I.

establishment of the United Nations the United Nations is the most universal, influential, largest and most important international organization in the world today.

The United Nations was established at the end of the Second World War.

The establishment of the United Nations, on the one hand, reflects the desire and determination of the people suffering from war for peace.

On the other hand, it also reflects the efforts of the victorious countries, especially the United States and the Soviet Union, to establish a new international order after the war in order to safeguard their vested interests and consolidate their status.

Therefore, the establishment of the United Nations also reflected the comparative relationship of international forces at that time.

The United Nations was established on the basis of the world anti fascist alliance.

On August 14, 1941, Britain and the United States signed the Atlantic Charter, which expressed the hope of establishing a “broad and permanent universal security system” and “rebuilding peace so that all countries can stay within their territory” after the war.

On the new year’s day of 1942, 26 anti fascist allies of Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and China signed the United Nations Declaration of nations, which unanimously agreed to take the purposes and principles of the Atlantic Charter as the common program of the allies to jointly fight against German, Italian and Japanese fascism.

The signing of the United Nations Declaration marks the establishment of the international anti fascist front and lays the foundation for the establishment of new international organizations.

In October 1943, the foreign ministers of Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union held a meeting in Moscow and invited Chinese representatives to attend.

On October 30, the foreign ministers of the four countries jointly signed the Declaration on universal security (also known as the declaration of the four countries).

The four countries advocated that “it is necessary to establish a universal international organization as soon as possible and feasible in accordance with the principle of sovereign equality of all peace loving countries in order to maintain international peace and security.

All peace loving countries, large and small, must join this organization”.

This is the first time that the governments of the four major countries have publicly announced the establishment of a universal international organization after the war.

At the end of 1943, the heads of state of the four countries reaffirmed their determination to establish such an organization at the Cairo Conference and the Tehran conference respectively, exchanged views on the overall vision and framework structure of the new international organization, and reached considerable consensus.

From August 21 to October 7, 1944, China, the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom held a meeting in Dun Oak Park, Washington, which was the first concrete step in the establishment of the United Nations.

In accordance with the spirit of the four nation declaration, the meeting drafted the proposal on the establishment of a universal international organization.

The proposal basically outlines the blueprint of the future international organization, proposes to name the new international organization “United Nations”, and stipulates the purposes and principles, membership, principal organs and functions and powers of the new organization.

The proposal proposes that the Security Council will be the main organ for maintaining peace in the new organization, and Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, China and “a considerable period of time” France should have permanent seats on the Security Council.

At the Yalta summit held by the heads of state of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union in February 1945, the heads of state of the three countries reached an agreement on the voting procedure of the Security Council, that is, all matters outside the procedure of the Security Council should be decided by the affirmative vote of 7 of the 11 members, including the consent of all permanent members.

This is the so-called “principle of consensus among major powers”, Enable the permanent members of the Security Council to enjoy the veto power.

On April 25, 1945, the United Nations constitutional convention was held in San Francisco, attended by 282 representatives from 50 countries.

The meeting lasted two months.

Representatives of various countries studied and discussed the Dunbarton oak proposal, the Yalta agreement and the amendments proposed by governments.

After two months of intense and intense work, the plenary meeting unanimously adopted the Charter of the United Nations on the evening of June 25.

On June 26, representatives of 50 countries held a signing ceremony of the Charter.

These 50 countries and Poland, which signed on October 25, became founding members of the United Nations.

On October 24, the Charter of the United Nations entered into force after being ratified by a majority of signatories.

The United Nations was officially established and headquartered in New York.

Later, the United Nations designated June 26 and October 24 as “charter day” and “United Nations Day” respectively. II. Purposes and principles of the United Nations all activities of the United Nations must be carried out in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

Fundamentally speaking, the Charter of the United Nations is a multilateral international treaty.

It consists of 111 articles in the preamble and 19 chapters.

It stipulates the purposes and principles, organizational structure, functions and activity procedures of the United Nations.

It is the fundamental law of the United Nations and legally binding on Member States.

At the beginning, the Charter points out the highest goal of the United Nations: to maintain international peace and security and promote global economic and social development.

Chapter I of the Charter specifies the purposes of the United Nations: (1) maintaining international peace and security.

(2) Develop friendly international relations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of all countries.

(3) International cooperation to solve international problems of an economic, social, cultural and humanitarian nature and to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.

(4) As the center for coordinating the actions of all countries, we should achieve the above common objectives.

In order to achieve the above purposes, the Charter stipulates that all Member States shall abide by the principles set forth in Article 2 of the Charter: (1) the United Nations Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all Member States.

(2) Member States should faithfully fulfil their obligations under the Charter.

(3) Member States should settle their international disputes by peaceful means.

(4) Member States shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.

(5) All Member States shall give all assistance to any action taken by the United Nations in accordance with the Charter.

When the United Nations is taking preventive or coercive action against any country, all Member States shall not give assistance to that country.

(6) To the extent necessary to maintain international peace and security, the United Nations should ensure that non members comply with the above principles.

(7) The United Nations organization shall not interfere in matters that are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.

However, this provision does not prevent coercive action against threats to the peace, breaches of the peace and acts of aggression.

The practice of international relations over the past half century after the war has shown that the purposes and principles of the United Nations are in line with the aspirations of the peoples of the world to maintain peace and promote cooperation.

Since its establishment, the United Nations has taken many actions to achieve its goals and purposes, which have had an important impact on the process of contemporary world history.

Although the United Nations still has many problems and its role still has considerable limitations, its historical mission andForeign interference and rule are left to the people of all countries to independently determine their political destiny and freely choose their social and political systems.

In 1960, the 15th UN General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples.

On October 16, 1985, the General Assembly held a special session calling on the international community to make special efforts to completely eliminate the remnants of colonialism.

Every year, the United Nations General Assembly reaffirms that colonialism in all its forms, manifestations and continuation are incompatible with the Charter, the Universal Declaration of human rights and the Declaration on decolonization and pose a serious threat to international peace and security.

In 1992, Namibia declared its independence, ending the colonial history of the African continent.

With the joint efforts of the international community led by the United Nations, in 1994, the South African authorities were forced to abandon the apartheid policy, and the black leader Nelson was elected the first democratically elected president of South Africa, forming a government of racial reconciliation.

With the support and help of the United Nations, nearly 100 former colonies broke away from colonial rule and joined the United Nations as independent countries, resulting in fundamental changes in the structure of the international community.

Emerging independent countries have begun to play an increasingly important role in the international community.

(II) role in maintaining world peace and security and alleviating international contradictions and conflicts.

The primary responsibility of the United Nations is to maintain world peace and security.

According to the UN Charter, both the Security Council and the UN General Assembly are responsible for maintaining peace and security.

The United Nations has done a lot of important and active work in this regard.

Although for various reasons, the activities of the United Nations are restricted by various aspects, on the whole, the role of the United Nations in alleviating international contradictions and conflicts is becoming stronger and stronger.

Since the founding of the United Nations, the work of the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council in maintaining world peace mainly includes: 1 Promote and develop peaceful and friendly relations between countries and put forward various suggestions for solving international conflicts.

In order to maintain peace and security, first of all, we should develop peaceful and friendly relations among countries.

Paragraph 2 of Article 1 of the Charter clearly stipulates that we should develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and take other appropriate measures to enhance universal peace.

The United Nations is the center for coordinating the actions of all countries.

It provides a forum for all countries to exchange views, enhance understanding, discuss issues and discuss peace plans.

Since its establishment, the United Nations has issued many resolutions and declarations on peace, cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes.

For example, the resolution on peace and good neighbourliness among States, adopted in 1957, stressed that countries should abandon differences and develop their friendly and cooperative relations.

The Declaration on the inadmissibility of interference in the internal affairs of States and the protection of their independence and sovereignty, adopted in 1965, urges the immediate cessation of interference in the internal affairs and diplomacy of other states, condemns all such interference as a harm to the cause of peace, and urges States not to engage in armed interference or subversion, or to resort to terrorism and other indirect means of interference, To change the current system of another country.

The Declaration on principles of international law concerning friendly relations and cooperation among states in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, adopted in 1970, lists seven principles, including that states should not threaten or use force against any state and that states should settle international disputes by peaceful means.

The resolution on the definition of aggression adopted in 1974 lists seven acts of aggression, points out that “aggression gives rise to international responsibility” and requires that “no territory or special interests obtained as a result of aggression shall and should not be recognized as legitimate”.

The Declaration on deepening and consolidating International Detente adopted in 1977 pointed out that Member States should strive to eliminate the causes and effects of international tension and strengthen the role of the United Nations in maintaining international peace.

The Declaration on the inadmissibility of interference and interference in the internal affairs of other countries adopted in 1981 and the Manila Declaration on the peaceful settlement of international disputes adopted the following year reaffirmed the principle that all countries should settle their international disputes by peaceful means.

The Declaration on the right to peace of all peoples, adopted in 1984, emphasizes that the peoples of the world have the sacred right to peace and that maintaining and promoting peace is the fundamental obligation of every country.

The Declaration on the International Year of peace adopted in 1985 identified 1986 as the “International Year of peace”, pointing out that promoting peace is the common ideal of all mankind and the main purpose of the United Nations.

Although some of these resolutions and declarations of the United Nations are not perfect, they are generally in the interests of the majority of people in the world and basically reflect the will of the people of the world for peace.

In particular, they have played a certain role in safeguarding the independence and autonomy of developing countries and developing friendly relations between countries based on equality, mutual benefit and peaceful coexistence.

However, due to the negative attitude of some countries, especially superpowers, many resolutions have not been seriously implemented and implemented.2. Take coercive measures to settle disputes and promote and maintain peace.

According to the Charter of the United Nations, when a dispute develops into a threat to the peace, a breach of the peace or an act of aggression, the Security Council can make a resolution binding on all Member States.

In order to implement these resolutions, the Security Council can require Member States to take non force measures, including severing economic and diplomatic relations and stopping all transportation.

For example, from 1966 to 1977, the Security Council imposed four mandatory economic sanctions on South Rhodesia.

From 1963 to 1975, a series of mandatory sanctions were adopted against the South African authorities for persisting in racial persecution.

During the 1991 Gulf crisis, the United Nations took severe enforcement action against Iraq, which committed aggression.

However, this provision is often used by some big powers to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries.

When it comes to the fact that the country concerned is a permanent member of the Security Council, it is often unable to take substantive action due to the existence of the veto.

For example, on the issue of Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia in 1978 and the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan, the Security Council’s resolutions on calling for a ceasefire and withdrawal of foreign troops were stranded due to the opposition of the Soviet Union.

In 2000-2001, Israel imposed bloody repression on the Palestinian people in the occupied territories.

Due to the obstruction of the United States, the Security Council failed to take any meaningful action against Israel to stop the further development of the conflict.3. Peaceful mediation and mediation.

The Charter stipulates that the Security Council has the right to propose solutions to disputes that endanger international peace as it deems appropriate.

For example, a request to a state party to a dispute is approved by the Security CouncilDiscuss and put forward suggestions to facilitate the settlement of the incident.

These recommendations have important implications but are not legally binding.

This work is often carried out through the Secretary General of the United Nations.

For example, the turmoil in Central America, which began in the late 1970s, was stabilized by an agreement reached in August 1987 through the good offices of the Secretary General of the United Nations and the Contadora Group on the basis of Security Council resolutions.

In 1982, the “Falklands conflict” between Britain and Argentina was also mediated by the United Nations.

In the Iraqi nuclear verification crisis in early 1998, the good offices of UN Secretary General Annan played a key role.4. Peacekeeping operations.

Peacekeeping operations are a means for the United Nations to maintain regional peace and security in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter.

It has a strong political nature.

Peacekeeping operations are regarded as a special form of collective security of the United Nations.

There are two types of such activities, one is the dispatch of United Nations Military Observer missions and the other is the dispatch of United Nations peacekeeping forces.

The function of the observer mission is to observe and report to the Secretary General on the maintenance of the ceasefire, and then the Secretary General reports to the Security Council to investigate violations of the ceasefire and do his best to improve the situation and prevent deterioration.

Peacekeeping forces are composed of armed forces provided by States members of the United Nations.

Their responsibility is to restore and maintain normal order and prevent further conflicts.

For this purpose, peacekeeping forces have the right to negotiate, persuade, observe and investigate when necessary.5. Promote disarmament and arms control and international peace.

Since its establishment, the United Nations has listed disarmament as the main agenda of previous UN General Assembly, adopted a series of disarmament agreements and established a series of relevant organizations.

In 1969, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the 1970s as the first “international disarmament decade”.

It played the role of an international forum and carried out extensive publicity activities to contain and restrict the arms race plan of the United States and the Soviet Union.

In 1968, the UN General Assembly adopted the nuclear non proliferation treaty, and in 1972, the biological weapons convention was reached.

The general assembly also held three special sessions on disarmament, declaring the 1980s the second “international disarmament decade”.

In December 1991, the General Assembly proclaimed the 1990s as the third “international disarmament decade” and adopted the Declaration on the decade.

In November 1990, the United Nations special session on disarmament was held in Paris.

The conference signed the Treaty on conventional arms reduction in Europe and new measures to build security and confidence.

In July 1991, the five permanent members of the Security Council held their first arms control conference in Paris and adopted a document on arms control, arms transfer and non-proliferation in the Middle East.

In 1992, the United Nations presided over the conclusion of the Geneva Convention for the prohibition of chemical weapons.

In September 1996, the plenary session of the General Assembly adopted the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty.

(III) role in promoting economic and social development economic and social issues are major issues of common concern to all countries at present.

Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations stipulates on social and economic issues that “promote international cooperation in solving problems of an economic, social, cultural and humanitarian nature”.

In order to achieve this goal, Article 55 of the charter also stipulates that “the United Nations will strive to improve the living standards of people all over the world, assist in full employment, solve international economic, social, health and related problems, and promote cultural and educational cooperation and respect for human rights”.

According to statistics, since the founding of the United Nations, 60% of its personnel and 70% of its funds have been used for various activities related to economic and social cooperation and development.

One of the purposes of the United Nations is to promote international cooperation to solve international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian nature.

According to the provisions of the Charter, the United Nations has the right to promote a higher standard of living, full employment, economic and social development, promote the settlement of international economic, social, health and related problems, promote international cultural and educational cooperation and universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all mankind.

First of all, the United Nations has made important contributions in assisting developing countries and promoting the economic development of backward countries.

According to statistics, in 1948, the technical assistance provided by the United Nations to developing countries was only US $350000, while at present it is US $1.

7 billion.

Since the 1960s, the United Nations has successively launched four “United Nations Development decades”, which aims to promote developing countries to gradually narrow the economic gap with developed countries.

In particular, the sixth special session of the general assembly in 1974 adopted the Declaration on the establishment of a new international economic order and the programme of action.

Since then, the United Nations has created some conditions for the North South dialogue through a series of efforts.

Most of the important agreements between the north and the South have been reached within the framework of the United Nations.

Such as GSP, development fund assistance, common fund for commodities, integrated commodity programme and relevant agreements on debt crisis and assistance to least developed countries.

Secondly, in terms of international trade, the United Nations has successively established various international economic and social institutions and organizations to strengthen international cooperation in various professional fields in order to help solve these problems.

For example, in 1964, the UN General Assembly decided to establish the conference on Trade and development as a permanent subsidiary body of the United Nations.

UNCTAD’s main function is to coordinate the trade and development policies of governments and regional economic groups, formulate principles and policies related to international trade and economic development, provide suggestions on the implementation of these principles and policies, and take actions to promote the signing of various multilateral trade agreements.

After long-term negotiations, the conference on Trade and development reached an agreement on the adoption of the generalized system of preferences in the early 1970s, and some developed countries have begun to implement the GSP scheme.

In addition, the United Nations has also established UNFPA, UNDP, UNEP, UNICEF and UNHCR.

Various institutions have done a lot of work to promote international cooperation in economic, social, scientific, technological and cultural fields.

The United Nations has held a series of international conferences on international economic and social issues, such as the United Nations Conference on environment and development in 1972, the United Nations Summit on social development in 1985, the United Nations Population assembly and the United Nations Conference on women.

These international conferences have extensively discussed the issues of environment, population, women, housing, water resources and aging, which have contributed to the international solution of these problems.

(IV) the role of the United Nations in formulating international law and norms after the war, the traditional system of international law was violently impacted, and a series of new principles, rules and systems of international law were gradually formed and establishedHas played an important role in.

The Charter of the United Nations itself is the most important document of international law after the war.

The basic principles and spirit it stipulates are the code of conduct and legal obligations that all countries must abide by.

The United Nations International Law Commission, established by the general assembly in 1947, has made great contributions to the progressive development and codification of international law.

The international law compiled by the Commission and adopted by the general assembly are: the four 1958 conventions on the law of the sea.

1961 Convention on the reduction of Statelessness.

The 1961 Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.

The 1969 Vienna Convention on the law of treaties and the 1978 Convention on succession of states in respect of treaties.

In addition, the general assembly also discussed some issues through its special committees, and recommended the legal documents prepared by these committees to all countries for signature, ratification and accession.

Such as the 1966 Treaty on principles governing the respective activities in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies.

The United Nations Convention on the law of the sea, discussed and adopted by the United Nations Conference on the law of the sea and signed in 1982, is by far the most comprehensive and far-reaching Treaty on ocean issues.

Many declarations and resolutions adopted by the general assembly have become part of the sources of international law.

Although these declarations and resolutions are generally not legally binding, as the embodiment of the will of most countries in the international community, they are of great significance in the process of forming international law.

Some resolutions also have legal significance or effect and expressly stipulate that states that violate them should bear international responsibility.

For example, the Declaration on principles of international law on friendly relations and cooperation among states in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the Charter of economic rights and obligations of states have a certain binding force on the actions of States and have a direct impact on the establishment of international law in this field.

Finally, the judgments and advisory opinions of the International Court of justice also have an impact on the development of international law.

This is because the International Court of justice is currently the only global judicial institution in the world.

Because of its special status, its judgments and advisory opinions are regarded as authoritative expressions and interpretations of the fields involved, and are often cited as the basis for the application of the rules of law. V. the reform and future development trend of the United Nations the United Nations established on the ruins of World War II has had a great impact on the development of post-war international relations and even all aspects of the world, which is unmatched by any other international organization.

Over the past half century, the United Nations has done a lot of work in maintaining world peace and security, easing international conflicts, maintaining the basic stability of the world situation, promoting the process of decolonization, strengthening international cooperation, promoting development in the global economic, social and cultural fields, formulating and compiling international laws and norms, and has made great achievements that have attracted worldwide attention.

However, the development of the United Nations is not plain sailing.

It still has many defects.

During the cold war, it once became a tool manipulated by superpowers.

These deficiencies have seriously affected the real role of the United Nations and the image of the United Nations.

After the end of the cold war, the United Nations is facing new development opportunities.

At the same time, the new changes in the international community have put forward many new problems to the United Nations, and the United Nations is facing greater challenges.

Under such circumstances, the reform of the United Nations has become an inevitable choice.

(I) challenges facing the United Nations 1 Challenges of the new situation and new tasks.

At present, the United Nations is facing various challenges in the context of globalization, including global problems such as poverty, natural disasters, financial crisis and destruction of the ecological environment, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, transnational crime and refugees.

In the face of new challenges and tasks, whether the United Nations can play a role, how and what role it should play have become a matter of great concern.

It has become a consensus to reform the United Nations to adapt to the new situation and tasks.2. The United Nations is facing contradictions and difficulties in dealing with relations with sovereign states.

After the cold war, conflicts between countries have decreased, conflicts and unrest within countries are frequent, and humanitarian disasters continue to appear.

When the United Nations maintains peace and security and implements humanitarian intervention, it is often faced with the major problem of how to deal with the relationship with sovereign states.

In the Kosovo crisis, NATO bypassed the United Nations to take military action against a sovereign state, which made the United Nations face the risk of marginalization and the challenge of how to deal with the contradiction between the principles of humanitarian intervention and non-interference in internal affairs.

How to effectively implement and standardize humanitarian intervention and peacekeeping operations has been put on the agenda of the United Nations.3. The United Nations is challenged by other regional organizations and non-governmental organizations.

After the cold war, regional organizations and non-governmental organizations have developed rapidly and are playing a more and more important role in global affairs.

While these organizations are expanding rapidly, the role and status of the United Nations are constantly eroded and questioned.

For example, the role of NATO in dealing with international conflicts and the initiatives of many non-governmental organizations in environmental protection, arms proliferation control and humanitarian assistance show this trend.

If the United Nations does not carry out the necessary reform, its status and role will face greater challenges from other organizations and institutions.4. The UN mechanism has been increasingly criticized and questioned.

Mainly dissatisfied with the establishment of the Security Council and the distribution of power.

Many countries have called for the reform of UN institutions and the expansion of the Security Council, and have been active in entering the Security Council.

Non governmental organizations and civil society are even more strongly demanding the reform of the Security Council.

They propose to limit and eventually eliminate the veto power.

(2) the reform of the United Nations.

In fact, the reform of the United Nations is not a problem that has emerged in recent years.

In the 1950s, the United Nations had reform initiatives and requirements, and the discussion on this issue has lasted for decades.

However, after the end of the cold war, great changes have taken place in the international situation, which has accelerated the process of United Nations reform.

This issue has also become a focus of attention all over the world.

In 1991, at the beginning of taking office, Secretary General Gali proposed to carry out large-scale reform of the United Nations.

In February 1992, Gali launched what he called the “first phase” of the reform of streamlining United Nations institutions.

He has made bold proposals for the reform of the United Nations Secretariat.

AnnanAfter taking office, he continued to carry out the reform of the United Nations and successively introduced several United Nations reform plans, such as the “ten point reform plan of the United Nations”, the “Gali plan” to reform the Security Council and the “Annan comprehensive reform plan”.

The reform has been carried out smoothly in the administrative field, and has achieved results in reducing the budget, reducing personnel, consolidating the structure with overlapping functions, reducing administrative expenditure and reducing the number of documents.

However, the progress in the political field and structural reform is still slow, especially on the reform of the Security Council.

The Security Council is the most authoritative department in the United Nations system.

Its reform, especially the increase of permanent members, is not only an increase in the number, but actually a change in the power structure.

The reform of the Security Council will break the existing power structure and power balance and change the existing international order.

In essence, it is a redistribution of power.

Therefore, different countries have different interests and reform ideas in this regard.

So far, there is still no scheme acceptable to all parties.

China believes that, on the one hand, the reform of the Security Council is the need to adapt to changes in the international situation and meet new challenges.

On the other hand, he stressed that the reform of the Security Council should follow the principle of equitable geographical distribution and fully take into account the aspirations and interests of the majority of developing countries in the United Nations.

The reform of the United Nations is a long-term process, which should be carried out carefully and steadily.

The views of all parties should be widely listened to and carried out on the basis of consensus.

(III) the future development trend of the United Nations.

On the one hand, we should not expect the United Nations to take charge of all affairs and become a world government above sovereign states.

On the other hand, it should be noted that with the end of the cold war, the world is still not peaceful, the new international political and economic order has not been established, and the world needs the United Nations more than ever before.

The United Nations Millennium Summit held in 2000 emphasized the role of the United Nations in the 21st century.

Generally speaking, with the continuous reform and development of the United Nations, the United Nations will play a greater role in the following aspects.1. The United Nations will play an active role in establishing international norms and urging the implementation of the basic principles of international law and the Charter of the United Nations.

The United Nations will become an important advocate and supervisor of global norms and laws.

This role will be particularly prominent in the fields of environmental protection, arms control, human rights and development.2. The United Nations will play an important role in coordinating relations between States and among various other actors and will remain the centre of international coordination.

Building partnerships with multiple actors and giving full play to their role in global affairs will become a major feature of the United Nations.

Of course, sovereign states will still be the main body of the United Nations, and the idea of transforming the United Nations into a world government or world parliament is unrealistic.3. The United Nations will continue to play an active role in promoting world peace and development and solving global problems.

In addition to the tasks of maintaining world peace and security and resolving various international, regional and ethnic and religious conflicts, the United Nations also needs to play an important role in promoting global economic development, narrowing the North South gap and eradicating poverty.

As an international organization with the participation of global countries, the United Nations should also play its due role in opposing hegemonism, interventionism and power politics, arms race and arms proliferation, and solving global problems such as environmental problems, transnational crimes and refugees.