then trubetzkoy entered the courtroom. As like as two peas, Berdyaev experienced similar interrogation procedures, even though the questions raised by the judges were exactly the same. After the interrogation, the judge immediately announced: “you are suspected of violating a provision on counter revolutionary activities and will be sentenced to the maximum penalty – shooting”. The whole interrogation room fell into a dead silence. The interrogator suddenly asked, “would you like to go abroad instead of shooting?”
this is what later Russian historians called the “philosophy ship” event. It is certain that no more than 120 people were actually expelled in this incident. However, in the history of the world, I’m afraid no country has exiled its intellectual elites on such a large scale. The truth of the incident was not revealed until the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the opening of relevant archives. Since 2002, with the declassification of another batch of data and the emergence of some research works, the “philosophy ship” incident has been revealed to the world.
but history is always full of paradoxes. We see the truth: these intellectual elites were brutally arrested, charged and expelled from their motherland. But there is another truth: expelling this group of Russian intellectual elites is humane and lucky for the expeller himself, the whole Russia and even the world culture. Today, this is almost everyone’s consensus.
in the summer of 1922, the Soviet began to expel intellectuals in a planned and systematic way, and more than 100 Russian elites were forced to leave their motherland and go to the West – only by eliminating them can Russia be “purified”.
on the evening of September 29, 1922, the air in petersgrad was filled with the lightness and tranquility of autumn dusk. The pier on the Neva River is a lively scene.
guests continue to enter the German ship “Captain Haken”. The Coachmans helped carry the luggage and negotiated and quarreled with the customs inspectors. Friends and relatives came to see them off. The professor saw off a large group of students. They helped carry things and presented flowers to the professors’ wives. More than 150 young girls, like a nest of ducklings, formed a long winding and shaking ribbon in the crowd with their faces reddened because of the cool autumn and excitement. Until 11 pm, the shore was still boiling with the surging passion of a batch of young people. In the early morning, the bell of isakiev church came from afar, the seeing off crowd gradually dispersed, and the Neva River gradually recovered its tranquility.
however, all the passengers, except those ignorant children, had an unforgettable sleepless night. The next morning, they will leave their motherland Russia for the German port of Stettin. This was not an ordinary trip, but was expelled by the Soviet regime. They are not ordinary passengers, but the elite of Russian intellectuals and their families.
on August 16, 1922, the philosopher Ni o’loski suddenly received a notice at petergler’s home that he must go to the Cheka (secret police) office building on golohov street. Losky thought that this trip was to go through the formalities of going abroad passport, so he went without worry.
but as soon as he walked into Cheka’s office building, he knew he had been arrested. He was taken to the second floor and sat at the door of the interrogation room, next to a soldier with a gun. A few minutes later, he saw the philosopher Lev karsavan walking out of the interrogation room. Later, Loski saw more than 50 arrested people from all walks of life in prison, including philosopher Carl savin, lapshen and mathematician sherivanov.
on the same day, a member of the General Political Bureau suddenly broke into the room of linguist Xie Ye trubetzkoy. After the search was fruitless, he still arrested trubetskoy recklessly and took him to the “internal prison” of the secret police by car. There, trubetzkoy met the philosopher frank and many intellectuals.
it was night. Trubetzkoy saw several cars coming. Obviously, it’s full of arrested people. Two days later, trubetsy was called to trial for the first time. When he went, he met the philosopher berjaev, an old friend of Loski who returned from the trial.
on the 16th, a secret arrest operation against “anti Soviet” intellectuals was launched simultaneously in Moscow, Petrograd and Ukraine until the night of the 18th. The operation was carried out by the operation Department of the State Political Security Bureau and targeted 217 “anti Soviet” intellectuals confirmed by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik).
the arrest operation has not been completed, and the interrogation has begun.
as the most famous philosopher and thinker in Russia at that time and the firm defender of the belief of “freedom”, berjaev was “given preferential treatment”: he was probably the first person interrogated in Moscow. On the morning of the 18th, berjayev was taken to the interrogation room. To his surprise, there were no cumbersome procedures or ferocious interrogators. The interrogation process was simple and smooth.
after simply filling out a personal information form, berjaev began to answer questions. The problems have long been designed: views on the institutions of Soviet power and the proletarian state system, on the tasks of intellectuals and social groups, on the strike of professors, on the road sign conversion school (a social and political school among the White Russian intellectuals in exile in 1921) Savinkov elements (savinkov founded the “people’s Alliance for the defence of the motherland and freedom” abroad in 1921, with the goal of organizing a general uprising against the Soviet regime in Russia) and the attitude of the people of the Social Revolutionary Party (Russia’s petty bourgeois party), their views on the university policy and University Reform of the Soviet regime, and their views on the prospects of overseas Chinese in Russia.
“I can’t look at the problem from the perspective of class, whether it’s the ideology of nobility or farmers, whether it’s the ideology of proletariat or bourgeoisieClass ideology is narrow, limited and selfish. From the perspective of human beings, any class and political party should rise to this height… I think Russia is not a proletarian country, because most Russians are farmers “. “I don’t agree with the Soviet regime’s policy towards colleges and universities because it destroys academic and teaching freedom and limits the previous philosophical freedom.”. Berjaev made no secret of his thoughts and answered the above questions bravely and frankly. He believes that only in this way can he accord with his dignity as a thinker and writer.
to his surprise, the judge did not seem to hear berjaev’s “treacherous” words, expressionless and drowsy. In the interrogation room, only berjayev’s solemn answer and the recording voice of recorder Sasha were heard.
moreover, the judge immediately ruled that the person on trial “violated Article 57 of the laws of the Russian Soviet Federation” and was expelled. The judge also asked him to write an application for leaving the country at his own expense and a written certificate of not returning home without permission, and then sign a letter of consent to ensure leaving the country at his own expense, complete public and private affairs and exit documents within seven or ten days, and report back to the chief of the fourth section within a time limit. Berjayev wrote down his protest against the judgment when signing the judgment, but it was of no help.
then trubetzkoy walked into the courtroom. As like as two peas, Berdyaev experienced similar interrogation procedures, even though the questions raised by the judges were exactly the same. After the interrogation, the judge immediately announced: “you are suspected of violating a provision on counter revolutionary activities and will be sentenced to the maximum penalty – shooting”.
the whole interrogation room suddenly fell into a dead silence. The interrogator suddenly asked, “would you like to go abroad instead of shooting?”
trubetzkoy was speechless with surprise. You know, at that time, it was almost impossible for the most innocent Soviet citizen to obtain an exit permit. Besides, trubetsy is still a “prisoner”.
the judge’s persuasion was even more incredible to trubetzkoy: come on, think about your life here. Here you will disappear, but after you go out, people will treat you as precious as gold, and you can see your foreign brothers. This is the passport of the German Consulate. Sign it!
is this a trap of the secret police? Are they looking for evidence that I’m going to flee abroad? Trubetzkoy couldn’t believe his ears. Life experience kept him on high alert and he refused to sign. Two weeks later, with the careful persuasion of the famous secret police altuzov, trubetsy agreed to be expelled and signed a guarantee that he would be shot if he appeared in the Soviet territory again.
in this way, trubetzkoy, like berjaev, was expelled “according to law”. As like as two peas in the same period, all arrested intellectuals have gone through a similar process in a month’s time: uniform interrogation, similar judgments and identical fate – deportation.