in ancient Europe from the 16th world to the 18th century. Although there have been many famous places overseas, there is still an enemy close at hand that makes Europe afraid, that is the Ottoman Turkish Empire. By the 17th century, Ottoman Turkey had fought jihad against Europe for more than 300 years. In the past 300 years, there was a battle in which Europeans rubbed the board of Ottoman Turkey’s ambition, that is the Senta battle. Now let’s learn about this battle.

battle of zenta, in the greater Turkey war, on September 11, 1697, in the TiSA river east of Senta in southern Serbia, the young Austrian general Prince Eugen of Savoy defeated the Ottoman Empire Army crossing the river with a decisive and sudden attack, causing 25000 casualties of the other side with less than 2000 casualties.

in the 16th and 17th centuries, although Europeans have begun extensive overseas colonial conquest all over the world, the enemies close at hand have always frightened Europe. By the end of the 17th century, Ottoman Turkey had carried out jihad against all Europe for 300 years, and a large area of Eastern Europe had been subject to the flag of the new moon. The Holy Roman Empire under the Habsburg dynasty was also the center of all Europe in a sense, directly exposed to Turkey’s iron shoes and artillery.

in 1683, after Habsburg and European coalition forces successfully lifted the siege of Vienna, Western Europe was relieved of the danger of being conquered by Muslims forever, and Eastern Europe seemed to win the hope of returning to the embrace of Christ. From 1683 to 1688, the Habsburg empire achieved brilliant success in a series of sieges in Hungary, Serbia and Transylvania, occupied a large area of territory, and seemed to win a new era of Crusades for a time. But when the war between the Empire and France transferred more troops from Habsburg to the western line, the Turks. They reconquered Serbia, Macedonia and most of Transylvania, and then again marched into Hungary and captured its capital, Belgrade. In 1697, with the end of the war of the European Grand Alliance, the Habsburg royal family transferred its troops to the east line, and the army was under the full command of the newly appointed Grand Admiral of the Imperial Army, Prince Eugen of Savoy.

Prince Eugen assembled his army in Hungary on July 5, 1697. Only 35000 of his 70000 troops are ready for battle. As the Empire’s war funds had been exhausted, Prince Ogan had to borrow money to pay the soldiers’ wages and medical security (the Holy Roman Empire did not have its own standing army, which was composed of professional mercenaries with excellent combat skills but high prices). The Habsburg army consists of Germans, Austrians and Hungarians. The remaining kingdom of Hungary provided a force of 20000 at a critical moment. Excellent light cavalry from Serbia and Croatia also joined the imperial coalition.

when he learned that the Turkish Sultan Mustafa II led his army into Belgrade, Prince Ogan selected 50000 people (16000 cavalry and 34000 infantry, 60 guns) to meet the 80000 Army (90 guns) of Ottoman. On 18 July, Prince Ogan trained his army again in the village of kurut. In August, Ogan sent a war note to the Turks, which agreed that the two sides would have a field battle in petrofawadin, but the Turks refused. Turkey hoped to fight the war with a series of sieges and urban defense. This is the characteristic of Western wars in the 16th and 17th centuries. Due to the revolution of Western fortification technology in early modern times, it is very difficult to conquer the castle. Both belligerents often hope to use the strong city to weaken the strength of their opponents. Only when one side believes that it can win steadily will it take the initiative to seek a field battle, and at this time, the other side will inevitably hide in various cities to avoid a field battle. Although there are many classic field battles in this era, compared with countless sieges, field battles can be said to be a small probability event, which has become something that can be encountered and can not be asked for. Therefore, the ancient way of submitting the war is the inevitable choice of every general seeking war – although this will be directly ignored in most cases.

in a small-scale conflict, the imperial cavalry accidentally captured the Turkish General Kafr Pasha. After learning that the imperial army was approaching, Mustafa II gave up the siege of segde castle and decided to retreat to temesh castle. Prince Ogan boldly gave up his luggage and marched in a hurry, hoping to launch a field battle before the Turks retreated into the castle.

on September 11, 1697, the Ottoman army retreating to the castle tried to cross the tise River (a tributary of the Danube) from the bridge. They did not know that the imperial army was approaching at a speed several times faster than usual. When the Ottoman army crossed the river halfway, the imperial army suddenly appeared from behind them, and 60 cannons roared in unison, opening the prelude to the battle.

accompanied by shelling, a large number of imperial dragon cavalry rode to the front of the Ottoman camp, and then dismounted to shoot. They lined up in a neat line like infantry and fired in volley. The Ottoman army staying at the camp fought back with fire behind the trench. Although there were many Turks with many guns, their free shooting could not resist the volley of Imperial troops. They soon collapsed. When they retreated, they were crowded on the bridge and collided with the reinforcements coming back from the other side of the river. They were unable to move a step and the scene was chaotic. Prince Ogan ordered all the cannons to bombard the bridge. Suddenly, blood and flesh flew on the bridge deck, and the Turkish army suffered heavy casualties. Seeing that the time was ripe, Eugen ordered the cavalry on the left to charge. They defeated the right wing of the Ottoman army, crossed the camp and occupied the bridge. This has led to the complete closure of the Turkish retreat, which has become a tendency to catch a turtle in a jar.

after forming a siege, the imperial infantry line was pressed up and rushed into the Ottoman camp. The two sides launched a cruel hand to hand battle. The yenicheri guards of Ottoman were once the best infantry in the West. Even at the end of the 17th century, they were still one of the best. However, in front of the large-scale excellent infantry trained in mass production in modern Europe, the limited yenicheri was too thin. Other general Turkish armies andThe subordinate army was vulnerable to European soldiers. The fighting turned into a unilateral massacre. In the center of the camp, Turkish officials who had no time to escape were also killed. In the end, more than 20000 Turkish troops were killed in the siege, and thousands of others drowned while crossing the river to escape (only swimming). After the war, only 429 people were killed and 1598 injured in the Imperial Army; The booty included 87 cannons, Sudan’s harem, jewelry and national seal.

due to the failure of the battle, the Ottoman Turks were forced to seek peace. In 1699, the Treaty of kalovci was signed. The Ottoman Empire had to cede Transylvania, Moria, bodolia and almost the whole Ottoman Hungary, and almost the whole central Europe. This was the first time that the Turks ceded their territory. The defeated Mustafa II began to reform, but was deposed within five years. Prince Ogan was promoted to count and began his brilliant military career. This is a great victory, which marks the supremacy of European military in the world. Since then, the Crusaders have not only opposed Islam, but also traveled all over the world.