Association of Southeast Asian Nations Association of Southeast Asian nations, referred to as ASEAN, was established in 1967, formerly known as the association of Southeast Asian nations.
On August 7-8, 1967, the foreign ministers of Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines and the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia held a meeting in Bangkok and issued the Bangkok Declaration, officially announcing the establishment of the association of Southeast Asian nations.
ASEAN currently has 10 members.
In July 1995, Vietnam joined ASEAN.
In July 1997, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia joined.
The aims and objectives of ASEAN stipulated in the founding declaration of the association of Southeast Asian nations are: (1) to work together in the spirit of equality and cooperation to promote economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region.
(2) Follow the principles of justice, state relations and the Charter of the United Nations to promote peace and stability in the region.
(3) Promote cooperation and mutual support on economic, social, cultural and technological issues.
(4) More effective cooperation in making full use of agriculture and industry, expanding trade, improving transportation and improving people’s living standards.
(5) Promote research on Southeast Asia.
(6) Maintain close and mutually beneficial cooperation with international and regional organizations with similar purposes and objectives, and explore ways to cooperate more closely with them.
The administrative headquarters of ASEAN is the Secretariat, which is located in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Its main organizations include: (1) the summit is the highest decision-making body.
An informal meeting is held every year and a formal summit is held every three years to make decisions on major issues and development directions.
(2) The Council of Ministers is the body that formulates policies.
It is composed of foreign ministers of Member States and holds annual meetings in member states in turn.
(3) The Standing Committee is responsible for handling the daily affairs of ASEAN and preparing for the foreign ministers’ meeting.
After the meeting, it implements the resolutions of the foreign ministers’ meeting and has the right to make statements on behalf of ASEAN.
The foreign minister of the host country who presided over the foreign ministers’ meeting in that year served as the chairman of the Standing Committee, and the ambassadors of other member states in that country served as members.
Meetings were held from time to time.
(4) The economic ministers’ meeting and the labor ministers’ meeting are composed of ASEAN ministers of economy, trade and labor.
They are held in turn in ASEAN countries from time to time to discuss issues related to economic, trade, labor and social cooperation.
(5) The Secretariat is the administrative headquarters of ASEAN.
It is responsible for coordinating the national secretariats of Member States and presiding over the meeting of the secretary general, and is responsible to the Council of ministers and the Standing Committee.
(6) The Standing Committee is responsible for studying and implementing the plan and construction decided by the Council of ministers, which is located in the capitals of Member States.
There are several committees on science and technology, culture and information, social development and budget.
(7) The special committee is responsible for studying and dealing with some special issues in ASEAN economic cooperation and foreign economic relations.
There are eight special committees.
Since its establishment, ASEAN has achieved fruitful economic cooperation, rapid economic growth, large-scale organization and clear development direction.
ASEAN’s internal trade accounts for 20% of the total foreign trade, and has established a number of transnational “economic growth triangles”, with rapid investment growth in the region.
Over the past 20 years, ASEAN has been one of the world’s high economic growth areas, foreign investment areas and emerging markets.
ASEAN plans to become a free trade area in 2003, an “investment area” in 2010 and investment liberalization in 2020.
ASEAN has a population of more than 500 million, a region of 4.
5 million square kilometers, a gross national product of US $660 billion and a foreign trade volume of US $500 billion, accounting for 8% of Global trade.
ASEAN’s development prospects are eye-catching.
The East Asian financial crisis, which began in July 1997, has dealt a serious blow to the economies of ASEAN countries.
Especially Thailand, Indonesia and other countries.
By 1999, most ASEAN countries had recovered from the financial crisis and achieved new economic growth.
Due to the strong export-oriented economy of ASEAN countries, their export products are mainly oriented to the markets of the United States and Japan.
In 2001, the U.S. economy was weak, imports fell sharply, and Japan’s economy showed negative growth again, which seriously affected the economies of ASEAN countries.
Singapore and other countries experienced negative economic growth, while Indonesia and the Philippines experienced sluggish economic growth due to domestic political turmoil.
After the end of the cold war, ASEAN not only attached importance to economic cooperation, but also attached more and more importance to political and military cooperation, accelerated the pace of expanding the organization, and its influence has exceeded Southeast Asia.
ASEAN first put the issue of regional security cooperation on the agenda of the ASEAN foreign ministers’ meeting and the meeting between ASEAN and dialogue partners in July 1992, and then advocated the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Forum composed of ASEAN Member States and ASEAN dialogue countries, consultation partners and observers in July 1993.
Since 1994, the forum has held a ministerial meeting every year to discuss security issues in the Asia Pacific region, and gradually developed from security dialogue to security cooperation.
On the 10th anniversary of the founding of ASEAN in 1997, a dialogue mechanism with developed countries, including political and economic contents, was established to expand its vision and contacts to the world.
Due to the impact of the economic crisis, contradictions and differences have emerged among ASEAN countries and within some members, resulting in instability, increased friction and weakened internal unity.
In addition to the economic problems, there are still many disputes and disputes among ASEAN countries.
For example, the competition between Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand for the leader of ASEAN.
The island dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia.
The long-standing friction between Singapore and Malaysia.
The differences between Vietnam and Cambodia and the escalation of the arms race within ASEAN.
If these problems can not be effectively handled and solved, it will affect the cohesion and unity of ASEAN, and make ASEAN face many difficulties and challenges in its overall development, so that ASEAN is difficult to become a truly influential regional organization.
China’s relations with ASEAN have developed well.
China has established diplomatic relations with ASEAN countries.
In 1996, China became a comprehensive dialogue country of ASEAN.
In the 21st century, the relationship between China and ASEAN has continued to achieve new development.
On July 11, 2001, the 37th summit of the organization of African unity, held in Lusaka, the capital of Zambia, adopted a series of resolutions to launch the African Union.
The African Union is different from OAU.
OAU is a single political cooperation organization, while the African Union is a cooperative body including politics, economy, military, culture, society and so on.
The launch of the African Union is a historic step taken by Africa on the road of integration after entering the 21st century.
With the rapid development of economic globalization, the African continent is facing the danger of marginalization.
At present, the GNP of more than 50 African countries with a population of 700 million accounts for only 1% of the world’s total, and the trade volume accounts for only 2% of world tradeChina should establish a new and just international economic order.
The group of 77 has put forward a series of important principles for the establishment of a new international economic order, as well as various specific struggle programs, measures and suggestions for the establishment of a new international economic order, guiding the struggle of developing countries for the establishment of a new international political and economic order.
(2) It has made positive contributions to strengthening South South cooperation and safeguarding the rights and interests of developing countries.
The group of 77 adopted a series of programmatic documents setting out the guiding principles, cooperation programmes and specific measures of South South cooperation.
Through its ministerial meeting, it strengthened the unity and cooperation of the countries of the south, promoted the economic development of developing countries and jointly opposed the exploitation and plunder of new and old colonialism.
(3) It has played an important role in promoting North South dialogue, easing North South relations and establishing a new international economic and political order.
The joint struggle of the group of 77 has prompted some western countries to attach importance to improving North South relations and carrying out North South dialogue.
The group of 77 is loosely organized, with neither institutions nor statutes.
Generally, member states hold meetings to coordinate their positions before or during the general assembly of the United Nations and some specialized agencies.
The group has activity centers in New York and Geneva, and each has a chairman for a term of one year, which is held by Member States in turn.
Since its establishment, the group of 77 has used its collective strength to make useful contributions to safeguarding the rights and interests of developing countries in the United Nations and the international community.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) the organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is the earliest and most influential organization of raw material producers and exporters among developing countries.
It is the product of the oil struggle.
In the early post-war period, Western oil monopoly consortia almost controlled the exploration, production and sales of world oil, so as to obtain excess profits.
In order to get rid of this situation, the representatives of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Venezuela held a meeting in Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, in September 1960 and decided to jointly deal with Western oil companies and maintain oil revenue.
Subsequently, Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Tunisia joined in succession.
Its headquarters was located in Geneva before 1965 and has since moved to Vienna.
OPEC emphasizes that its main purpose is to coordinate and unify the oil policies of Member States, try to ensure the stability of international oil market prices, and establish the most appropriate means to safeguard their respective and common oil interests.
The main organizations of the organization of petroleum exporting countries are: (1) the meeting of the organization of petroleum exporting countries is the highest authority, which is attended by the oil ministers of Member States.
The meeting is held twice a year and works according to the principle of consensus.
(2) The Council is composed of members of Member States and is responsible for guiding and managing the work of the whole organization of petroleum exporting countries.
(3) The Secretariat assumes executive functions under the guidance of the Council.
(4) The International Development Foundation provides low interest or interest free loans to developing countries.
In the early 1970s, OPEC members recovered their sovereignty over oil resources in the form of equity participation and nationalization.
On October 6, 1973, when the fourth Middle East War broke out, the organization of petroleum exporting countries held a ministerial meeting in Kuwait and decided to unilaterally increase the price of Gulf crude oil by 70%.
This is the first time that oil producing countries in developing countries have significantly increased the price of crude oil, marking the end of the era of monopoly of oil price by Western oil companies.
Since the 1980s, non OPEC countries have developed oil and gas resources on a large scale and taken measures such as alternative energy.
There was a serious oversupply in the world oil market.
After 1983, the organization of petroleum exporting countries began to implement the policy of “limiting production and ensuring price”. Vi. Shanghai Cooperation Organization the Shanghai Cooperation Organization originates from the “Shanghai Five” meeting mechanism.
In 1989, China and the Soviet Union initialed the Sino Soviet eastern boundary agreement.
In 1990, China and the Soviet Union signed the agreement on the guiding principles for mutual reduction of military forces and strengthening trust in the military field in the border areas.
After 1991, with China as one side and Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan as the other, border negotiations and negotiations on Disarmament in border areas and strengthening confidence in the military field continued.
In April 1996, the heads of state of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan met in Shanghai and established a meeting mechanism.
Since its birth, the “Shanghai Five” has attracted the attention of the international community with its fruitful cooperation in the field of regional security.
The agreement on Mutual Reduction of military forces in border areas signed at the summit has completely ended the state of military confrontation between China and the Soviet Union in the border areas over the years during the cold war, making the 7400 kilometer long border zone a transparent and controllable space for peace, It has laid a solid legal and military foundation for the five neighboring countries to jointly maintain common stability in the region and deepen cooperation in the field of security.
With the development and changes of the regional situation and the influx of various international forces, coupled with the special ethnic, religious, cultural and other geographical conditions in Central Asia, intractable regional security problems have been perplexing governments all over the world.
After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the long dormant ethnic, religious and other regional factors began to have an important impact on the political and economic life of newly independent Russia and Central Asian countries.
The terrorist events continuously created by the illegal armed forces in Chechnya, the impact of the long-term war in Afghanistan, the infiltration of Islamic fundamentalism in Western Asia, the proliferation of drug and arms smuggling, especially the rampant activities of national separatist forces, religious extremist forces and international terrorist forces in Central Asia, pose a common threat to the political stability of the whole region.
The main topic of the third yuan tou meeting of the “Shanghai Five” held in Almaty in 1998 introduced the field of security cooperation.
The participating countries unanimously held that “any form of national separatism, national exclusion and religious extremism is unacceptable”.
The initiative of “all parties take measures to combat international terrorism, organized crime, arms smuggling, drug and narcotics trafficking and other transnational criminal activities” was written into the joint statement for the first time, so that the theme of “Shanghai Five” cooperation shifted from realizing military mutual trust and reducing military forces in border areas to exploring the establishment of an effective security cooperation model.
In February 1999, the “Islamic Movement” of Uzbekistan, supported by international terrorist organizations, committed six bombings in the capital Tashkent.
In August of the same year, the organization worked with ChechnyaFugitives and international terrorists from the Middle East and South Asia entered southern Kyrgyzstan from Tajikistan, creating a three-month hostage crisis and clamoring for the “establishment of an independent Islamic state” in the Fergana basin.
In August 2000, they launched a new offensive against Ukraine from the border of Tawu and Jiwu, and became a mortal malady that directly threatened the security of the three countries, namely, the three countries, and the Central Asian countries were called “plague in twenty-first Century”.
In addition, although the “Islamic Baath party” of Tajikistan reconciled with the authorities and entered the coalition government, it did not give up its long cherished wish to establish a political and religious regime and remained in contact with the “Islamic Movement” of Uzbekistan, the Taliban and other extremist organizations.
When presiding over the Kazakhstan national security conference, Kazakh President Nazarbayev pointed out that “various signs in the CIS countries in recent years show that international terrorism, religious extremist forces and national separatist activities are increasingly moving towards armed confrontation, and their criminal activities are becoming increasingly rampant, which has posed a real threat to the peace and stability of the CIS countries”.
In view of the severe regional security situation, the leaders of the “Shanghai Five” held timely consultations during the meetings in the past two years and formulated relevant preventive measures and struggle strategies.
The fact that several ethnic groups in the five countries live across borders and the characteristics of international terrorist forces using the border areas of many countries to engage in anti-government activities have made leaders of all countries realize that maintaining common security and stability in the region must rely on effective international cooperation.
The fourth meeting of the heads of state of the “Shanghai Five” was held in Bishkek in 1999, which officially proposed “taking joint action” to combat the three evil forces of national separatism, religious extremism and international terrorism.
At the same time, the leaders stressed that “it is absolutely not allowed to use their territory to engage in acts that undermine the sovereignty, security and social order of any of the five countries”.
At the fifth meeting held in Dushanbe in 2000, the heads of state of the “Shanghai Five” reaffirmed their determination to jointly crack down on the three evil forces and proposed to sign multilateral cooperation treaties and agreements among the five countries.
The meeting also stipulated that the heads of border defense, customs and security departments of the five countries will also hold regular meetings and organize joint exercises on anti-terrorism and anti violence activities within the framework of the five countries as appropriate.
After five years of smooth development, the “Shanghai Five” meeting mechanism has met the conditions for establishing a regional international organization on this basis.
On June 15, 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization announced its establishment.
The establishment of this organization is the inevitable result of the development of the current international situation.
(1) After the end of the cold war, the international situation generally tends to ease, but the world is not peaceful.
In the relations between major powers, the struggle between unipolarity and multipolarity is sometimes fierce and sometimes eased.
Central Asia, located in the hinterland of Eurasia, has become the focus of some international forces.
The three evil forces supported by international forces pose a serious threat to the security, stability and development of this region.
(2) Since the 1990s, regional cooperation has developed rapidly in the wave of globalization.
Facing this trend, it has become a realistic topic for the six countries to make use of their comparative advantages in economic development to strengthen economic and trade cooperation and promote common development.
(3) In the five years since the formation of the Shanghai five meeting mechanism, security cooperation among the five countries has played an important role in maintaining regional stability and development, from eliminating military confrontation in the border areas of the five countries, realizing military mutual trust and solving remaining border problems, to jointly preventing transnational criminal activities, curbing drug and arms smuggling and jointly combating international evil forces, Become the vitality and cohesion of the existence and consolidation of the “Shanghai Five” mechanism.
The development of the “Shanghai Five” meeting mechanism to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization is a qualitative leap in strengthening comprehensive cooperation among the six countries.
This organization has characteristics different from other international organizations.
These characteristics are formed by the continuous exploration of the “Shanghai Five” in the process of solving the historical problems left over by each other and strengthening cooperation.
(1) The “Shanghai Five” have formed a set of effective codes of conduct for solving and dealing with mutual relations, namely the “Shanghai spirit”.
Its core content is mutual benefit, mutual trust, equality, consultation, respect for diverse civilizations and seek common development.
(2) The Shanghai Cooperation Organization is an open organization that is non aligned and not aimed at third parties.
It does not regard other countries and regions as rivals and enemies and strives to develop good relations with them.
On the basis of mature conditions and consensus, recruit relevant countries that agree with the purposes and principles of the organization as new members.
Actively and steadily carry out various forms of dialogue, exchanges and cooperation with other countries and relevant international and regional organizations.
(3) The Shanghai Cooperation Organization is an all-round regional cooperation organization with security first.
The establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization is the fruit of mutual trust, mutual support, mutual help, unity and cooperation among Member States.
It faces the heavy task of maintaining security, promoting development and expanding comprehensive cooperation.
The original consultative approach will be institutionalized, regulated and multi-level. VII. Commonwealth of Independent States on December 8, 1991, the president of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus in the Soviet Union, shushkovic, Russian President Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Kravchuk, met in belovedge, on the outskirts of Minsk, the capital of Belarus, and signed an agreement on the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
The leaders of the three countries announced that “the Soviet Union, as the subject of international law and geopolitical reality, will cease to exist”.
Establishment of CIS with its coordinating body in Minsk.
The republics of the Soviet Union and other countries that agree with the purpose of the CIS can participate in the CIS.
On December 21, the leaders of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Russia, Moldova and Ukraine of the former Soviet Union met in Almaty and adopted documents such as the Almaty declaration and the protocol on armed forces, Announced the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the cessation of the existence of the Soviet Union.
Georgia was represented as an observer.
On March 1, 1994, the parliament of Georgia approved Georgia’s accession to the CIS.
The constitution of the Commonwealth of Independent States stipulates that the Commonwealth of Independent States is based on the sovereign equality of all Member States.
The Commonwealth of Independent States is not a state and does not have power over member states.
It serves Member States to further develop and strengthen friendship, good neighborliness, inter ethnic harmony, trust, understanding and mutually beneficial cooperative relations.
Member States coordinate efforts in international security, disarmament and arms controlAnd army building to ensure the internal security of CIS, including through the help of observer groups and collective peacekeeping forces.
When the sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of Member States and international peace and security are threatened, Member States should immediately consult, coordinate their positions and take corresponding measures.
The CIS headquarters is located in Minsk, the capital of Belarus.
Its main organizations are the CIS Council of heads of state and the Council of heads of government.
The Council of heads of state is the highest body of the CIS and meets twice a year.
The Council of heads of government meets four times a year.
Non routine meetings can be convened at the proposal of a member state.
The meeting will be held in the capitals of member states in turn, and leaders of all countries will preside over the meeting in turn according to the first letter of their country’s Russian name.
The Council of heads of state and government established permanent and temporary working bodies and subsidiary bodies respectively.
In addition, there are transnational parliamentary assemblies, transnational economic committees and payment unions, as well as ministerial councils for foreign affairs and defense.
In the first half of the 1990s, due to the domestic political turmoil, the overall economic recession and the decline of Russia’s international status, Russia did not care much about playing the role of the CIS, and even had the intention to throw away the burden.
After Putin came to power, he actively carried out CIS diplomacy, which gave new vitality to the fragmented CIS in the Yeltsin Era.
The cooperation among CIS countries in the political, economic and military fields took many forms and made substantive progress. VIII. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is abbreviated as NATO, also known as the North Atlantic alliance or the North Atlantic group.
There are currently 19 member states.
In the Cold War era, it was a military alliance for the United States to coordinate relations with Western European countries and unite against the Soviet Union.
On April 4, 1949, the United States, Canada, Britain, France, Belgium, Rwanda, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Portugal and Italy intended to sign the North Atlantic Treaty and announced the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
The main contents of the North Atlantic Treaty are: (1) unite all forces to carry out collective defense and maintain peace and security.
(2) The State Party maintains and develops its ability to resist armed attacks individually and collectively by means of “self-help and mutual assistance”.
(3) When a state party is subjected to “armed attack”, other States parties shall “take actions deemed necessary, including the use of force”.
(4) The scope of the “armed attack” on the State Party includes the territory of the State Party, other parts of Europe where the occupying forces of the State Party are stationed, and the islands north of the Tropic of return in the North Atlantic region.
(5) Establishment of the Council and other subsidiary bodies.
The headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is located in Brussels.
Turkey, Greece, Federal Republic of Germany and Spain have successively joined NATO.
France withdrew from the NATO defense integration agency in July 1966.
The main organizations of NATO are as follows: (1) the North Atlantic Council (i.e. the Council of Ministers) is the highest authority of NATO.
It is composed of the foreign ministers of Member States.
When necessary, the ministers of defense, finance and even heads of government also participate in the meeting.
Generally, it meets twice a year.
To consider major political, military and other issues.
(2) The defense ministers of the NATO countries meet twice a year to review the military integration plan, and the members of the NATO Military Integration Committee are responsible for the formulation of the plan.
(3) The Council of permanent representatives, also known as the permanent Council, is composed of a representative of each member state at the ambassadorial level.
Be responsible for daily affairs during the recess of the Council and the defense planning committee.
Meet at least once a week.
(4) The Secretariat is responsible for the preparation, organization and liaison of the NATO conference.
In addition to being responsible for the work of the Secretariat, the secretary general is also the chairman of the Council, the Defense Planning Commission and other institutions.
(5) The Military Commission is the highest military body of NATO under the leadership of the Council.
It is composed of the chief of general staff of Member States participating in military integration and meets three times a year.
The permanent chairman of the Military Commission is elected by the members of the Commission.
In addition to the above-mentioned main institutions, NATO also has four regional military command institutions: the European allied command in Mons, Belgium, is the most important military operation command institution of NATO.
The Supreme Commander is the commander in chief of the US armed forces in Europe.
It has jurisdiction over the central European Command, the Nordic command, the southern European Command, the five United Nations Air Force Command and the European allied mobile force command.
The Atlantic allied command, located in Virginia, is headed by American officers.
It has jurisdiction over the West Atlantic, East Atlantic, Iberian Atlantic, Atlantic attack fleet, Atlantic permanent Navy and Submarine Fleet Command.
The channel command in Northwood, England, is headed by a British officer.
There are also the regional commands of the United States and Canada.
In the early 1990s, with the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the military foundation of NATO’s existence was shaken.
However, NATO countries led by the United States began to actively and rapidly adjust the functions of the organization in the 1990s to find a basis for its continued existence.
In April 1999, at the Washington summit, NATO adopted the “new strategic concept for the 21st century” and established a long-term strategic direction and corresponding guidelines.
The introduction of the new strategy marks a fundamental change in the nature of NATO, indicating that NATO has changed from a defensive and regional military group in the cold war to an expansionary and offensive military group with global significance.
The new concept of NATO has strengthened the leading position of the United States in the organization and expanded the function and scope of action of NATO.
On March 12, 1999, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary joined NATO.
Romania, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Albania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovakia, Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia are also applying to join NATO for various purposes.
NATO has completely broken through the dividing line between the two camps in Europe during the cold war.
The adjusted NATO has strengthened the hegemonic position of the United States in the world and has become an effective tool for the United States to pursue hegemonism.
Its development and trend will have a significant impact on the peace and stability of the international community, so it has attracted universal attention all over the world.