I.

characteristics and origin of caste system caste system is an important feature of Indian society.

In the ancient history of other parts of the world, caste system also existed, but India’s caste system is the most strict and has existed for the longest time.

Until today, it still affects all aspects of Indian society, such as politics, economy, culture and so on.

Caste system is a type of human hierarchy and the product of class society.

As pointed out: “hierarchy is based on the social division into classes, and hierarchy is a form of class difference.

” Therefore, the caste system is essentially a social system that maintains class oppression and class exploitation.

Guri, an Indian scholar specializing in the caste system, summarized the characteristics of the caste system into the following six points: 1 Social segregation. 2. Hierarchy. 3. Dietary and social restrictions. 4. Different groups have different secular and religious rights. 5. Lack of freedom to choose an occupation. 6. Various restrictions on marriage.

Generally speaking, the above characteristics have existed more or less in the hierarchical systems in other parts of the world, but they are not as severe as the Indian caste system.

The constraints on people’s production activities and social life are not as severe as the caste system in terms of scope and degree.

In rural India, the dwellings of different castes living in the same village are separated.

Various castes have their own living areas.

For example, if the Brahman lives at the head of the village, the Dalit should live at the end of the village.

There is a distance between the two.

The Dalit is not allowed to enter the house of the Brahman, and the Brahman will not pass through the section where the Dalit lives, otherwise it may be attacked by cow dung and urine.

According to the caste system, different castes cannot intermarry.

Each caste is often divided into several small groups of exogamy, called gotra or Goth.

People belonging to the same gotra are considered to be from the same ancestor and cannot intermarry.

Therefore, intermarriage is limited to different gotra of the same surname.

Moreover, the caste system also strictly prohibits general social exchanges between different castes.

Therefore, caste identities are different.

Even if they live in the same village, they hear the sound of chickens and dogs and do not communicate with each other in old age and death.

The caste system takes the concept of purity and filth as its own basis.

According to this concept, people are born unequal.

Blood is divided into purity and filth.

Brahmans are born with pure and noble blood, while Dalits are born with filth and lowly.

Moreover, the filth of low castes may be transmitted to high castes through food and mutual contact, making high castes polluted and dirty people.

If the high caste accidentally eats the Dalit’s food and touches the Dalit’s body, they are considered to be polluted.

Therefore, some ceremony must be held to remove this pollution, usually drinking cow urine as a way to remove the pollution.

In the Indian Buddhist story, it was said that a man who took a Lothario ate chandara food and was very regretful.

He thought that it was not commensurate with his identity.

He was so sad that he went into the forest and died alone.

In some parts of India, even the shadow and footprints of Dalits may pollute other castes.

For example, in Puna city in western India, Dalits are not allowed to enter the gate of Puna city before 9 a.m. and after 3 a.m. because the shadow of the sun on people is too long and easy to touch the Brahman.

When the untouchables see the Brahman, they must m lie on the roadside and let the Brahman pass first.

The untouchables must also carry tiles and brooms.

The pots are hung around their necks to spit, and the brooms are used to sweep the floor, so as not to stain the road they walk on.

The concept of purity and filth exists not only between Brahmans and Dalits, but also between Brahmans and non Brahmans, between non Brahmans and Dalits, and even within Dalits.

It is used as the standard for dividing the level.

All surnames regard those with lower status than their own caste as filthy people.

There are three factors that determine a person’s purity and turbidity: occupation, diet and customs.

Brahman takes studying Classics and presiding over religious ceremonies as his traditional occupation, and is between man and God.

Therefore, it is pure and noble, and its status is the highest.

The castes engaged in fishing, oil extraction, slaughtering, hairdressing, laundry and delivery have the lowest status, because they “harm” animal and plant life and contact dirty things.

Purity and filth also depend on the food you eat.

Vegetarians have the highest status.

Vegetarianism is a sign of Brahman.

Meat eaters are filthy, and only Dalits eat pork.

Purity and filth are also reflected in other living customs, such as child marriage in high castes and self Immolation by widows, while widows are allowed to remarry in low castes.

Low castes are not free to purify themselves by changing their occupations, food and customs, so as to improve their caste status.

Because it is clear that low castes do not become low castes because of their occupation, food and customs.

On the contrary, they engage in occupations despised by others because they are enslaved by others.

Eating meat is not common, and India has a hot climate.

Under the condition of lack of freezing and preservation, meat is very perishable.

Eating meat is a dangerous thing.

Therefore, there is class oppression before the concept of purity and profanity.

This absurd theory is completely fabricated by the high castes to maintain their slavery to the low castes.

At the beginning of the emergence of the caste system, there was no pure and dirty concept.

Although until today, the specific age of the caste system has not been determined, it can be sure that it will not be later than 1000 BC, because there are records about castes in Indian religious classics around 1000 BC.

Among them, the most widely spread is the prusha hymn in Section 90 of volume 10 of Rigveda, which sings: when the gods divide prusha, How many shares did they divide him into? What’s his mouth? What are his arms? What are his thighs and feet called? The Brahman is his mouth, his arms become rajania, his thighs become barkers, and his feet become Sudras.

The moon rose from his heart, created the sun from his eyes, created the Thor Indra and Agni from his mouth, and generated the wind from his breath.

This is the Indian “Genesis”.

It tells us that there were caste differences in Indian society at that time, and believed that all castes were as old as everything in the universe.

This hymn also tells us in vivid language that, just as the functions of various parts of human organs are different, various surnames also have different social functions in society, and this metaphor is very consistent with the social situation at that time.

Brahmans are priests and preside overReligious rituals, only they can understand religious classics, which are handed down from generation to generation by mouth and ear.

Using the mouth, the upper organ of the human body, to describe Brahman, not only shows its social function, but also reflects his social status.

Lagania is usually called chadili.

They are warriors.

They often have to fight with different races and tribes with weapons.

Therefore, they are as important as the right arm of the human body to a social group.

When they are engaged in business, they must move their legs diligently, whether Jia Qian has or not, and pursue far and near profits.

Shoudatura is called “shoudatura among human beings and horses among animals.

They are all means of transportation”.

They are just talking tools.

They are engaged in heavy production and labor.

They are at the lowest level of society, just like the feet at the bottom of the human body, supporting the survival of the whole society.

From 1000 BC to 500 BC, the highly developed Aryans in Indian society developed from northwest India to the Ganges River Basin.

In the process of developing the Ganges River Basin, on the one hand, they fought against nature and reclaimed jungle swamps.

On the other hand, they continue to conquer the local indigenous people.

Aryans were originally nomadic people with strong blood ties and weak geographical concepts.

They were not good at and unwilling to assimilate other tribes, especially the conquered of different races, into their own social groups.

They preferred to enslave them as an independent social group as a whole.

Therefore, with the continuous conquest and development of the Ganges River Basin, Aryans changed from nomadic life to agricultural life, and mobile tribal organizations into fixed village communities.

However, there are still clear boundaries between the conqueror and the conquered, geographical relations can not completely replace blood relations, and people’s blood relations still play a decisive role in social life.

This is not a unique phenomenon in Indian society.

Looking at the development process of the whole world history, the tribal conquest war has roughly two results: one is to turn the conquered into slaves and bring them into the conqueror’s own social organization.

The other is that although the conquered were reduced to slavery, they were given some autonomy to let the conquered tribes still be managed by their own chiefs and follow their ancient habits.

The Aryans of India adopted the latter approach when dealing with the relationship with the conquered tribes.

At this time, due to the fact that a large number of conquered people were collectively referred to as the sudara, the di position of the sudara further deteriorated, and the sudara was essentially different from the first three castes in skin color and race.

Therefore, the word “Verna” is used to address castes.

Verna is Sanskrit, which means color quality.

The first three kinds of Verna have high nose with self skin, which is obviously Aryan, while the sudra is described as black skin and flat nose, which is obviously indigenous to India.

The first three kinds of people are called regenerators, who have the right to regenerate after death.

The sudra is a lifelong family and has no right to regenerate.

At this time, the caste system has an obvious nature of racial oppression.

With the conquering activities of Aryans, the caste system itself is also changing.

A concept of purity and filth is increasingly widely accepted by everyone.

Most of India is located between the Tropic of cancer and the equator.

The climate is hot, food is easy to rot, infectious diseases are prevalent, and the mortality rate is very high.

In ancient times, there was a lack of medical and health conditions.

People can only prevent the spread of diseases by reducing mutual contact.

For their own survival, all clans have made the strictest restrictions on the communication between food and other clans, And thus produce the concept of purity and turbidity.

Aryans are using this concept as a tool to maintain the caste system.

The concept of purity and filth has created a new social class in society – untouchable people, that is, Dalits.

Some of these Dalits are the original sudara, some are expelled from the caste in violation of the caste system, but most of them are indian indigenous tribes that have been conquered successively.

The emergence of Dalit and untouchable system makes the Indian caste system fundamentally different from the hierarchical system in other parts of the world (see Chapter III of Part V for details).

The caste system has experienced a long historical process from the Ganges River basin to the whole South Asian subcontinent.

India’s geographical environment is extremely complex, and the political and economic development of various regions is uneven.

After the Aryans settled in the Ganges River Basin, the momentum of advancing southward has been greatly weakened, and the wendia mountain has blocked the momentum of their conquest.

Until today, the wendia mountain is still the watershed of Indian North-South culture.

Nevertheless, the process of assimilation proceeded slowly.

In fact, Indian history is also a history of tribes being assimilated by Hinduism and caste system.

There are roughly two ways of assimilation: one is that the tribes themselves divide into priests, warriors and civilian groups.

They accept Hinduism and caste system, and produce Brahmans, non Brahmans and Untouchables in the tribes.

The other is that the rulers of the dynasty rewarded the conquered villages and people to the Brahman, who implemented the caste system in the new area.

For example, in Tangier County, Tamil Nadu state in southern India, there were 5783 villages in modern times, of which 1744 villages were occupied by Brahmans, who collectively reduced local residents to low castes and Dalits.

No matter which way of assimilation, the assimilated tribes maintain great independence.

The tribal group is the lotus unit of people’s social life.

The affairs in the tribe are still handled by the tribal leaders.

Each tribe has its own customs and habits.

As long as the conquered tribe provides various services, the external Brahmans and other conquerors do not interfere in the specific affairs in the conquered tribe.

Over time, more and more tribes in southern India have been assimilated by Hinduism and caste system.

The process of assimilation has led to some changes in the caste system itself.

The names of castes are diversified, and the hierarchical structure of castes is becoming more complex.

With the development of social productive forces, the division of labor is more refined, and various new occupations appear one after another.

The emergence of new occupational groups means the emergence of new caste groups.

Some castes take professional names as their caste names, such as Bania (merchant) caste, Jat (cultivator) caste and KISAN (farmer) caste.

With the same Brahman caste, due to different Hindu sects and different regions, they often use sect names and regional names as their caste names.

More new caste groups directly call their castes by tribal names, such as dum, Mahal, Nayar and Malata.

They were all tribal names.

Their number is millions, but only a few hundred, mostly no more than 200000.

Therefore, in the later caste system, it is oftenReplace Verna with the word “^ ti”.

^ Ti means tribe in Indian language.

People often use ^ Ti to call different caste groups in India.

It is estimated that there are about 3000 ^ Ti in India.

India’s caste system has been nearly 3000 years since its emergence.

In this long history, although it has undergone many changes, its essential content has not changed, and some aspects are even more and more severe.

The reasons for the long-term existence of Indian caste system are as follows: 1 Formulate various strict regulations and restrictions and impose severe punishment on violators.

Under the caste system, the punishment for violating the caste regulations is very strict, and the violators of low God caste even have their lives in danger.

“Political affairs theory” stipulates: if the sudra calls himself a Brahman, he should blind his eyes with poison or impose a fine of 800 Panas.

If he insults or wrongfully beats a Brahman, cut off the body he used to beat.

If the woman raped him, she would burn him.

For higher castes, violation of caste regulations will be expelled from the caste.

In his youth, Mahatma was expelled from the caste by the caste patriarch for insisting on studying in Britain.

The consequences of a person being expelled from the caste are very serious.2. The long-standing existence of India’s caste system also lies in its maintenance by Hinduism.

85% of India’s people believe in Hinduism, which openly proclaims that people are born unequal.

Hinduism believes that people’s birth is predestined in their previous lives, and the birth of low caste is the result of evil in their previous lives.

Only in this life and this life, they can bear to obey the slavery and domination of high caste, and they can have a better birth in the afterlife.

The purpose of the high caste to publicize this theory is obvious, and the majority of low-level castes living in the narrow circle of village communities also believe it.

Therefore, there is a lack of large-scale organized struggle of low castes against high castes in Indian history.

This theory makes the Indian people form a philosophy of being self-centered and independent from the world, which has influenced and bound the Indian people’s resistance spirit so far.

After being wronged, low castes often kneel at the head of the village, raise Sha over their heads and pray for justice.

When famine began, lower castes would rather starve to death than accept food from other castes.

In the great famine of 1943, nearly ten million people starved to death, but there was no food grab like the rice riots in Japan.

Some people in a village in India witnessed that the lower castes in the village were unfortunately burned down by fire and then suffered heavy rain.

However, these castes would rather struggle in the heavy rain than violate the caste system and stand under the eaves of the upper caste to take shelter from the rain.3. The long-term existence of caste system shows that clan blood relationship is still very important in Indian social life, and the firmness of Indian clan blood relationship is related to the extremely underdeveloped commodity economy of Indian society.

Engels analyzed the disintegration of clan relations in Athens When the Athenian state came into being, it brilliantly pointed out: “The resulting increasingly developed monetary economy, like corrosive acids, has penetrated into the traditional way of life of rural communes based on the natural economy.

The clan system is absolutely incompatible with the monetary economy.

In India, the commodity economy is underdeveloped, and rural communes exist for a long time, which did not break down until the British rule.

Rural communes provide a reliable basis for the long-term existence of the caste system The economic foundation of the country. “.4. Finally, the long-standing existence of the caste system is also related to the lack of long-term political unity in India.

The caste system is contradictory to the unified empire.

The founders and defenders of a unified empire must try to eliminate the caste system.

Asoka is the first emperor in Indian history to establish a unified empire in India.

He and Chinese both lived in the third century BC.

Asoka holds a critical attitude towards the caste system.

What he said “all subjects are my children” is not only a reflection of his imperial thought, but also a negation of the caste system.

He worships Buddhism because Buddhism advocates the equality of all beings and opposes the privilege of Brahman.

The existence of a Brahman group with supreme power is obviously not conducive to his centralization of power.

However, the result of India’s historical development is that the peacock Empire soon declined, Buddhism declined sharply in Indian society, and Hinduism, which maintains the caste system, has unified Indian Society for a long time, The unified Indian Dynasty is a flash in the pan.

Indian society has been divided for a long time, and the caste system is becoming more and more strict. II. The evolution of modern caste system India has experienced many foreign invasions in its history.

Among the many invaders, the British are the first nation with a higher degree of civilization than India.

It has not been assimilated by the ancient Indian civilization, but also has a lack of change due to the huge political and economic forces generated by its capitalist development The relatively stagnant Indian society has caused an unprecedented impact.

Under the impact of this wave, the caste system, the most important feature of Indian society, is bound to change.

In order to strengthen their need for Indian rule, the British have issued many decrees and implemented a series of reforms in the past 200 years, which have had varying degrees of impact on the caste system.

As the supreme ruler of India, the British cannot tolerate the supremacy of Brahman in Indian society.

The British deprived the Brahman of his power as the legislator and judicial man of Indian society.

Although at the beginning of ruling India, the British compiled the customs and practices of Hinduism as a reference for justice, and also expressed respect for Indian customary law, with the establishment of courts at all levels in India and the promulgation of European civil law and criminal law, As a result, the Brahman’s power was greatly weakened.

The British often go beyond the dominant caste of the village and appoint the police power, judicial power and land expropriation power to their appointed village head.

The British also denied the Brahman’s monopoly on sacrifice and religious ceremonies.

According to the law, every family can invite anyone they like to preside over the religious sacrifice ceremony for them.

Brahman protested against this, but to no avail.

For thousands of years, the supremacy of Brahmans in society is largely due to their religious authority and social legislators and jurors.

The loss of these privileges will inevitably lead to the decline of Brahmans’ status.

The British set up western schools in India.

In principle, any caste, regardless of high or low, can enter the school as long as they have money.

The British made it clear that schools funded by the government should not prevent children of lower castes from attending school.

Under British rule, even the lowest caste, the children of DalitsCaste discrimination is an essential part of people’s daily life.

What happens in the annual bathing in the Ganges can well illustrate the influence of caste concept on Indians.

Hindus go to the Ganges to bathe every year.

This is a religious activity.

Because they are unwilling to bathe with different castes, they often quarrel about which caste comes first and which caste comes later, resulting in very chaotic order during this activity, The arahabad high court had to intervene and schedule the time of descent of various castes according to their caste status.

Although the Indian constitution expressly stipulates that caste discrimination is an offence, the courts, as the judiciary, have to do illegal things by themselves, which can be seen from the strength of traditional customary forces.

In this regard, the late Prime Minister Nehru sighed: “we say we oppose sectarianism, casteism and localism.

However, you clearly know how much we have been poisoned by them in our bones.

Who of us, you or me, has completely got rid of these things.

” In modern times, an important feature of the existence and change of caste and caste system is the rise of middle caste.

Some of them belong to farming castes.

They own land and carry out farming and management by themselves.

They are diligent and have farming experience.

They are good at learning and absorbing new technologies.

They are handy in the ocean of commodity economy.

In the two world wars, with the rise of food prices, he made some money, bought some land and became a new landlord and new rich farmer in the countryside.

The Jia special surname in northern India is the most typical representative.

The changes of economic conditions have prompted the middle castes to put forward the requirements of changing their social status accordingly.

These demands were first put forward by the individual castes who got rich first.

The way to use them is usually to create public opinion first, saying that their ancestors used to be chugao caste, but later their status declined for some reason.

Now they change their living habits again and act according to the standards of Gao caste.

In this way, they can obtain the opinions of Gao caste and achieve the purpose of improving their caste identity, Indian scholars call this phenomenon “Sanskrit”.

Some castes did achieve their goals through this method.

For example, in Tamil Nadu region, there was a caste with wine making as its profession.

Originally, its social status was low.

During the British rule, it received a wine making business license, made a fortune, bought land, and later stopped making wine and became a farming caste.

Therefore, they proposed to change their original caste identity, Claim to be of the same rank as a higher caste.

They did not publicly refute their claims, because they were richer than most non Brahmans, gave many gifts to the village temple, many villagers owed them debts, and they also participated in the management of local affairs.

Therefore, their demands were actually acquiesced by everyone.

The middle castes increase their political power by organizing their own political parties or joining the Congress party.

The Justice Party and the Dravida alliance, which have emerged successively in the south, are non Brahman led political party organizations aimed at competing for power with Brahmans.

After the first World War, the number of members from middle castes in the Congress party increased sharply.

By the time of independence, many grass-roots organizations of the Congress Party had been controlled by middle castes.

To sum up, we can see that from the period of British rule until after independence, in order to compete for political and economic interests in society, castes are gradually becoming the basis of political organizations and political forces, so that castes have new functions and roles in politics and become tools of political struggle.

Therefore, many caste groups in Indian society are combined into three fire camps: high caste, medium caste and low caste.

In modern times, high-level castes still retained their dominant position in society, but this advantage gradually lost with the increasing rise of middle-level castes.

Middle-level castes have become a powerful force in today’s Indian political negotiations.

Low-level castes are still in a backward state, and their gap with high-level castes and middle castes has not narrowed but widened. III. the caste system is an obstacle to India’s modernization.

India is an ancient civilization with a history of thousands of years.

She has made great contributions to human thought, culture, science and technology.

However, the long-standing caste system has brought disastrous consequences to Indian society.

First of all, the concept of purity and filth has poisoned the hearts of every Indian, resulting in serious exclusion among people living in Indian society, making Indians lack compassion for their compatriots.

In modern times, a western tourist once witnessed such a tragic picture in India: “a man who went out has been ill on the village road for more than ten days.

Because no one can know what caste he is, no one takes care of him, and the whole village watched him die.

” This mutual exclusion hinders the formation of the common national consciousness of the Indian people.

In India, people living in the same geographical area have the same skin color, common language, common religious belief, and have formed common living habits.

They should have the conditions to form a nation.

However, the caste system hinders people’s communication and contact with each other, resulting in the lack of cohesion in the community and the formation of common national consciousness.

For example, in Maharashtra, it is hard to say that there are any differences in race, color, language, religious belief and living habits among Brahmans, Malata and Mahal, but they only recognize their caste attribute and cannot have a common national consciousness.

The same is true of people in the same region, and there is no way to talk about the unity between different regions and different nationalities.

Until modern times, India failed to form a unified national consciousness.

Due to the lack of unified national consciousness, India can not organize a strong force to resist foreign aggression in the face of foreign invasion, resulting in continuous foreign invasion in history.

Take the British conquest of India in modern times as an example.

When the British East India Company conquered India, there were only more than 10000 troops.

The British could conquer India with a vast territory and large population by relying on these few troops, mainly relying on the political strategy of disintegration.

The British not only provoked the three most powerful local forces in India at that time: malat alliance, maisol and Hyderabad to kill each other, but also took advantage of the dissatisfaction of low castes with high castes to absorb low castes to fight for them.

For example, Mahal, the largest Dalit caste in Maharashtra, many of whom joined the British army, It played an important role in the battle to capture pashwa in May 1818.

Therefore, Marx said:“Since there is not only the opposition between Muslims and Hindus in a country, but also the opposition between tribes, castes and castes, and since a society is based on the balance of universal mutual exclusion and inherent isolation of all its members, isn’t such a country and society destined to be the booty of the aggressor? ” After India’s independence, the consistent goal of the ruling Congress government is to lead India to the road of modernization, but the caste system hinders the implementation of the modernization policy of the Congress government.

Modernization requires a stable domestic environment.

After independence, India has been experiencing caste conflicts, sectarian conflicts and ethnic conflicts.

It goes without saying that the caste conflict is caused by the God surname system.

Sectarian conflict and ethnic conflict are closely related to the contradiction of the same surname.

The biggest sectarian conflict in India is the Indo Hui conflict, but in fact, the ancestors of Muslims in India are mostly Hindus, and many are lower castes who convert to Islam under the oppression of higher castes.

Genna, the founding father of Pakistan, whose ancestors were Hindus.

Had it not been for the caste system, Indian Muslims would not have accounted for a quarter of India’s population in hundreds of years.

Gandhi therefore said, “it is the Hindus themselves who have brought Muslims to this number.

” Although Hindus still account for the majority of the population, the caste system has left Hindus in a mess.

This situation makes Hindu fanatics extremely worried.

On the one hand, they desperately advocated that “India is a Hindu India” and forcibly prevented lower castes from converting to Islam.

On the other hand, they continue to oppress lower castes.

Conflicts between many Hindus and Muslims in India today often take place against this background.

The caste system prevents Indian farmers from uniting to fight for land.

At the beginning of India’s independence, the struggle of farmers to seize the land of landlords broke out in the batrangana region of Hyderabad.

At that time, the Communist Party of India directly led the struggle.

In this struggle, the influence of caste played a very bad role, and the land of many Kama landlords was not touched, because the leaders of the Communist Party of trengana and most of its members who led the struggle at that time came from the Kama caste.

In this class struggle, the landlords took advantage of this opportunity to undermine the unity of the peasants.

Caste prejudice made it very difficult for the Communist Party of India to organize peasant associations in rural areas.

In India, it is difficult to unite the poor farm labourers of different castes into a unified peasant association.

The low castes complain that the high caste controls the peasant association, while the poor farm labourers of the high and middle castes are unwilling to join the same peasant association with the Dalits.

In 1954, a document of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of India said: “most agricultural employees belong to backward castes in society, but it is difficult to directly absorb them and let them actively participate in farmers’ associations with other farmers.

Doing so will cause farmers of other castes to withdraw from farmers’ associations in large numbers”.

A Dalit leader complained that most communist leaders are Brahmans.

Wherever the Brahmans are, whether the Communist Party or the Congress party, they engage in caste discrimination.

American scholar F.R. Frankel made some research on India’s political economy in the three decades from 1947 to 1977, and came to the conclusion that: “the prerequisite for economic development is to destroy the old religious ideas, cultural models and social structure.

India’s economic problems can be solved only by directly attacking the castes and classes with property.

” Caste concept and caste relations also affect the development of urban economy in India.

Capitalism advocates free competition, talent flow and scientific management, but the caste system hinders the implementation of these principles.

When looking for a job, caste background is very important.

A person’s success or failure in job hunting is often regarded as the honor or disgrace of the whole caste.

Since the leadership of enterprises is dominated by senior or intermediate castes, people from these castes usually enjoy more opportunities than those from lower castes when recruiting.

The occupations with better treatment in society are mostly occupied by high castes.

Banking is regarded as an ideal profession in capitalist society.

The survey results of the staff of three nationalized banks in korapur City, Maharashtra show that there are 115 employees in these three banks, of which 93 are Brahmans and kassta, and only 22 belong to other castes.

Of these 22, 18 are low-level employees who do things such as sweeping the floor Errands or something.

Lower castes are often discriminated against by other castes in enterprises, and it is difficult for them to get promoted.

A lower caste employee of Kolar gold mine complained that: the mine officials do not promote us.

I have worked in the mine for 30 years, and now I can’t get promoted, but some people have been promoted just because they are Brahmans for only five or six years, There is no promotion based on everyone’s ability.

A person’s promotion depends on his caste background and the temporary preference of superior officials.

In India’s largest gold mine, most of the mining underground are lower castes, while those working on the ground are higher castes.

In an industrial field belonging to one caste group, it is almost impossible for people of other castes to enter the decision-making level.

After India’s independence, a small number of low caste children went to college and received higher education.

They entered factories and enterprises to undertake technical work, but workers from high castes are often unwilling to obey their command.

In addition, the preferential treatment and protection policy implemented by the Weida party government has reserved a certain proportion of job opportunities to Dalits, which has played a certain role in improving the situation of some Dalits.

However, this policy has caused dissatisfaction among other castes, and middle castes in some places have also asked for reserved places for them to support muyin to meet the requirements of these middle castes, As a result, the reserved quota accounts for 50% of the total employment opportunities, which is obviously unfavorable to the development of enterprises.

The caste system has also affected the process of political democratization in India.

Compared with other countries in Asia and Africa, India has a higher degree of political democratization.

However, it would be wrong to believe that India has achieved political modernization, because the traditional caste factor still plays an important role in today’s Indian political life.

Most political parties in India lack a clear program.

In order to win votes, each party may have different slogans and programs in different regions.

The vast majority of India’s population are farmers, and rural votes are crucial to every political party, and farmersVoting often depends on their caste awareness and tends to vote for candidates who represent their caste interests.

Therefore, before the general election, each party must carefully study the caste forces in various regions and strive to recruit Party members from the local dominant castes.

During the general election, Party members with prestige in the local dominant castes should be selected as candidates.

As a result, on the one hand, the person pushed as a candidate is not necessarily an elite in the party, but he has appeal within the caste.

On the other hand, once these people are elected into Indian politics, they will inevitably consider the interests of the caste associations that support him in their future actions, so as to bring a strong caste color to Indian politics.

The caste factor has made remarkable changes in the composition of Indian politicians before and after independence.

Before independence, most of the leaders of the Congress party were freelancers who lived in cities and had little contact with land.

After independence, the number of rural representatives in the leadership of the Congress party increased sharply, and these people have a stronger caste color than freelancers.

An Indian scholar who studies political issues sighed: “with the passage of time, leaders with foresight and representing the interests of the wider masses emerging from the movement for freedom are giving way to those political newcomers with narrow regionalism and strong caste color”.

When Nehru was in power, he tried to eliminate the influence of caste in Indian politics.

In 1952, Nehru, in his capacity as chairman of the Congress party, compared with the caste problem existing in the government of har state: in the future, anyone who considers and acts with caste prejudice will be expelled from the party.

Soon, the Congress Party of Bihar won the general election.

The reason for winning was that they used caste feelings to gain support in dominating castes.

At this time, Nehru not only did not criticize and punish them, but congratulated them.

In his congratulatory letter, he revised his previous words: “it is OK to be proud of his caste, origin and descent within a limited range, and it is bad only to go beyond a certain range”.

Other Indian leaders often seek caste support without ambiguity.

Prasad, a former president of India, has not severed ties with the All India kayasta conference, an organization with the same surname, for decades, and once served as the chairman of this organization.

Charan Singh, who was the Prime Minister of India when the people’s party was in power, openly claimed that he was the representative of the middle caste.

Some people described him as: considering the caste factor, the employer must come from the countryside, have enough land and be a rich farmer.

If a Brahman appears in the list, he often has to delete it.

When he was criticized for accepting a caste grant, the late Congress Party elder Barthel replied that he would always be proud of being a patidar caste.

Not only politicians are closely related to the same surname, but other upper class figures in Indian society also maintain close contact with the same surname.

An Indian scholar believes that “for those upper class figures in China, caste background is still the decisive factor, whether they are hot political leaders, senior officials, senior generals, senior intellectuals and all those who affect political decision-making are no exception”.

This so-called caste politics has played an increasingly prominent role in the activities of political parties at the state level in recent years.

This phenomenon occurred in most of the 11 State Council elections in March 1985.

For example, the Gujarat Congress Party (UK) organized a coalition of shatili, Dalits, indigenous tribes and Muslims in the state, and reserved 18% of the election places in the government and schools for scheduled castes and low castes, thus enabling the party to achieve excellent results in the election.

It is precisely for this reason that in the recent months, the struggle between high castes and low castes was triggered, which became the fuse for the resignation of the chief minister.

In Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, the takur and Brahman castes fought fiercely for the leadership of the state Congress Party (UK).

The Dalit majority Association won 13.

4% of the vote in Uttar Pradesh elections and increased to 26.

7% in the state by election in March 1987.

One of its women candidates won 125000 votes in the by election of seats in the people’s house, second only to the elected candidate of the National Congress Party (UK).

In Karnataka, the chief minister (Hagrid, Brahman caste) weakened the influence of the two ruling castes in the people’s Party (ukaliga and lingaya) by flattering the low castes.

He included all 92% of the population in the low caste list, of which those with an annual income of less than 10000 rupees can enjoy the preferential treatment of the retention policy.

In Andhra Pradesh, the ruling talugu township party increased the number of reserved places for the activities of the Congress Party (UK) in low castes, tit for tat with the high caste organizations in the Congress Party (UK), and established organizations to support this reservation policy.

The cause of culture, education and health is of great significance to the future of a country and nation.

The influence of the caste system has even penetrated into the cause of culture and education in India today.

All over India, there are not only various caste cultural associations, but also many caste universities, such as Brahman University, linluoyat University, kayasta University and so on.

These universities only recruit children of their own caste.

Although some universities are not exclusive to a certain caste, their departments are controlled by different castes.

For example, Patna university with 15000 students in the capital of biharir state, the departments of history, geography and biology are controlled by the kayasta caste, the departments of politics and philosophy are controlled by the Brahman caste, and the middle caste controls the Department of business and the Department of English.

In 1978, caste conflict was also caused for the name of a university in Maharashtra.

The Malata caste wanted to name the University Malata University, and the Dalits asked to name the University andebeka University.

Andebeka, the late Dalit leader, was one of the founders of the University.

Later, the authorities proposed to name the reconciliation scheme “Malata andebeka University”.

In today’s India, although the high caste can no longer brazenly block the enrollment of children of low castes, the phenomenon of high caste discrimination against children of low castes still occurs frequently.

Students of high castes even dare to publicly insult teachers of low caste origin.

The intra caste marriage system implemented by the caste system makes the scope of Indian youth to choose spouses very narrow, resulting in the prevalence of close relative marriage in rural areas, resulting in a large number of congenital abnormal children, which has greatly affected the quality of Indians.

In 1980, Dr. B. ventran, then India’s minister of education, held a national cultural and educational conferenceAt the health conference, he pointed out that a large number of congenital diseases among Indian children were the result of caste marriage, so he called for the eradication of the caste system.

As early as more than 100 years ago, Marx said: “the caste system is the basic obstacle to India’s progress and prosperity”.

This has been confirmed by the historical development of India since modern times and recognized by people of insight in India.

Long before independence, motilar nekhhun, a veteran of the Congress party, said: “as long as the caste system still exists, India cannot occupy its due position in the civilized countries of the world”.

However, four decades after India’s independence, the role and influence of the caste system in Indian society is still strong and is still hindering the pace of Indian modernization, which is the misfortune of Indian society.