The international community is an interrelated whole formed by the actors of the international community participating in world political, economic, cultural and other activities.
International social actors refer to entities that have their own special interests and can independently participate in international affairs and play a role consistent with their functions.
If the international community is a big stage, then the actors of the international community are all kinds of roles performed on this stage.
As an actor of the international community, it must have the following characteristics and conditions: first, it must be an entity with a stable organizational form and its own special interests.
In the international community, any actor is an entity in a certain form of organization, or a form of state power, or an international organization.
This organizational form should also be relatively stable, which is embodied in the relatively stable internal structure of the organization and the relatively long existence time of the organization.
Second, as entities, international actors have their own special interests that are different from other actors.
It is these special interests that determine the pursuit of different goals by various actors in the international community, resulting in competition, cooperation, conflict and compromise among various actors.
Third, international actors must also have the ability to communicate.
It should have the capacity to directly or indirectly participate in political, economic, military, cultural and other international affairs, independently engage in foreign activities, such as mutual exchanges and cooperation with countries, participate in international conferences and activities of international organizations, conclude treaties and agreements, and play a role consistent with its own functional characteristics.
Only when an actor has these characteristics can he carry out activities in the international community and establish his position in the international community.
There are many actors in the international community.
They have great differences not only in their status and role in the international community, but also in their organizational form and scale.
It can be said that they are diverse and complex.
According to the differences in nature, these various actors in the international community are roughly divided into two categories: sovereign state actors and non sovereign state actors. I. sovereign state actors since the formation of modern international society, the nation-state has always been the basic political and economic unit in the international society, and has always been the most basic, important and powerful actor in the international society and international relations system.
According to the classification of the world bank, there are 210 countries and regions in the world today, which are mainly divided into four categories: the first is developed capitalist countries, mainly represented by seven major industrial countries such as the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Britain, Italy and Canada.
At present, developed countries account for more than 70% of the world’s gross national product, more than 23% of the world’s total trade and 90% of international investment.
The second is developing countries.
There are more than 150 of these countries and regions, most of which are former colonies of Western powers.
At present, they are still facing the task of developing economy, consolidating sovereignty and changing the old international political and economic order.
The third is a socialist country.
After the drastic changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s, there are only five of the original 15 socialist countries.
Economically, they all belong to the ranks of developing countries and face severe tasks of reform and development.
Fourth, central and Eastern European countries and CIS countries that are still in transition.
These countries have basically changed their economic and political systems into capitalism.
(I) the sovereignty attribute of state actors the concept of sovereignty in the modern sense was derived with the establishment of nation-state in Western Europe.
It was first put forward by Jean Boudin, a French thinker in the 16th century.
He believes that sovereignty is an eternal, absolute and supreme power.
Later, the theory of sovereignty was enriched by the development of thinkers such as Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau.
In the practice of international relations, the principle of sovereignty is finally determined as the most basic principle of international law, and the current international order is based on the principle of sovereignty.
A sovereign state is a political entity with territorial unity, independence and supreme sovereignty.
Generally speaking, a sovereign state must have four constituent elements: fixed territory, settled residents, unified government and sovereignty.
Among them, sovereignty is the fundamental attribute of a country, which is indivisible and inalienable.
It is inherent in the country rather than entrusted by the outside world.
It is not subordinate to any external will and intervention.
It is the highest power to independently handle internal and external affairs.
National sovereignty has duality, that is, internal sovereignty and external sovereignty.
Internal sovereignty refers to the exclusive supreme sovereignty over all affairs in the whole country.
Foreign sovereignty means that a country has independent decision-making power in foreign affairs, is not interfered and controlled by any other country, and has the right to participate in international affairs on an equal footing, mainly manifested in the right to independence, equality and self-defense.
Sovereign supremacy is the decisive factor in establishing the subject of national state’s behavior in the international community.
It is the primary premise for a country to independently formulate its foreign strategy and exert influence on the international community.
According to the principle of sovereign equality in the basic principles of international relations, all countries enjoy the same basic rights in international exchanges.
Only when a country has sovereignty can it exert its influence in the international community and truly establish its status as an actor in the international community.
In the context of the accelerated process of contemporary globalization, the status and role of national sovereignty has become one of the most noticeable theoretical and practical hot issues in the field of international politics.
On the one hand, sovereignty is still the cornerstone for nation states to settle down and the central axis for the operation of the international system.
On the other hand, the concept of sovereignty is indeed facing unprecedented shocks and challenges.
The rapid development of the trend of economic globalization and integration, the further strengthening of the interdependence of the international community, the strengthening of the role of international organizations and international systems, especially the emergence of a large number of non-state actors represented by transnational corporations and the rise of their status, all of which objectively pose a great challenge and threat to the absolute sovereignty of states.
Perhaps, in today’s social and historical conditions, in order to promote international cooperation conducive to human progress and strengthen the governance of some global affairs beyond national boundaries and capabilities, the weakening and transfer of national sovereignty to a certain extent is inevitable.
However, the principle of national sovereignty, as the cornerstone of international law and international order, must not be shaken.
After the cold war, the theory and practice of “new interventionism” rising in the United States and other western countries is actually hegemonism, imperialism and power politics.
They either manipulate and control the United Nations, or simply bypass the United Nations and frequently carry out economic sanctions or military strikes against other countries.
Therefore, defending the principle of sovereignty and the Charter of the United Nations has become an important international task for the majority of developing countries.
(2) national interest the so-called national interest refers to all material and spiritual conditions that meet the needs of national survival and development.
It includes national sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, military security, economic development, political system and cultural ideology, etc.
, which embodies the unity of hierarchical interests and national interests.
It mainly includes three aspects that are different from each other and interrelated: the first is the national security interests, that is, the independence of national sovereignty, territorial integrity and the inviolability of people’s survival.
National security interests are the most fundamental and primary interests of a country.
Because national security is not guaranteed and the existence of the state itself is threatened, there is no other interests and activities.
The second is the country’s economic interests, that is, economic development, scientific and technological progress, the improvement of people’s living standards, and the power of equality and mutual benefit in foreign economic exchanges.
On the basis of ensuring its own security interests, the country should first seek its own economic development.
Only economic development can enhance the country’s comprehensive national strength, so as to better ensure the country’s security and other interests.
The third is the political interests of the country, that is, the country can independently manage internal and foreign affairs and safeguard the rights and interests of its political system and ideology.
This is also an important part of national interests.
In fact, the state always uses all possible means to expand the influence of its own political system and ideology.
National interests are the unity of national interests and class interests.
National interest is an overall interest, which is different from the special interests of domestic national, class and other social groups.
National interests are not only class oriented, but also national and national.
The duality of national interests comes from the duality of state functions.
The state not only has the function of class rule, is the tool of class rule, but also has the function of society.
It is the management organ to coordinate social interests.
As a tool of class rule, the state essentially serves the interests of the ruling class, but as a management organ to coordinate social interests, it also represents the interests of the whole nation and the whole society.
National interest is the unity of objective and subjective.
First of all, national interests are an objective existence, because national sovereignty, territory, people and economic development are real.
The damage to a country’s interests can be accurately perceived, but just as all objective existence should be recognized, if national interests have policy significance, It must also be determined by the subjective cognition of national decision-making organs and leaders.
Therefore, different people have different identification of national interests at different times.
On the one hand, there are reasons for the change of the international environment in which the country is located, but also different subjective cognitive reasons.
The difference in the determination of national interests is most intuitively shown in the changes of national foreign strategies and policies.
The changes of policies show that the determination of national interests has changed.
As the basic behavior subject of the international community, the fundamental motivation of sovereign state’s internal behavior is national interest.
National interests are the starting point and destination for a country to formulate diplomatic strategies and engage in foreign exchanges.
First of all, the starting point and purpose of countries engaging in foreign exchanges is to safeguard and enhance national interests to the greatest extent.
Therefore, international politics is the competition between countries for power and interests.
All cooperation and wars in the history of international relations are the result of the competition between the interests of different countries.
Secondly, national interest is an important measure to judge the quality of a country’s foreign policy and the gains and losses of diplomatic work.
Correct and reasonable foreign strategies and policies and successful diplomatic activities are often beneficial to national interests, otherwise they are harmful to national interests.
Finally, national interests are the motivation for the evolution and development of international relations.
The adjustment of inter state relations and the change of international pattern all depend on the differentiation and combination of different interests among countries.
Interests drive countries in the international community to find friends and oppose enemies, so as to adjust foreign policy, change the balance of international power and promote the evolution of international relations.
Therefore, in the field of international politics and economy, national interest is a very important concept.
(III) national strength national strength, sometimes called national strength and national capacity, is similar to the concept of comprehensive national strength.
It is the combination of material and spiritual strength possessed by a country’s survival and development, and the ability to use this strength to affect the changes of international relations.1. The composition of national strength national strength is mainly composed of two parts: material, visible and measurable strength and spiritual, invisible and difficult to measure strength.
Material power is mainly composed of the following elements: first, resources, including territorial area, geographical location, population quantity and quality and the possession of natural resources, which is the most basic natural condition that determines the strength of a country.
Second, economic strength, including a country’s industrial capacity, gross national product, gross national income, total foreign trade and economic development speed.
Economic strength is the basis of a country’s comprehensive national strength.
Third, scientific and technological capability, including scientific and technological development level, quantity and quality of scientific and technological team, scientific and technological equipment, system and scientific and technological investment.
Scientific and technological capability occupies an increasingly important position in national strength.
Fourth, military forces, including the quantity and quality of armed forces, armed equipment, national defense assets and national defense industry.
Spiritual power refers to the level of social system, government efficiency, national will, national cohesion and diplomatic strategic decision-making.
The national power composed of these two parts is an objective existence, but if through interaction and good organization of the government, these two forces will produce an international influence.
In the national strength, economic and scientific and technological forces are the foundation and in the central position.
Economy is the backing, and science and technology is the primary productive force.
It is the basic force that determines and restricts the development of other forces.
The growth of other forces not only serves the development of economy and science and technology, but also can only be based on the development of economy and science and technology.
With the development of the world economic system and the deepening of interdependence, economic and scientific and technological forces are not only the fundamental guarantee for national survival and development, but also become the main symbol of national strength.
FromIt is the subject of international law and enjoys the rights and obligations stipulated in international law.
For non-state actors, except intergovernmental organizations and nations striving for independence are regarded as the subjects of international law, other non-state actors, such as non-governmental organizations and transnational corporations, do not enjoy the rights and obligations of the sovereign state.
Secondly, the transnational nature of behavior.
Most non state actors’ fields of activities are transnational, often do not represent the interests of a country, government, party and social group, and often take a specific region or the whole international community as their activity space.
Like the International Red Cross, Greenpeace, environmental protection movement and various regional international organizations, they all take the whole region or the international community as their scope of activities, and are not limited to the borders of any country at all.
Thirdly, it is the indirectness of participating in international affairs.
It is undeniable that most non state actors, especially international organizations, play a specific integration role in solving regional and global problems, restraining contradictions and conflicts, strengthening dialogue and coordinating positions.
However, non state actors basically do not have the ability to enforce their foreign policies and exert their influence on international affairs.
Their participation in international affairs is mainly carried out indirectly through sovereign governments and leaders and specific social activities, and their ways of playing a role are mainly meetings, resolutions, public opinion, lobbying and so on.
Finally, non-state actors have a certain degree of subordinate characteristics.
Although non-state actors have relative independence and sometimes can even play a role that is difficult for a sovereign state to play, they can not be compared with the diplomatic institutions of state power or government after all.
Sometimes some non-state actors, especially intergovernmental international organizations, will even lose their independence under the manipulation of some leading countries and become tools for some countries to pursue foreign policies.
It must be pointed out that although non-state actors do not have the attribute of sovereignty, and they are not more direct and powerful than state actors when participating in international affairs, with the continuous development of globalization in breadth and depth, the trend of interdependence in the international system is deepening, the number of non-state actors is increasing, and their fields of activities are becoming more and more extensive, Their impact on the development of the international community has become increasingly noticeable.
The issue of special concern is that the rise of non-state actors makes national sovereignty face the risk of erosion, which affects the reconstruction of the concept of national sovereignty.
(2) types of non-state actors there are a large number of non-state actors in the international community.
They can be roughly divided into the following categories, namely international organizations, transnational corporations, transnational political parties, etc.1. International organization an international organization is a permanent organization established by more than two countries, governments or civil society organizations for specific purposes and in accordance with unanimously agreed treaties or agreements.
Because international organizations have various names, purposes and organizational methods, it is very difficult to classify them strictly and accurately.
International organizations and non-governmental organizations are generally divided into two categories.
The first is intergovernmental international organizations.
An intergovernmental international organization is a permanent organization established by the governments of several sovereign countries and their official institutions in the form of certain agreements in order to achieve certain goals.
Intergovernmental international organizations include both global organizations, such as the United Nations, and regional organizations, such as NATO.
There are not only general political organizations focusing on political, economic and military activities, such as the European Union and the association of Southeast Asian nations, but also specialized organizations focusing on some professional and technical activities, such as the World Health Organization and UNESCO.
The capacity of an intergovernmental international organization does not originate from itself, but is derived from the national sovereignty of its member states.
At the same time, it has relative independence, is not subject to the jurisdiction of a state power, has the ability to participate in international affairs independently, directly bears the rights and obligations of the international community, and enjoys the privileges of sovereign states in the international community and diplomatic occasions.
Intergovernmental international organization is a special behavior subject which is not only different from the state, but also closely related to the state.
It is the main body of international relations characterized by the state collective and the most important role of non-state actors.
Followed by non-governmental international organizations.
It is a transnational organization composed of civil society groups, political parties and individuals from different countries.
They cover a wide range of fields, from politics, economy, science and technology to culture, education and sports.
From the perspective of international law, non-governmental international organizations do not have the qualification of the subject of international law, but they all play a certain role in international affairs and exert a certain influence on international political and economic life within their own scope.
Generally speaking, it refers to non-governmental, non-profit professional organizations that keep a certain distance from government departments and commercial organizations.
They usually form groups around specific fields or problems, have their own interests and opinions, and represent the wishes or requirements of some groups or strata of society.
After the cold war, the scope of activities and influence of non-governmental international organizations have expanded rapidly due to the support and encouragement of the United Nations and the “shrinking and fragmentation trend” of the post Cold War world, especially the latter.
In this case, various supranational, cross regional, vertical and horizontal non-governmental organizations show a strong rising momentum, and quickly fill or try to fill some vacuum after the decline of the nation-state.
From the internal reasons of various countries, the trend of marketization makes the development of civil society an irresistible process.
While making all countries recognize the legal person rules, property rights rules and competition rules, it gives individuals, groups and interest groups the opportunity to express themselves, and challenges the government’s regulation and integration ability, This also provides opportunities and space for non-governmental organizations to play a role.2. Transnational corporations transnational corporations in the West have also been called multinational companies, global companies, international companies, Cosmos companies and so on.
They refer to an international monopoly organization formed by setting up branches or controlling subsidiaries in other countries and regions through foreign direct investment in order to obtain high monopoly profits.
As a supranational economic entity, multinational corporations are the product of capitalism moving towards monopoly.
After the Second World War, due to the internationalization of production and capital, the globalization of world economy and the continuous development of scientific and technological revolutionDevelopment, multinational corporations have achieved rapid development, with a sharp increase in their number, expanding scale, amazing growth in investment and branches all over the world.
With the mutual penetration and influence of the world economy and international politics, the role of multinational corporations in the international political arena is also strengthening.
According to the figures released by the United Nations Conference on Trade and development in 2002, among the world’s top 100 economic entities (including countries and companies), transnational corporations account for 29 seats.
The largest multinational companies, such as Exxon oil and general motors, have surpassed many medium-sized countries, such as Pakistan, Peru and Vietnam.
Because multinational corporations have huge economic strength, their transnational business activities have strong behavioral ability.
With its huge economic strength and multilateral transnational business activities, multinational corporations have promoted the continuous development of production and capital internationalization, and formed a profound driving force to promote the in-depth development of international division of labor and international trade, thus becoming one of the supporting forces to promote the globalization of world economy and international politics.
However, as a kind of economic entity with strong economic strength and active in the relationship between the home country and the host country, the driving of economic interests will promote transnational corporations to influence or influence the economic, political and social development of the home country and the host country in various ways, which is also necessary to affect the foreign policies and inter state relations of countries related to transnational corporations.
In addition, because the activities of transnational corporations outside the country are not bound by the laws of the home country, and the activities in the host country are not directly controlled by the host government in specific fields because of various special preferential policies formulated by the host country to attract foreign investment.
Therefore, multinational corporations have a special status beyond the state and law, and have relatively independent capacity.
Many transnational corporations have large institutions all over the world, and some transnational corporations even have quasi armed forces and violent organs in specific regions.
In fact, such transnational corporations have controlled specific geographical regions and populations, have cross-border power and are not responsible for any country, and form a relatively independent special force beyond the country, so as to directly participate in international affairs and play a special restrictive and influential role in the development of international politics.3. World political parties or transnational political parties world political parties are different from both intergovernmental and non-governmental international organizations.
First of all, it is an international alliance between political parties with strong ideological color.
Secondly, although it is not an international alliance between governments, it has a certain official color.
Some of the ruling parties play an important role in their country’s foreign policy.
Therefore, it is not entirely a non-governmental non-governmental organization.
It often plays a role beyond other non-governmental international organizations in international politics.
The world political party is an international political party consortium composed of political party organizations from many countries to safeguard common interests and achieve specific goals according to their common political beliefs, political programs and ideological purposes.
It is active in the international political arena with the emergence and maturity of modern party politics.
In the post-war decades, its number has increased rapidly and is playing an increasingly active role in the international political arena.
The development of transnational political parties has become one of the important contents of the transnational development and internationalization of international politics.
The emergence of the international communist movement and the establishment of the international organization of proletarian political parties in the 19th century pioneered the establishment of world political parties.
The Communist Communication Committee led by Marx and Engels, the first international and the second international constitute the pioneers of political parties in the modern world.
After World War I, the development of world political parties broke through the field of international communist movement and entered a period of diversified development.
Berne international and Vienna International, which were split from the second international, and the Socialist Workers’ international after the merger of the two, coexist on the international stage with the Communist International led by them.
After World War II, the diversification trend of world political parties was further strengthened.
Not only the traditional world political parties before the war continued to recover and develop, but also many new world political parties continued to emerge.
Since the 1970s, new changes have taken place in the development of world political parties: first, new changes have taken place in the world political parties themselves.
On the one hand, within the original world political parties, they have developed into new regional political party organizations according to different regions and different problems they face.
On the other hand, some world political parties that used to be regional began to seek cooperation and try to establish closer ties with political parties with common characteristics in other regions around the world.
Second, the influence of world political parties on the international community has also undergone new changes.
On the one hand, while continuing to exert influence on international politics in traditional ways, world political parties began to try to use some new and more direct ways of behavior to influence the development of international politics and then participate in major international affairs.
On the other hand, the world’s political parties have taken a more active attitude towards the politics of some countries, and even intervened in them, which has a profound impact on the political development process of these countries.