Pacific War was triggered by Japan’s sneak attack on Pearl Harbor. The whole war lasted three years and eight months, with 37 participating countries and a population of more than 1.5 billion. Finally, the allies defeated Japan and won. It was also quite tragic on the Pacific battlefield. If you have seen relevant films, you should also understand that both axis countries and allies paid a very painful price. Finally, the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan and forced Japan to surrender directly. War has brought enough lessons to mankind. No human wants to live in war.
Japan’s air raid on Pearl Harbor
on the morning of December 7, 1941, the Secretary of the US Navy released his annual report as planned. In this report, Secretary Knox announced: “I am proud to report that the American people can have full confidence in their navy.” At the same time, the Japanese government is also issuing a secret order: “climb the new mountain.” The real meaning behind this sentence is, now attack!
from 6 a.m. to 7:15 a.m. Hawaiian time on December 7, more than 300 Japanese aircraft took off from six aircraft carriers north of Oahu at the same time. They arrived at Pearl Harbor at 0755 hours and opened fire violently. In this way, the largest air raid in history began.
from 7:55, the US fleet that did not receive the alarm was unable to organize an effective counterattack in the face of the artillery fire and aircraft bombing of the Japanese fleet. Japanese dive bombers were seen to dive and bomb the US fleet again and again. With little effort, the Japanese army controlled the air control over Oahu Island. At that time, American pilots who had escaped the first wave of attacks rushed to the plane in the hope of resisting the Japanese attack. However, the Japanese torpedo bombers had roared close to the sea level. They accurately dropped bombs on cruisers, battleships and aircraft near the dock at a very close distance from the ground. The damage of American ships outside the port terminal is very serious.
at this time, Pearl Harbor has become a sea of fire, and the fire reflects the port red. The crew members who escaped from death tried their best to rescue the ships at the port and their comrades in arms in the fire. At 8:25, the Japanese army suspended the attack. The US Army thought that the Japanese army had stopped the sneak attack, so they ran out of the hidden bunker to try to rescue. But just 15 minutes later, the second Japanese attack came again. Japanese level bombers, etc. At 9:45, the battle was over, and the Japanese blew up the whole Pearl Harbor at the cost of losing 29 aircraft. At this time, the Japanese planes have successfully returned to the aircraft carrier.
the two-hour sneak attack of Japanese air raid on Pearl Harbor
caused heavy losses to the US military. A total of three cruisers, three destroyers, eight battleships and four other warships were sunk, and 188 aircraft were destroyed. More than 2000 people were buried in Pearl Harbor and 700 others were injured. However, there are comforting things for Americans, that is, the Japanese army did not blow up the naval repair shop and oil depot on Oahu Island; Moreover, the three aircraft carriers of the United States were not in Pearl Harbor because of their mission, avoiding greater losses. All this makes it possible for the United States to rebuild the Pacific Fleet.
on December 25, 1941, a seaplane suddenly swooped down from a low cloud. It landed on the oily sea surface of Pearl Harbor, and then continued to slide for a distance before stopping. At this time, a whaling ship approached the plane and an authority figure came next from the plane. This is admiral Chester W. Nimitz, commander of the Pacific Fleet. He was red, dressed in plain clothes and dignified. Just eight days ago, although he had read the report that Pearl Harbor had been seriously damaged by the Japanese army, he was still shocked by what he saw. Where the ships were moored, he saw only the triangular mast of the “Arizona” and the “Oklahoma” already facing the sky… It can be said that the swollen bodies of sailors and Marines were floating everywhere. Nimitz said to himself, “it’s terrible.”
Japan’s air raid on Pearl Harbor
let’s go back a little. Not long ago, on December 7, Nimitz and his wife were enjoying the performance of the orchestra of the New York Symphony Orchestra broadcast in the semiconductor with a rear admiral and the director of the aviation administration. Suddenly the program was interrupted, and the news of Japan’s sneak attack on Pearl Harbor spread all over the world. Nimitz immediately got up and went to find the battle plan he was going to discuss. The battle plan was locked in the safe with a time lock and could not be opened until Monday morning. However, it doesn’t matter whether you look or not, because most of the US Navy’s battleships have sunk in Pearl Harbor. There is nothing in the plan about the Navy’s upcoming war with Japan and dealing with any emergencies.
Japan’s rapid expansion of the occupied areas in East Asia and the Pacific
is like a tiger down the mountain. Japan’s rapid expansion of its occupied areas in East Asia and the Pacific is even surprising to them in terms of speed and scale. Within a few weeks after the attack on Pearl Harbor, they invaded the Philippines, then occupied Guam, Wake Island, etc., then took Thailand and Hong Kong, China, and then invaded Singapore and the East Indies.
in order to restore the vitality and confidence of the Navy, the president reorganized the high-level command organization: the commander-in-chief of the Atlantic Fleet and Admiral Ernest J. King were appointed as the commander-in-chief of the newly established U.S. fleet, and let him concurrently serve as the director of naval operations, making him a senior leader of the Navy. In fact, there are very few experienced people like General Kim. General Kim has served in leading organs, aircraft and submarines.
Nimitz surpassed 28 officers with deeper qualifications and was directly promoted to the commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet to replace the then commander-in-chief hesbender kingThe seat of Mel. Kimmel was being blamed by many for the disaster at Pearl Harbor. On the day of Japan’s sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, in fact, he was also hit by a grenade. He often said regretfully, “it would be great if I were killed that day.”
in fact, two people with different personalities like Kim and Nimitz can no longer be selected in the U.S. Navy. As mosson once commented, “Kim, the 63 year old man is a guy without a sense of humor. He receives far more respect than love in the Navy. Nimitz is kind and amiable.” It is said that a joke was very popular in the Navy at that time: General Jin went to heaven, and soon another naval officer also went. In the kingdom of heaven, St. Peter told the naval officer, “since general king came, the kingdom of heaven has been reorganized and is ready for war at any time.” The naval officer said, “it’s no surprise, because General Kim often thinks he is the Almighty God.” St. Peter shook his head: “this is not the most terrible. The trouble is that almighty God thinks he is general gold.”
no matter how different the characters of General Kim and general Nimitz are, and no matter they are in Pearl Harbor one by one, they jointly formulate a new battle plan to beat the Japanese. As stated in General Kim’s first speech after taking office, “the road to victory is long, and Japan is also very difficult. We must do our best and do our best. We must have a large number of warships and aircraft as soon as possible, and then we will fight back on a large scale and finally win the war.”
the United States focuses on “defense, supplemented by attack”
in this paragraph, “victory” is undoubtedly the most important word. The new year has begun, and it seems very far away for the United States and the Pacific to turn to counter offensive. Because it takes time to repair the bombed warships in Pearl Harbor, to build a sufficient number of warships and aircraft, and to recruit more officers, sailors and pilots. In other words, the United States now needs a lot of time to prepare.
what’s more, after the “Pearl Harbor Incident”, Germany also declared war on the United States. The anti submarine war in the Atlantic has begun. In this way, the US Navy undertook the task of fighting in two oceans. In Japan, it is clear that it has won enough time to strengthen the “co prosperity circle”, which already has a supply line for material transportation, even if it is attacked by the United States. In terms of allies, the United States, Britain and Canada have formulated an “ABC plan”, which requires the United States to use all its troops to attack Germany before attacking Japan. Starting from this plan, the task of the United States has become to ensure the smooth flow of the maritime traffic line midway Samoa Fiji Australia. In the words of General Kim, it is “defense first, supplemented by attack”.
the Allies issued the Washington declaration.
on January 1, 1942, representatives of the Allies gathered in Washington and issued the famous Washington declaration. It defines the strategic goal of the Allies: first concentrate the war force on the Atlantic battlefield and deal with it with all strength. Then, after the European war situation is settled, we will enter the Pacific battlefield. Obviously, at that time, Germany was too powerful. It won almost all four battlefields, so breaking the German threat became the task of the allies? Hurry.
the US army began to counterattack
. In early 1942, Nimitz ordered aircraft carriers to attack Japan’s advance bases in the Marshall Islands and Gilbert Islands. An aircraft carrier force led by Lieutenant General William F. Halsey Jr. with the enterprise as its flagship attacked the Japanese fleet in the Marshall Islands and Kwajalein island. The attack sank one Japanese transport ship, eight small ships and two other ships. Another force with Lexington as its flagship attacked Japan’s Rabaul base on the new British island in northeast Australia. On February 11, Japanese planes began to fight back, but American pilot Captain Edward h. oher shot down five Japanese fighters alone. These were the first counterattacks by the US Navy against Japan.
on April 18, a more spectacular fierce battle began, that is, the famous Doolittle bombing of Tokyo. On that day, 16 twin engine B-25 bombers took off from the hornet and flew straight to Tokyo 668 nautical miles away. The bombers used this time are army bombers, not the Navy’s own bombers. Under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle, these bombers had a short take-off training, but they did not land on an aircraft carrier. Therefore, they can only fly to the Chinese airport about 1100 nautical miles away after the bombing mission is completed.
although the long-distance raid of
Doolittle bombing Tokyo was successful, the damage caused to Japan by this operation was far less than that of Pearl Harbor. But in any case, the success of this attack has improved the morale of Americans. We should know that giving the enemy any form of panic is effective in improving the fighting morale of our troops. Moreover, the operation also provided a valuable experiment for the tactics of fast aircraft carriers.
in December 1941, Japan invaded the Philippines. The United States lost its base in Southeast Asia and had to retreat South as planned to support the defense line around the Dutch East Indies. Thus, the battle of the Philippines began. The commander of the fleet is admiral Thomas C. Hart. The man was long past retirement age, but the Navy still let him stay in office considering his experience and ability. This fleet mainly includes warships from four countries, namely the United States, Britain, the Netherlands and Australia. Therefore, it is also called “Abda” fleet, and its bases are located in Batavia and solabaga. The fleet has a total of 9 cruisers, including Houston, Lewis and marborghed, as well as 26 destroyers and 39 submarines. actualThe British battleships Prince of Wales and counterattack were supposed to be the backbone of the fleet, but they were sunk by Japanese torpedo planes in the sea of Malaya on December 10, 1941. Another British aircraft carrier, unyielding, was originally a member of this fleet, but ran aground in West India and did not come. Moreover, the fleet, which was temporarily put together, was not only different in language and communication, but also in combat effectiveness and tactics. But time is urgent. It must now be inserted into the East Indies from both East and West. The fleet is destined to fight alone. The only problem is that it is uncertain how many enemy ships it will fight.
the United States: the world overlord bred by maritime hegemony: 1775-2015, edited by Song Yi and published by Huazhong University of science and Technology Press,
. The first battle took place on the night of January 24, 1942. The fleet’s four destroyers, Ford, Pope, palot and Paul Jones, attacked a huge Japanese convoy in the Strait of Makassar in India. At that time, the Japanese fleet was at anchor. The destroyers of the United States rushed up at once and rammed at the fastest speed. They not only fired guns, but also fired torpedoes. When the Japanese reacted, the four destroyers had already fled. It can be said that this is the first battle conducted by American destroyers since 1898. Although it encouraged the morale of the allies, it did not weaken the momentum of Japan’s invasion of the Dutch East Indies. Just a few days later, Japanese bombers arrived at the airport in Java and blew up all the Allied planes parked here. As a counterattack, the “Houston” and “mabolde” cruisers, as well as two Dutch cruisers and seven destroyers, launched an attack on another Japanese fleet across the wangkasi Strait on February 4. At that time, Japanese bombers carried out subduction and indiscriminate bombing on them. Each ship adopted the method of tortuous evasion to reduce the possibility of being bombed by Japanese bombers. At the same time, all ships also use air-to-air firepower, and artillery fire is closely intertwined in the sky. In spite of this, the mabold was blown to pieces and could only reluctantly return to the United States for repair. The 8-inch turret of the Houston was overturned, causing heavy casualties.
at this time, the remaining forces of the Abda fleet were led by rear admiral Durman of the Royal Dutch Navy. After leaving the solabaga base on February 27, they went to Java to attack another larger Japanese fleet. At that time, in addition to the flagship “druid”, major general Durman also had four cruisers, namely the “Houston” of the United States, the “Essex” of Britain, the “pace” of Australia and the “Java” of the Netherlands. Among them, the American “Houston” was declared to have been sunk, but later it survived tenaciously like a ghost. The four cruisers mentioned above sailed under the cover of darkness with nine other destroyers. In terms of speed, the four old destroyers are very slow. They can only do their best to keep up with the nine cruisers.
major general Durman was bent on devastating the Japanese fleet, but he was unable to break through the barrier of the Japanese escort Fleet: two heavy cruisers, two light cruisers and four destroyers. You should know that the air control in this area is also in the hands of the Japanese. Moreover, the Japanese fleet is in good repair and the crew are energetic. However, Durman’s fleet needs thorough maintenance, and every crew member is tired and has long been depressed. Therefore, in terms of the number of warships, the forces of both sides are roughly equal. But in terms of morale, it is a high judgment.