In South Asia, a large-scale national liberation struggle against British colonial rule broke out in India.
During the first World War, India’s national industry developed to a certain extent, provided a lot of manpower and resources, and 1.
5 million people participated in the war.
Its military expenditure burden ranks second only to Britain within the British Empire.
On March 18, 1919, the colonial authorities promulgated a bill to suppress the Indian national movement, which was formulated by the British judge rolat.
The bill gives the governor special powers to arrest, search and imprison those suspected of subversion without trial, and those arrested are not allowed to ask lawyers to defend, thus arousing protests from all walks of life in India and launching a large-scale anti British struggle.
From March 30, industrial strikes, mass rallies and demonstrations were held in Delhi and major cities across the country, calling for the withdrawal of the bill.
In order to put out the mass protests sweeping across India, the British Empire carried out a bloody massacre of more than 50000 rally people in Amritsar City, Punjab province on April 13.
More than 1200 people were killed and more than 2000 injured on the spot.
The whole country of India was shocked and the anti imperialist struggle was further upsurge.
In Punjab province, people burned government organs and buildings, clashed with the police and expanded to 50 cities and regions within two days.
Workers’ strike and rural unrest went beyond the principle of Non Violence advocated by the chairman of the Congress party at that time.
As Gandhi ordered to stop it, the mass anti imperialist struggle temporarily subsided on April 18.
In March 1920, the colonial government released the investigation results of the “Amritsar incident”, which exonerated the on-site commander who caused the tragedy.
This has once again aroused great dissatisfaction among the Indian people.
In the autumn of 1920, the Congress Party passed Gandhi’s non violent non cooperation plan, stipulating that all Indians should refuse the title of official Baron issued by the British government.
Refuse to work in the courts and the government.
Do not enter British schools and boycott British goods.
General refusal to pay taxes, etc.
Since then, the non cooperation movement has been widely carried out in India, boycotting the parliamentary elections held in October 1920 and the central Legislative Council in February 1921.
From November 1921 to March 1922, 19498 political prisoners were handed over to the court for trial, of which 15337 were sentenced.
As a result of the violent repression of the colonial authorities, the non cooperation movement has increasingly gone beyond the boundaries of non violence.
Farmers in many places attacked the landlord’s manor, seized grain and refused to pay land rent.
The Indian workers’ movement was also on the rise, which terrified the British colonial authorities.
On the night of March 20, 1929, the British colonial authorities arrested 31 famous Indian trade union leaders and a British journalist in major cities in India.
Among those arrested were famous leaders and activists of the Indian Trade Union Congress, the red flag trade union, the greater Indian peninsula railway trade union, the All India railway workers’ Federation, and trade union federations in the United province and Bangladesh province.
The colonial authorities escorted them to Millat, a small town far from the industrial center northeast of Delhi, for trial.
The prosecutor filed a public prosecution in accordance with the criminal law, accusing the arrested persons of “plotting to make the king lose his rule over India” and “plotting to subvert the Indian government by criminal force”.
The evidence is that they “incite labor and capital confrontation”, “establish workers and peasants’ party, Youth League, trade union, etc.
” and “encourage strike”.
The judge of the high court held that the defendant had not engaged in any obvious illegal act.
The prosecutor declared: “in this case, it is unnecessary to prove whether the defendant has indeed taken any action, as long as it can prove the conspiracy.
” The colonial authorities deliberately delayed the trial without evidence for three and a half years.
The Indian people have also issued strong protests.
Defense committees have been established in all India and major industrial central cities, and protest rallies and demonstrations have been held repeatedly throughout India.
International progressive public opinion has also expressed support for those under trial.
With regard to the trial, the general assembly of the British Labour Party and the Confederation of trade unions acknowledged in a pamphlet issued in 1933: “all the circumstances of the whole trial and the court can not be proved correct from a legal point of view, but shamefully violated the code.
” In December 1929, the Lahore Congress of the Congress Party passed a resolution on “striving for complete independence of India”, declaring January 26 as independence day.
In March 1930, After Gandhi launched the second non cooperation movement, India set off a new climax of the anti British struggle.
On April 18, people in Chittagong, Bangladesh province held a demonstration in the city center.
That night, the “Chittagong Indian Republic Army” led by surjaya Sen attacked the British Arsenal and police barracks, killed more than guards and launched an armed uprising.
The Chittagong people’s uprising was suppressed, and dozens of members and main leaders of the “Republican Army” were arrested and tried.
In April 1930, the British colonial authorities arrested almost all the leaders of the Indian Congress party, which further stimulated the people’s resistance.
On April 20, the movement of non cooperation began in Peshawar, the center of India’s northwest province.
A large number of farmers and seasonal workers gathered in Peshawar to hold demonstrations, factories, institutions and schools were suspended, and anti British rallies were held everywhere.
As the military and police opened fire on the masses, there was bloodshed.
On the morning of the 23rd, a group of demonstrators in Peshawar blocked the truck escorting the arrested and clashed with the police, so the angry masses turned the demonstration into an armed uprising.
They burned down British armored vehicles and built barricades.
Under the influence of the insurgents, the Hindu soldiers of the two battalions of the first royal halwa regiment refused to shoot at the masses and handed over their weapons to the insurgents.
The British colonial authorities were very alarmed and hurried to evacuate Peshawar.
The insurgents controlled Peshawar for two weeks.
The news of Peshawar uprising quickly spread all over the country, and people all over the country rose to support it.
On May 3, Peshawar day was held in major cities in Punjab and other provinces.
The Sikhs and barkers of the border tribe also organized volunteer teams to reinforce them, but they were intercepted by the British army.
On May 8, the people of saulapur City, the textile industry center of Mumbai Province, held a demonstration.
The police opened fire on the procession.
The demonstrators immediately fought back and held an uprising on May 8.
Fearing that the uprising would have an impact on other cities, the British colonial authorities quickly mobilized about 2000 British troops to fight back against the insurgents.
The uprising people persisted in fighting for several days.
On May 16, members of the uprising regime were arrested and the uprising team was finally suppressed. Shao.