony in Central Europe and the Balkans, especially on the issue of Austria.
Austria is located in the heart of Europe.
Hitler has long recognized its important strategic position, so he tried his best to advocate the merger of Germany and Austria.
Italy regards Austria as its sphere of influence and very taboo Germany’s involvement in Austria.
In the face of Hitler’s annexation of Austria after taking office, Mussolini invited Austrian Prime Minister thorphiz to visit Italy several times from March to August 1933, emphasizing that “as Austria is located in the heart of central Europe and the Danube River Basin”, Italy’s consistent position is that “its independence must be guaranteed first”.
On February 18, 1934, Italy and Britain and France issued a joint declaration, stating that the three countries “share a common view” on “maintaining Austria’s independence and integrity in accordance with relevant treaties”.
A month later, Italy signed the Rome protocol with Austria and Hungary, agreeing that when any of the three countries is threatened, the three countries will consult each other on countermeasures.
In order to coordinate relations with Italy, Hitler held his first meeting with Mussolini in Venice from June 14 to 15, 1934.
However, due to intransigence on the issue of Austria, no agreement was reached.
JulyAfter asking for instructions from the Japanese general staff, Oshima agreed to conclude a defense agreement against the Soviet Union between the two countries and hoped to make a more detailed study on the scope, content and form of the agreement.
At the end of 1935, the head of the German intelligence department and the head of the German Ministry of defense sent to lomtson for talks with the German Ministry of defense.
After the February 26 incident in 1936, the fascist regime of the Japanese military headquarters was established, which greatly promoted the establishment of the German Japanese Alliance.
In April, after taking up the post of foreign minister, Yoshiro Yoshida, who advocated Japan Germany friendship, called Japanese ambassador to Germany takezawa koji: “various situations show that it is necessary to establish closer relations between Japan and Germany.
” The negotiation between Japan and Germany was then carried out through diplomatic channels by Takeshi koji and Ribbentrop.
In May of the same year, the German government drew up the draft German Japanese agreement and a secret annex revised by Hitler himself.
In July, Germany officially submitted the draft text and secret annex of the anti communist international agreement to Japan.
On August 7, the Japanese cabinet held a meeting and adopted the imperial foreign policy, which decided to realize Japan Germany cooperation.
On October 23, Japanese ambassador takezawa koji in Berlin initialed an agreement with German representative Ribbentrop on behalf of his government.
On November 25, the anti communist international agreement was officially signed in Berlin.
The reason why the agreement adopts this name is related to Hitler’s reactionary tactics.
He made full use of the fear of communism of the British and French ruling groups to reduce the resistance of Britain and France to their aggression and expansion.
As Hitler said to his followers, “we must use the ghost of Bolshevism to contain the countries of the Versailles peace treaty and convince them that Germany is the decisive fortress against the red peril.
This is the only way for us to get through the crisis, get rid of the Versailles peace treaty and re arm.
” The main contents of the agreement are as follows: first, the Contracting States agree to inform each other of the activities of the Comintern, agree on the necessary preventive measures, and cooperate closely to complete the above measures.
Second, the Contracting States shall, in accordance with the provisions of this agreement, take preventive measures or jointly invite the third countries that feel threatened by the destruction of the Comintern to join this agreement.
At the time of concluding the agreement, at the request of Germany, Germany and Japan signed a secret annex directly against the Soviet Union.
The two sides agreed that when a contracting state is attacked or threatened by the Soviet Union without reason, it will not take any action in favor of the Soviet Union, and shall immediately begin to discuss measures to protect common interests.
Without the consent of the two countries, the validity of the treaty shall not conflict with the spirit of the treaty concluded by the Soviet Union within 5 years.
The conclusion of the anti communist international agreement indicates the beginning of the alliance between Japanese fascists and Nazi Germany under the common interests of aggression and expansion.
Although this agreement is under the banner of “anti Communist”, its spearhead is not only directed at the revolutionary movements of the Soviet Union and other countries.
Its main purpose is to use it as a smoke screen to cover up their arrogant ambition to compete with Britain, France and the United States for the sphere of influence and finally establish world hegemony.
After the signing of the agreement, Ribbentrop said: “formally, we should also regard the Soviet Union as the main enemy, but in fact, we should completely regard Britain as the main enemy.
” At that time, Japanese ambassador to the UK Mao Yoshida also said: “although the Japanese military ministry said that the anti Communist agreement is just an ideological issue against the Communist Party, this is entirely a superficial excuse.
In essence, it is obviously to unite with Germany and Italy against Britain and France, and then against the United States.
” For this reason, after the signing of the agreement, Germany stressed in a secret note to Japan that it believed that the provisions of the existing treaties between Germany and the Soviet Union that were still in force in law, such as the rabarro Treaty of 1922 and the friendly neutrality Treaty of 1926, were not inconsistent with the spirit of the international agreement against Communist production and the obligations arising therefrom.
After Germany and Japan signed the anti communist international agreement, Hitler urgently needed to pull Italy into the agreement and form a more stable group.
However, Italy still hopes to raise its position in the covenant and urge Germany to give Italy generous remuneration in colonial, political and other aspects.
Therefore, it is not in a hurry to join the agreement.
On the contrary, in January 1937, Italy concluded a “gentleman’s agreement” with Britain to recognize each other’s interests in the Mediterranean.
This greatly disturbed Hitler.
At the beginning of 1937, he successively sent some important envoys such as Goering to Rome to visit Mussolini and warmly invited Mussolini to visit Germany.
On September 25, 1937, Mussolini accepted Hitler’s invitation to visit Germany for the first time.
During his visit to Germany, Mussolini publicly assured Hitler that Italy and Germany “will work together to the end” and “unswervingly continue Italy Germany cooperation”.
At a mass rally, Mussolini proudly made a belligerent speech.
He said: “when words are not enough to achieve the goal and the situation is urgent, people have to take up arms.
That’s what we do in Spain.
” Through a four-day visit, Mussolini strengthened his determination to stay with Nazi Germany and decided to participate in the anti communist international agreement.
On November 6, the representatives of Germany, Italy and Japan signed the protocol on Italy’s accession to the anti communist international agreement in Rome, thus forming the Berlin Rome Tokyo axis.
Hitler proudly declared that the three countries were united.
At first, they were the axis of Europe and now they are the big triangle of the world.
This triangle is mainly aimed at our enemies, namely Britain, France and the United States.
This triangle is not composed of three weak illusions, but of three great powers, which are prepared and determined to realize their rights and ensure their life and death interests.
Ziano wrote in his diary on the day of signing the anti communist international agreement: “the alliance of three military empires such as Italy, Germany and Japan is of unprecedented significance in terms of military balance.
London should reconsider all its positions.
” The establishment of the axis of Germany, Japan and Italy marks the initial formation of the fascist aggression group.
It is an important strategic step for the three fascist countries to further intensify their collusion and prepare to launch a world war.
Its establishment encouraged the aggression of fascist countries, strengthened the momentum of aggressors, and created an important premise for fascist countries to launch war.
After the establishment of the axis, Hitler declared bluntly: “it is necessary to form an allianceIf the purpose does not include war, this alliance is meaningless and worthless.
We formed an alliance only for war.