In March 1939, after Nazi Germany occupied Czechoslovakia, it soon targeted Poland for aggression.
In April, Nazi Germany formulated the “white plan” for invading Poland.
In the process of the demise of Czechoslovakia, the Polish rulers, who played an ignominious role, also realized their dangerous situation at this time, so they tried their best to repair the fence and look for backers in diplomacy in order to protect themselves.
On March 31, 1939, Chamberlain unilaterally guaranteed Poland’s security.
On April 6, Polish Foreign Minister Baker signed an agreement with Britain in London, changing Britain’s unilateral guarantee into a temporary mutual assistance treaty.
The two sides agreed to sign a long-term treaty once the conditions were ripe.
From May 22 to June 5, the British delegation visited Warsaw and the staff talks between the two countries began.
Later, the two countries continued their talks in London.
In late July, Admiral Edmund elseide, the inspector general of the British Overseas armed forces, visited Warsaw to discuss the military situation with relevant Polish parties and visit the exercises of the Polish army and air force, bringing the staff talks between the two countries to a climax.
Poland and France signed a military agreement as early as 1921.
Until the autumn of 1938, the staff officers of the two countries had regular contacts in accordance with the agreement.
Later, Poland’s role in the Czech crisis cooled the relations between the two countries.
After Britain announced its pledge and France reiterated its treaty obligations to Poland, Poland took the initiative to send War Minister kasprzuski and chief of staff stasievich to visit Paris.
On May 16, the two sides reached consensus on a draft agreement proposed by the representative of Poland.
The draft stipulates that if Germany invades Poland or threatens Poland’s important interests in Danzig, thus causing Poland’s armed resistance, the French armed forces will automatically start action.
If Germany’s main attack is against Poland, France will attack Germany with most of its armed forces the day after the beginning of French mobilization.
However, on May 19, French Foreign Minister Bonet proposed that military agreements should belong to political protocols.
Since the political protocol was not signed until September 4, the military protocol was not binding on both sides at the beginning of the war.
In an order issued by Keitel on June 22, he said that the preliminary timetable had been largely approved and instructed to call up reserves under the guise of autumn exercises.
For the sake of confidentiality, it is necessary to stop implementing the recommendation of the army general command to vacate hospitals in the border area since mid July.
On June 24, Keitel instructed the army general command to draw up complete measures to seize the bridges in the lower reaches of the visva river.
Previously, Germany has begun to purchase a large number of materials from major American companies.
By late August, German military leaders had begun to make full preparations to eliminate Poland in the East and guard against Britain and France in the southwest.
On August 15, the Army General Command had planned to move to Zosen, east of Berlin.
The Navy’s pocket warships Earl SBY and Germany and 21 submarines were ready to sail to the Atlantic defense zone.
In order to enrich the troops on the western front, 250000 people were recruited.
At the same time, a mobilization order was issued to the railway department.
On August 19, the German Navy received the order to start.
21 submarines began to enter positions north and northwest of the British Isles, the Earl of SBY went to the sea off the coast of Brazil, and the German entered positions in the North Atlantic that could cut off British maritime routes.
On August 25, the battleship Schleswig Holstein, which had sailed into Danzig port for a two-day visit, remained there on August 30 and had been parked near westpareto.
Before August 25, the German Foreign Ministry had informed the embassies and consulates in Poland, Britain and France to ask German citizens to leave the country as soon as possible.
On August 27, the German government announced that food, soap, shoes, textiles and coal would be rationed from the next day.
On August 30, Germany established a permanent cabinet defense committee chaired by Goering and composed of Goering, Keitel, Hess, Frick, funk and Lamers.
Under the guise of the summer exercise, the German army took a series of measures in July, so that a large number of basic troops with full personnel according to wartime staffing were reduced to the predetermined concentration area or strategic deployment area without announcing mobilization.
Under the pretext of participating in the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the battle of Tannenberg, the German army entered East Prussia.
Some troops entered Pomerania and Silesia under the guise of “Bunker operation”.
Armored divisions, light infantry divisions and motorized divisions went to central Germany for “autumn exercises” so that they could enter the concentration area in the shortest time before invading Poland.
By August 25, the troops scheduled to attack Poland and those who did not participate in these “big exercises” had been fully mobilized and transferred to the strategic deployment area.
On August 25, the army was ready to invade.
Faced with the aggressive expansion momentum of Nazi Germany, Poland did not take any effective self-defense measures.
As early as March 1939, although Poland began to formulate the “western plan” to deal with the German invasion, it was afraid of stimulating Germany and causing the pretext of invasion to Germany for a long time, and had been timid in war preparation.
On August 23, the signing of the Soviet German non aggression treaty made German Polish relations more tense, which caused serious anxiety among Polish leaders.
On the evening of August 23, the Polish government ordered secret mobilization.
On August 26, the Polish government decided to implement local mobilization and ordered the mobilized troops to move to the concentrated area.
After the German army entered Slovakia, Slovak Radio called on residents to cooperate with the German army to jointly deal with Poland on August 28.
In view of this serious situation, combined with the build-up of German troops on the Polish border and many conflicts there, the Polish government decided to implement general mobilization on the afternoon of August 29.
However, Britain and France objected to this and believed that it was “inappropriate” to take this extreme measure while the British German negotiations were still going on, and Poland’s practice might be regarded as belligerent.
Taking into account the opinions of Britain and France, Poland decided to postpone the time of general mobilization to 0:00 on the 31st, so that Poland had not completed the general mobilization until the war broke out.
By late August 1939, Germany had successfully destroyed the establishment of the anti aggression alliance between Britain, France and the Soviet Union, and concluded a non aggression treaty with the Soviet Union.
Nevertheless, Hitler was not sure whether Britain and France would participate in the war.
On August 22, Chamberlain wrote to Hitler in his own nameLe said that the German Soviet treaty will never change Britain’s determination to fulfill its obligations to Poland.
In his reply, Hitler tried to shake Britain’s determination to fulfill its obligations to Poland.
Since Hitler decided to invade Poland, he has deliberately created trouble and strained the relations between the two countries.
The relationship between the German diaspora in Poland and the local residents of Poland has also intensified.
In this way, the German minority issue, which did not have any impact on German Polish relations a few years ago, has now become the main topic of Hitler and other German leaders.
They often make things out of nothing or turn black and white upside down, insisting that Poland has carried out unwarranted provocation and persecution against German minorities, which makes these Germans miserable.
Moreover, these so-called crimes against the poles are almost everywhere, and they are told by everyone.
On August 23, Hitler told the British ambassador Henderson: “tens of thousands of Germans in Poland are being persecuted.
These crimes have made him unbearable.
If the poles continue to persecute the Germans, it will immediately lead to ‘practical action’.
” On August 24, Goering alienated Poland from its Western allies when receiving Polish Ambassador Lipsky.
In the limited time before the war, Hitler was still fighting for Britain and France.
On August 25, Hitler received British ambassador Henderson at the prime minister’s office.
He said that he is ready to conclude an agreement with the British Empire, is willing to ensure the existence of the British Empire, is ready to accept a reasonable arms limitation, and is willing to regard Germany’s western border as the last border.
He stressed that this was his last proposal and that if the British government rejected his “generous and comprehensive proposal”, there would be war.
He asked Henderson to urge the British government to “take this proposal very seriously” and advocated that the ambassador personally fly the proposal to London.
The German government can send planes for his use.
For more than three months, Poland has not exerted any pressure on the British government to sign a formal long-term agreement between the two countries.
At the beginning of August, German Polish relations had entered a critical stage, and poles were increasingly eager to sign such an agreement.
In the second week of August, Poland put forward a draft agreement, which was taken to London by Polish ambassador to Britain raszinski.
Although there are differences between the two sides on some issues, due to the increasing risk of war, both sides do not want to entangle too much on secondary issues, so the agreement was signed on August 25.
The agreement stipulates that if one party is directly invaded by “a European power”, if there is an obvious threat to its independence, and the threatened party “believes that it is extremely necessary to use its armed forces for resistance”, or if there is an attempt to undermine its independence “by economic infiltration or any other means”, the other party pledges its support.
On August 25, Mussolini wrote that Italy could not participate in the war due to lack of war preparation, and Hitler had to withdraw his order to invade Poland on the morning of August 26.
On the morning of August 29, a formal note from Germany to Britain said that in order to maintain the friendship between Britain and Germany and satisfy the British government, the German government was ready to “accept the British proposal and conduct direct negotiations with Poland” and asked Poland to send a special envoy to Berlin on August 30.
Obviously, this note is an excuse for the failure of Britain and France to fulfill their obligations, and it also poses a difficult problem for the poles – to send a special envoy, we must be prepared to accept any harsh conditions put forward by Hitler, otherwise the crime of refusing “peaceful settlement” will fall on Poland.
If he did not send a special envoy, Hitler would have more reason to put the above charges on Poland.
Hitler and others did everything they could to impose the charges of war on Poland.
On August 30, under his director, he created another scam.
On that day, he instructed experts from the Ministry of foreign affairs to draft a “magnanimous” proposal to solve the German Polish problem.
In his proposal, Hitler demanded the return of Danzig to Germany and agreed that the port of Gdynia would be a free port of Poland.
The fate of the Polish corridor would be resolved by referendum one year later.
After the referendum, no matter who owned the corridor, the other party had the right to retain a road and railway that could cross the corridor with extraterritorial jurisdiction.
However, Hitler did not want this proposal to become the basis of the negotiations, but just wanted to blame Poland for the failure of the negotiations and the resulting war, and to deceive world public opinion.
Later, this proposal was not formally submitted to Britain, the mediator of the German Polish direct negotiations, let alone to Poland.
It was only hastily read by Ribbentrop to Henderson in German in the late night of August 30.
The ambassador didn’t even understand the basic content of the proposal.
On the pretext that the Polish representative had not arrived until midnight, Ribbentrop rudely refused the ambassador’s request to see the original proposal.
In order to achieve publicity effect, Hitler and his gang asked the radio to broadcast the proposal in full to the German people at 21 p.m. on August 31.
On August 31, the Germans had not given up their hope of fighting for Britain and France.
Goering, who was in charge of directing the German air force to carry out a large-scale air raid on Poland on September 1, invited the British ambassador to his apartment for tea at 17:00 on the same day to talk about the crimes of Poland and Hitler’s wish to be friendly with Britain.
In order to make the German people and the people of the world seem to be justified in Germany’s aggression against Poland, Hitler and his gang not only carried out despicable propaganda, but also took a series of shameless “actions”.
As early as early August, Admiral kanaris, director of the intelligence bureau of the national defense command, received Hitler’s warrant to send Himmler and Hedrich 150 sets of Polish army uniforms and several Polish Army small arms.
Later, he learned that these things were props used to create the illusion that the first thing to do was not Germany but Poland.
The young SS agent named Alfred reyox was chosen to carry out the plan.
At 20 p.m. on August 31, the farce officially began.
The SS personnel in Polish army uniforms shot and pretended to attack the German radio station in grewitz, and put the prisoners of the concentration camp anesthetized in advance at the door of the radio station to act as the radio station staff injured by the Polish army.
After seizing the radio station, these fake poles broadcast three or four minutes of inflammatory anti German speech in Polish, and then fired several shots and left.
At 22 p.m., Hitler delivered a speech in parliament, “countless poles invaded Germany.
Among these people, many regular Polish troops attacked GREVIUse the reserve team.
Because the “narev” combat group was restrained because it was charged with the task of guarding against the third German group army, the “Prussia” group army was attacked by German aircraft and tanks in the concentration stage and could not move.
At this time, the Polish head of state, marshal rez smegre, believed that Poland had lost the war.
On September 6, the Polish government moved from Warsaw to Lublin.
9, moved to kremenets.
The city close to the Romanian border, Zaki, moved to 13.
By September 7, although the German army had made significant progress, its attempt to encircle and completely eliminate the Polish army to the west of Warsaw did not succeed.
After the German army adjusted its deployment, it began its subsequent campaign on September 9.
The implementation of these campaigns resulted in the siege and annihilation of almost all the Polish troops still sticking to the west of the visva river.
Then, the 14th and 3rd group armies carried out far-reaching raids from the north and South in order to encircle all Polish Army regiments east of the visva river or retreat to the region.
The newly formed left-wing force of the German third group army broke through the defense of the Polish Army on both sides of wormja near the narev River and arrived at the biawestock Warsaw railway line on September 11.
Its rapid forces advanced towards Brest Litovsk, and the middle and right-wing forces of the Group Army established bridgeheads on the South Bank of the Bouguer river.
On September 15, goodrian’s 19th army captured Brest Litovsk, and two days later it captured fuvodawa.
The 21st army pushed southward from vomja, surrounded and annihilated the Polish Army troops with strong combat effectiveness near Ostrov in mazovshe area on September 12 and 13, and then attacked the belsk biavistok line in the East.
On September 15, the German army captured biawestock.
The right-wing forces of the group army west of the Bouguer River captured vingrove and approached shedertsee.
On September 16, the Ministry stopped its attack to the southeast and turned west to attack the line of Minsk mazovshe karchev.
The first army also turned around and pushed into the northern and Eastern fronts of Warsaw.
So far, the German army has closed the siege of modlin and Warsaw.
But the German army has not crushed the resistance of the poles, and they refused to hand over Warsaw.
In these days, the fourth German army pushed southward on both banks of the visva river.
The second army advancing on the North Bank of the river did not encounter a strong enemy, and made a relatively smooth advance to modlin through pwotsk.
The Third Army on the South Bank of the river encountered strong resistance from the Polish army.
The army was unable to keep pace with the left wing of the eighth group army.
In addition to providing wing protection for the tenth group army, the left wing force of the eighth group army is now ordered to surpass and pursue the “Poznan” group army.
The resulting gap was the main reason for the subsequent battle of buzula.
On September 11, Posen was occupied by the German army.
After September 7, the kopish regiment continued to advance towards Gdynia.
After fierce fighting, the German army broke into the city on September 13, but the Polish resistance was not crushed until September 19.
In the second week of the war, the armored forces of the 10th group army of the southern group army arrived in the suburbs of Warsaw.
On September 10, some troops of the fourth armored division rushed into the Polish capital, but withdrew to the western suburb of the city under the resistance of the Polish army and people.
German armored forces near gulakalwaria built bridgeheads on the East Bank of the visva river.
The right-wing forces of the tenth German army continued to attack Southeast, occupied opatuv and sandomeri, and then turned around and attacked north along the visva river.
To the east of radom, the Ministry blocked the way for some troops of the six divisions of the Polish army to cross the river.
In this way, the German army realized the encirclement of the Polish forces fighting in the visa mountains and near ladom.
After the devastating assault of the German air force, the Polish Army stopped fighting on September 11, and 60000 people became German prisoners.
While other German forces were still engaged in the cordon of ladom or the battle of buzula, the right-wing forces of the tenth group army crossed the visva River and continued to attack eastward.
On September 9, the eighth German army occupied Rhodes without fighting, and then advanced towards the Polish army group in the southwest of Warsaw.
The 16th German army blocked the way of the Polish army group to the East.
The Polish Army resisted tenaciously and carried out anti assault in a local area, causing heavy casualties to the German army.
At that time, the German army south of buzula was threatened from the Northwest: the “Poznan” group army trying to retreat South tried to break through the Kutno area.
The troops of other group armies retreating from northern Poland to the modlin Warsaw buzula region joined them.
They threatened not only the flanks of the eighth German army, but also its back.
As a result, in order to prevent the advance of the Polish army, the group army had to turn its two armies around to establish a North defensive front.
Some troops even had to turn back to deal with the Polish army behind it.
However, the temporary critical situation of the German army in this area did not have a decisive impact on the war situation in central Poland.
Although the besieged Polish army fought desperately and continued to try to break through to the south, the situation was becoming more and more critical.
The 13th and 10th German armies were in the gwovno vincica region, while the 16th and 11th German armies approached the east wing of the Polish Army crossing the buzula River from Warsaw and mshcov areas.
The 15th army came to strengthen on September 16.
The fourth German group army also advanced from the southwest and north to the Polish rear forces assembled in the Kutno region.
The Polish troops who dug trenches in the south of fwoclawek made a hard resistance to the German Third Army, which was blocked for a time.
The second German army arrived in modlin on September 11, leaving some troops to the West and north of the fortress, and the main force continued to push towards denbe on the Bouguer river.
On September 15, the Ministry invaded the bridgehead position of the Polish army there, crossed the Bouguer River and reached yabouona.
On September 16, near the buzula River, all German troops participating in the siege began to concentrate on assault.
The German Third Army pushed eastward from the West and North.
Near vishogrud, the army partially blocked the passage of the VISHWA river.
On the right side of the army, the 13th and 10th German armies crossed the wovich Kutno Road North and occupied Kutno on September 17.
The situation of the three armies belonging to the 10th German group army is that the 15th army crossed the Warsaw sohachev highway on September 17 and launched an attack on the Polish army with tenacious resistance to the south of modrin on September 19.
The 16th army crossed the buzula River to the South on September 19, turned to the direction of visoglud on both sides of the river, and attacked on the same dayInto the visva river.
The 11th army crossed the buzula River between sohachev and wovic on September 17 and pushed northwest.
On September 13, all German Air Force combat units carried out air strikes on the northeast of Rhodes and attacked the dense marching column of Polish army.
On September 16, the German air force carried out air strikes on a large-scale Polish column north of wovich and sokhachev.
On that day, the German army used 820 aircraft and dropped 328 tons of bombs.
The air raid of the German air force strongly supported the German army’s operation and seriously affected the morale of the Polish army.
On September 19, the Polish army, which had completely lost its resistance, announced its surrender, and 120000 people from 19 divisions and 3 cavalry brigades were captured.
Poland’s last effective “Poznan” group army west of the visva river was eliminated.
In the south, the 14th German army tried to cut off the retreat of the Polish Army across the Sang river.
On the right wing of the army, the mountain troops crossed the San River and arrived in pugemeshir on September 11.
On September 12, a small advance force of the German army entered the city of remberg.
On September 16, the attack on the city was frustrated, and the German forces invading the city could not stand and had to withdraw again.
The left-wing force of the group army tried to block the way for the retreating Polish army to cross the lower reaches of the Sang River, while the 22nd motorized army on the middle road of the group army pushed northeast and crossed the Sang river.
Its main force arrived at tomashuv in Lublin area on September 15, and its leading forces arrived at vojimeiri and khrubeshuf, and built a bridgehead on the boug river.
The scouts made contact with the 19th army of the third group army.
On September 16, the 22nd army turned around and pushed towards the southwest lavar ruskaya remberg line.
The Polish army headquarters attempted to organize defense in eastern Poland.
To this end, it was decided to establish the northern front army, the central front army and the southern front army.
The Polish Army’s attempt was detected by the German army.
In addition to the continuous air raids on the marching column of Poland, the German air force also carried out indiscriminate bombing on the railway of Poland, which destroyed the traffic of Poland and disrupted the plan of the Polish army, so that the attempt of the Polish army could not be realized at all.
By September 16, most of the Polish army had been annihilated, the western and central parts of Poland were completely occupied by the German army, and the German army pushed forward to the east of the visva river.
The German army has achieved the main objective of the operation.
On 17 September, the Polish government fled across the border to Romania.
On the same day, the Soviet Red Army entered Poland.
When the Soviet Red Army entered Poland on September 17, the German army had reached 200 kilometers east of the German Soviet interest boundary stipulated in the Treaty on August 23.
In order to avoid conflict with the Soviet army, from September 17 to 21, the unified command of the German defense army and the general command of the army successively issued orders to determine the boundary between the German and Soviet armies and the withdrawal date of the German army.
Finally, it is determined that the area occupied by the German and Soviet forces is bounded by the visva River, narev River and San River, which is completely consistent with the secret additional protocol of the Soviet German non aggression treaty.
In addition, according to Hitler’s order on September 20, the German army must stop all operations east of the dividing line and withdraw to the West immediately.
On September 22, the fourth German army began to retreat to the West and northwest.
The German third group army joined the tenth group army near gulakalwaria and closed the siege of modlin Warsaw.
The Polish Army’s attempts to break through from modrin on September 19 and from Praga on September 20 were thwarted.
During this period, the Fourth Army on the right wing of the tenth German army advanced to haium through Lublin and then to khlubeshuf.
The Army established two bridgeheads on the East Bank of the vipuri River and joined the leading forces of the 14th group army in kotsk and zamoshi ć.
On 19 September, the Ministry stopped moving forward.
There is still fierce fighting in the tomashuv zamoshi ć area in the operation area of the 14th group army.
After three days of fighting, four infantry divisions, a motorized brigade and a cavalry brigade in Poland surrendered.
In the forest between jouv and Kamionka, north of remberg, a large Polish army group was surrounded and forced to lay down its arms on September 19.