Under the tenacious resistance of the Soviet army, the German army under Leningrad has become the end of a powerful crossbow.

On September 25, 1941, the German army, which suffered heavy losses, had to turn to defense under the tenacious resistance of the army and people of Leningrad.

The German army’s attempt to occupy Leningrad by force failed.

Hitler saw that it was impossible for his e-flag to be hung at the head of Leningrad, so he decided to tightly blockade Leningrad in an attempt to conquer Leningrad with hunger and terror.

He gritted his teeth and said, “we should wipe Leningrad off the earth.

Even if Leningrad asks for surrender, it will never accept it.

We should carry out large-scale air strikes on Leningrad, especially blow up the water plant there.

” In a vain attempt to cut off the connection between the city and the outside world with brutal bombing and shelling, trapping the whole city to death.

Hitler’s chief of staff Harold gave a vivid explanation of this hunger strategy in his diary in September, He said: “the encirclement around Leningrad has not been tightened to the desired extent.

The Soviet army has concentrated a large number of troops and materials in Leningrad.

Considering the consumption of our power in front of Leningrad, the situation will continue to be tense until hunger plays a role with us.

” In September and October, the German army carried out fierce air strikes on Leningrad.

On October 4 alone, the German army continued air strikes for more than 9 hours.

It should be said that Hitler’s move was very vicious.

Especially after the German army occupied tihewen on November 8, the transportation line of grain from the mainland of the Soviet Union to Leningrad was completely cut off, which plunged 3 million Leningrad soldiers and civilians into an unprecedented hunger “catastrophe”.

The land blockade of Leningrad has led to a sharp deterioration of food supply.

In September and November, the bread quantity of residents decreased five times.

On November 20, it was reduced to the minimum limit: 375 grams per person per day for workers in high-temperature workshops, 250 grams for ordinary workers and technicians, and only 125 grams for staff and children.

To this end, Leningrad paid the precious lives of nearly one million people.

Since the railway traffic between Leningrad and the interior of the Soviet Union was completely cut off, Ladoga lake has become the only water lifeline in Leningrad that can obtain food and all other necessities from the outside world, but now only the middle section of Ladoga lake with a width of about 65 kilometers is left, which is not within the range of German artillery fire.

Ladoga lake, known as “Nevo Lake” in ancient times, covers an area of 184000 square kilometers and is the largest lake in Europe.

It is more than 200 kilometers long from north to South and more than 120 kilometers wide from east to west.

The north bank and northwest Bank of the lake are steep cliffs and rock cliffs, with a depth of 250 meters, while the South Bank of the lake is a low and flat sandy soil layer and beach.

The lake bank is also relatively flat, with a depth of only more than 20 meters.

Before Leningrad was besieged on September 8, the water shipping business of Ladoga lake was mainly passenger transport, not freight.

There are no large-scale modern port facilities and berthing terminals on the East and west sides of the lake, and the throughput of goods is extremely limited.

In addition, the Ladoga Lake in autumn is often filled with heavy fog and howling winds, and German planes hover and strafe over the lake all day, so that many flat bottomed barges loaded with grain often hit the rocks and sank due to strong winds and waves and avoiding air strikes.

Therefore, how to effectively ensure the needs of 3 million soldiers and civilians in the city became a top priority for the Leningrad front army at that time.

If we can not solve the problem of feeding 3 million soldiers and civilians, sticking to Leningrad can only be empty words.

In late November, Ladoga lake began to freeze and water transportation was suspended, which made the food supply in Leningrad more tense.

In this hungry and cold day, the God of death would take people’s lives anytime and anywhere.

Thousands of people died of hunger every day in the city of Leningrad.

For the “masterpiece” created by himself, Hitler shouted triumphantly: “Leningrad will soon be cannibalized!” At this critical juncture of being trapped and dying, the only way out for the military and people of Leningrad is to firmly control the South Bank of Ladoga lake at all costs, and quickly take decisive measures to organize ice transportation.

As early as November 9, the day after the German army occupied tihven, the military committee of the Leningrad front army made a decision to immediately build an ice military highway along the frozen lake near the shlishelburg Bay from the balisova griva station and Ladoga Lake Station on the West Bank to lednevo on the east bank.

However, it is not easy to build a transportation road on the frozen Lake Ladoga.

After a field survey of the icing of Ladoga lake, scientists in Leningrad found that it generally began to freeze from the end of October to the beginning of November in the calm shallow water near the south bank.

The section of the lake where the ice truck transportation line is planned to be built in shlisherburg Bay generally needs to be frozen in mid December, and some places can’t even freeze until new year’s day next year.

In addition, the surface of the ice layer of Ladoga lake is uneven and many potholes.

Especially in the shallow water area, the large ice blocks stacked sometimes form ice mounds up to 5 to 10 meters high, surrounded by a thick layer of snow, so the ice layer under it is thin.

When trucks drive through these places, it is very dangerous, At any time, the ice may crack and even the car and people may fall into the ice hole.

Time waits for no man! People in the besieged Leningrad army and people lie down because of hunger all the time.

They are eager to transport food, fuel, weapons and ammunition from the mainland.

But as of November 16, the thickness of Lake Ladoga’s ice is only 100 mm, which can be barely passed by unloaded horse sledges at most.

To organize large-scale ice truck transportation, the thickness of the ice layer needs to be at least 200 mm.

According to the measurement of hydrologists, when the temperature is 10 degrees below zero, it takes 6 days and nights for the thickness of ice on the lake to reach 200 mm and 12 days and nights for 300 mm.

When the temperature is 15 degrees below zero, it takes 4 days and nights for the ice thickness to reach 200 mm and 8 days and nights for 300 mm.

In the early morning of November 18, the long-awaited northwest wind blew on the Lake Ladoga.

The weather was cold and biting.

At dusk, the temperature suddenly dropped by 12 degrees.

On November 20, the thickness of the ice on the Lake reached 180 mm.

At this time, the military committee of the Leningrad front army thought that the situation was pressing and time was not waiting.

They decided to immediately start experimental transportation with a horse sled on the ice road marked by posts at the risk of life of the road construction exploration team, and transfer the goods stacked in lednevo on the East Bank of the lakeA large amount of grain and other urgently needed materials from the station were quickly transported to balisova griva station and Ladoga Lake Station in the West Bank.

Although the experienced and good drivers carefully selected from the collective farms in the suburbs to drive the horse sledge at that time, many horse sledges fell into the lake due to the rupture of the ice on the first day of ice transportation.

In addition, considering that horse drawn sleigh not only carries less goods, but also consumes feed, especially in case of snowstorm, it is very easy to lose its way and fall into ice holes.

Therefore, this mode of transportation was soon abandoned.

On November 21, the first ice truck transportation trunk line built 12 to 13 kilometers away from the South Bank of Ladoga lake, that is, within the range of German artillery fire in shliselburg, was successfully opened to traffic through the labor of Leningrad army and people.

The next night, the first train team composed of 60 large trucks, carrying goods destined for Leningrad, set out from kabona on the East Bank of Ladoga lake and drove to osinowitz on the West Bank via the ice highway.

It was this ice highway that passed day and night.

In the winter of 1941-1942, Leningrad was in the most difficult period of hunger siege.

It connected the transportation lines on the East and west sides of Ladoga lake and became the only channel for Leningrad to obtain external support.

Therefore, it was praised as their “road of life” by the military and people of Leningrad.

When the “road to life” was just opened to traffic, the ice layer of Ladoga lake was not very solid, and the thickness of the ice layer in some sections was only 240 mm.

When the truck passes, the ice creaks and is in danger of being cracked at any time.

Drivers driving in the cold should not only pay high attention, but also open the door of the cab to jump out of the cab in case of ice crack.

In the 10 days from November 23 to December 1, although the drivers had gone through thousands of hardships, the convoy only transported 800 tons of flour for Leningrad, which was not enough for two days.

However, during this period, 40 drivers fell into ice holes.

On December 9, 1941, although the Leningrad front army, with the cooperation of the Volkhov front army, recovered tihewen at one stroke and greatly shortened the distance of automobile transportation, the transportation situation has not been greatly improved.

This is due to the abnormal climate in this winter, the heavy snow and the howling wind, which often broke the ice layer on the lake, and the lake water seeping from the cracked ice cracks was soon frozen again.

As a result, the lake was as flat as glass, smooth and slippery.

When the car is driving on such ice, not only the wheels often spin and slip, but also the direction is very difficult to grasp.

Sometimes the strong wind will even blow the car loaded with goods five or six meters away from the ice lane.

In addition, in order to destroy the ice transportation, the German army also sent planes to hover over Lake Ladoga and carried out crazy bombing and strafing on the convoy.

The German artillery in shliesherburg simply focused on a section of ice with a width of 5 to 10 kilometers, and immediately sent thousands of high explosive shells, resulting in numerous cracks and craters on the ice, so that the convoy could not pass safely for the time being.

In order to improve the speed of ice transportation and ensure driving safety, the Military Commission of the Leningrad Front Army decided to immediately open up four additional one-way highway lines in the safety zone outside the range of the German artillery in shlisherburg: two vehicles loaded with goods drove from the East Bank of the lake to the West Bank.

Two are for return cars carrying Leningrad residents evacuated to the rear to drive back to the east bank.

Nevertheless, at that time, the goods transported into Leningrad through this only “road of life” were less than 1:3 of the minimum limit, and Leningrad’s dilemma was still not relieved.

In order to further improve the transportation speed, on the one hand, the Leningrad front army sent a large number of anti-aircraft artillery forces to protect the safety of the “road to life”, on the other hand, it sent a large number of capable political cadres to carry out publicity and encouragement among car drivers and road maintenance personnel.

In this ice transportation line called “the road of life”, drivers have to pay a lot of blood and sweat and even precious lives for every kilogram of freight.

In the middle of winter, braving the severe cold of minus 30 or 40 degrees and the strong wind of force 10 or above, they drove on the frozen lake day and night.

On the one hand, they transported grain, fuel and other urgently needed materials into the besieged city, and on the other hand, they evacuated women, children, the wounded, as well as the most important equipment and cultural treasures from the city.

In order to load more and run fast, the drivers tried to drive two back and forth in one day and night, and launched a heated competition with each other.

They crossed the ice transport line of Lake Ladoga four times in 24 hours, with a journey of more than 700 kilometers.

They work hard, eat and sleep in tents on ice, and drive for 16 to 18 hours a day.

Due to the adoption of various powerful measures, the volume of goods transported into Leningrad through the “road of life” of Ladoga lake began to increase day by day, and the speed of freight transportation increased day by day.

With the increasing amount of grain transported into Leningrad, the grain reserves in the city have increased.

In April 1942, zhidanov once said to people with great interest, “well, now I’m a rich man, because I’ve had food for 12 days!” In this way, the legendary Ladoga Lake “road to life” finally enabled the army and people of Leningrad to overcome the threat of hunger, thus completely thwarting Hitler’s criminal plan to trap the leningrads.