System is a system, that is, things in a certain category are interrelated and restrict each other to form a whole.
The basic condition of the system is that its components are inseparable, interdependent and interactive.
The system can be a loose organizational connection or a strict legal organizational system.
The system includes subsystems at different levels, and subsystems at different levels also have relative independence.
The international community is an overall system, which is the environment and stage for the development and evolution of international politics and the world economy.
The world economic system and the international political system are the subsystems of the overall system of the international community.
As a system, the international community is close to the concept of “world system” or “international system” in a broad sense.
Emanuel Wallerstein, the founder of “world system theory”, defined the world system as follows: the world system is an entity with a single division of labor and multiculturalism.
As a system, it mainly involves three aspects: world economy, world politics and world civilization.
He believes that the most basic feature of the world system is to take the mode of production and its changes as the basis and take capital expansion as the driving force.
That is to say, the world system is and mainly a world economic system, the world political system is a derivative of the world economic system, and different forms of civilization are integrated and placed in the world economic system.
In this way, in the large system of international society, the world economic system and international political system are the most important, and they interact, penetrate and coexist. I. characteristics of the international political system the international political system is an independent and unified organic whole formed by the interaction between international political actors.
Although the international political system is composed of countries and international organizations, it is not a world government, a world group or a world international organization.
It has no national attribute, no unified sovereignty, laws and values, and no mandatory organizational system that can restrict all kinds of actors.
Therefore, the international political system is a loose political system.
It has the following characteristics: (1) the international political system has systematic characteristics.
The international political system belongs to the subsystem of the international community, but it itself is a large system, including many subsystems at different levels.
Specifically, according to the level of economic development, there are developed country system, emerging industrial country system and developing country system.
By region, there are the European community system, the Eastern European system, the US Canada system, the Asian system, the Latin American system and the African system.
Of course, it also includes the international organization system, the political party system, the religious and cultural system and so on.
Although the international political system is composed of subsystems at different levels, it is not a simple addition of subsystems, nor a simple extension of the operation law of subsystems.
It has its own special movement law.
The large-scale system shows the “resultant force” of many subsystems, and the interaction between subsystems forms the large-scale system.
The systematic characteristics of the international political system are first reflected in its structure.
The structure of the international political system is the international political pattern.
International political pattern refers to a relatively stable relationship structure formed by the interaction and interconnection of actors who play a major role in the international political arena, such as large countries or groups of large countries and even international organizations, in a certain historical period.
To a great extent, it reflects the strength contrast between the main political forces in the international political arena and the alliance or hostility between them in a specific historical period.
The international political pattern determines that international political phenomena are regular and organized.
They are subject to the overall constraints and provisions of the international political pattern, and they are not unrelated and isolated from each other.
The international political structure also determines that international political actors can not act at will.
Their policies, behaviors and relations should be regulated by the overall international political system structure.
Under different international political patterns, actors in different positions in the international political structure have different policies and behaviors.
According to the viewpoint of modern system theory, all systems have and must have structure.
Therefore, the existence of international political pattern makes the international political system have systematic characteristics.
In the reality of international politics, we can also clearly see the close relationship between various actors in international politics and the impact of the international political pattern on them.
When all countries formulate their foreign policies, the first factor to consider is the change of international political pattern.
Due to the end of the bipolar pattern, today’s world is in the transformation of the old and new pattern, and the trend of multi polarization and single polarization coexist.
Countries and other actors all over the world are adjusting their development strategies according to this situation and formulating foreign policies in line with the characteristics of the international pattern, so as to enable themselves to occupy a more favorable position on the world political stage.
In the context of the accelerated process of globalization after the cold war, the connection and integrity of the international political system are more distinctive.
One of the most obvious trends is the globalization of international politics, that is to say, in today’s world, what happens in any corner will be quickly spread all over the world and have a global impact.
From the Gulf War to the independence of East Timor to the terrorist attack on the United States, all of them have proved the globality and systematicness of international politics.
(II) anarchic order characteristics of the international political system compared with the domestic political system, one of the most significant differences between the international political system and the domestic political system is that it does not have a unified central government authority.
In essence, it is an anarchic and loose political system.
According to waltz, a famous American international political scientist, the main actors of the international political system, namely, sovereign states, do not have a strict hierarchical order between domestic political institutions.
Theoretically, they are equal regardless of size, and their functions are similar or the same in their own countries, The difference between countries lies only in their strength and ability.
Therefore, their position in the international political structure is also different.
The anarchy of the international political system determines that international political actors are subject to fewer mandatory constraints than domestic political actors, and their competition and struggle are more lack of rules than domestic politics, so they are more chaotic and intense.
At the same time, their cooperation is more difficult.
The anarchy of the international political system makes it not as good as the domestic political system, butNor can it be said that the international political system is completely out of order and rules.
In fact, since the formation of the modern international political system, international law and international morality have been born.
Although they do not have the authority of domestic laws and are violated and destroyed by some countries from time to time, they still make the international political system without government have certain regularity to a certain extent.
Judging from the overall historical trend of hundreds of years, international law, international system and international morality are still being followed more and more, and their binding force on international political actors is becoming stronger and stronger.
Moreover, there are more and more international organizations, international systems, international laws and rules, which are more and more detailed and detailed, and they have formed a tight network, Make this international political system without government more and more orderly.
(3) the international political system has the characteristics of substantive inequality.
Although in theory, all countries are equal in sovereignty, the size of power is different due to the different strength of countries, so the international political system is unequal in essence.
The modern global international political system has bred inequality from its origin and development.
The rise of the Western European powers that first established the nation-state and capitalist system, as well as their global colonial activities and hegemony wars, led to the emergence of the modern global international political system.
Until today, the traditional strong position of Western powers towards the vast number of Asian, African and Latin American countries has not been broken.
This inequality is mainly reflected in the inequality of political and economic relations among actors, the unreasonable political and economic status and the imbalance of political and economic development.
The reason is mainly caused by the power politics and predatory nature of colonialism, imperialism and hegemonism.
Since the 20th century, with the joint struggle and continuous efforts of all countries in the world, the international political system has evolved several times and major changes have taken place in all parties, but the state of inequality has not been completely broken.
Globally, the phenomenon of using the big to suppress the small, bullying the weak and relying on the rich to bully the poor still exists.
After the cold war, the United States relied on its superior strength to pursue world hegemony under the unipolar leadership of the United States.
The UN’s desire for unilateralism and international political system will inevitably be ignored and the UN’s pursuit of unilateralism and unilateralism will inevitably lead to the retrogression of the international political system.
It is this inequality that has become the root of all kinds of contradictions and conflicts in the international political system, and also reveals the historical inevitability and rationality of establishing a new international political order. II. Characteristics of the world economic system.
The world economy is an organic whole in which the economies of all countries and regions in the world are interconnected and penetrated through the international flow of commodities and various production factors on the basis of international division of labor and world market.
It is a global economic system beyond the nation-state.
It includes not only national economy, regional economy and various production modes, but also the overall of the world economy, such as the total amount of world production and circulation, world industrial structure, international trade, international finance, international investment, world population, resources, environment and so on.
The world economic system is mainly composed of the world production system, the world trade system and the world financial system.
The world economic system has the following distinctive characteristics: first, the world economic system is an organic and systematic whole.
It is not a simple sum or mechanical composition of the economies of countries or regions in the world.
In fact, these sub economies are mutual penetration, mutual influence and interdependence.
Together, they constitute this complete and unified world economic system.
Especially today, with the acceleration of economic globalization, the formation of a unified world market and the rapid development of science and technology, especially modern transportation and communication technology, have greatly shortened the time and space distance between countries and regions.
The rapid expansion of international trade, international finance, international investment, international technology and labor services and the increasing expansion and deepening of economic ties among various economies have greatly promoted the development trend of global economic regionalization and integration, thus closely integrating the economies of various countries and regions and forming a closer international division of labor and cooperation, It has turned the economies of all countries into an organic part of a unified global economic system.
As an objective economic system, the world economy has its own special contradictions and laws of movement.
The movement and development of the economic systems of all countries and regions in the world should be affected and regulated by the laws of movement of the overall world economic system.
Second, the world economic system is not fixed, but a historical category, which constantly moves and evolves according to its own contradictions and laws.
In the long period of primitive society, slave society and feudal society, due to the low productivity, the dominant natural economy and the underdeveloped social division of labor, although there are some commodity exchanges and personnel exchanges, there is no more general international division of labor and world market, so there are no basic conditions for the formation of a unified world economic system.
The formation and development of the world economic system is closely linked to the formation and development of the capitalist mode of production.
Since modern times, Western European countries have generally established the capitalist economic system and began colonization and capital expansion, which led to the formation of the world economic system.
From the 1860s to the end of the 19th century, some European and American countries successively took place and completed two industrial revolutions, which made the capitalist mode of production stand firm in the world, and promoted the development of international division of labor and the formation of world market.
After entering monopoly capitalism, in order to pursue high monopoly profits, monopoly capital groups in various countries ruthlessly exploit the inside and plunder the outside, which not only divide the world economically, but also divide the world territory, so as to finally form the world economy.
The world economy has experienced three development periods since its emergence: the first period, from the middle of the 18th century to the first World War, is the final formation of a unified and all inclusive capitalist world economic system.
In the second period, from the October Revolution in Russia to the 1980s, due to the emergence of a new socialist economy, the unified capitalist world economic system was broken and the world economy was divided into two, forming two opposing economic systems.
The third period began with the end of the cold war in the early 1990s,The world economy has entered a new period of development.
A unified world market, including the original socialist economic system, has been formed.
The globalization of the world economy is deepening, regional economic integration is accelerating, the knowledge economy is beginning to take shape, and the world economic system is accelerating in both depth and breadth.
Third, the world economic system is also an unfair and unreasonable historical system.
Today’s world economic system originated from the capitalist world economic system in Europe.
In fact, it is a process of “Marginalization” and “expansion” of the world in Western Europe.
Integration is the process of countries and regions outside the world system entering the system.
Marginalization is the inclusion of new countries in the world system.
With the deepening of the “Marginalization” process of the world system, the marginalized countries and regions continue to join the “commodity chain” of the whole world economy.
The world economic system is gradually expanding from Europe to the whole world through the process of “integration” and “Marginalization”.
In the process of the expansion of the world economic system, the relative position of geographical space with different degrees of economic development has emerged, which is the so-called “core region”, “semi marginal region” and “marginal region”.
The foundation of the world economic system is the worldwide division of labor, in which these different regions assume different economic roles.
Due to various political, economic and historical reasons, there is an obvious unequal exchange between different roles in these different regions, which is the basis for the operation of the capitalist world economic system and fundamentally stipulates the injustice of the world economic system.
Historically, the process of the expansion of the world economic system is actually the process of the western developed countries in the core region colonizing, plundering and exploiting the vast Asian, African and Latin American regions.
The world economic order and rules established in this process reflect the interests and values of western developed countries, while developing countries in semi marginal and marginal regions are still at a disadvantage in the world economic order.
Although after the two world wars in which imperialism competed with each other, the vast numbers of Asian, African and Latin American countries have won national political independence, they have not fundamentally changed the unfair and unreasonable old international economic order.
With the continuous advancement of economic globalization, the interdependence between the economies of all countries, including developed and developing countries, has developed in depth.
However, there is no doubt that this interdependence is extremely asymmetric, which determines the unfairness of the current international rules, It basically reflects the interests and requirements of western developed countries.
It can even be said that the westernized international system supports the current stage of economic globalization.
Under this asymmetric international institutional framework, with the development of economic globalization, there has been a phenomenon of resource and wealth accumulation centered on developed countries, which has greatly exacerbated the polarization between the rich and the poor in the world.
Since the 1990s, with financial globalization becoming the core and hub of economic globalization, the role of financial market in regulating the flow and allocation of resources around the world has become more and more prominent.
The domestic financial markets of developed countries, which are becoming more and more mature and integrated with the international market, have strengthened their ability to regulate the flow of global resources and exacerbated the effect of resource aggregation to developed countries.
Therefore, with the acceleration of globalization, the task of establishing a just and reasonable new international economic order still has a long way to go. III. interaction between international politics and world economy politics and economy are two basic categories that are both opposite and unified, interrelated and interactive.
International politics and the world economy are also such a contradictory unity.
In terms of the relationship between international politics and world economy, first of all, the world economy is the basis of international politics.
Although economy determines politics, politics does not passively accept the influence and role of economy, but actively reflects the economy and reacts on the economy.
Moreover, politics is a concentrated reflection of economy, and sometimes the reaction of politics is even decisive.
The same is true of the reaction of international politics to the world economy.
(1) the world economy is the basis for the formation and development of international politics, which is the product of the development of human society to a certain stage.
Before the 17th-18th century, politics was basically a domestic phenomenon.
Due to the limitation of productivity level, most countries in the world are still closed and isolated from each other, and international politics in the modern sense has not yet appeared.
With the emergence of capitalist mode of production in Europe, especially driven by the large machinery industry, the productivity level has been unprecedentedly improved.
Western European countries have successively established sovereign states in the modern sense.
In this way, international politics in the modern sense first appeared in Europe.
With the establishment of capitalist world market, the expansion of international division of labor and the growth of international trade, the major countries in the world are closely linked economically, and the world economic system was born.
With the development of capitalism all over the world, the whole world is connected not only economically but also politically.
It eliminates the isolation and isolation between countries in the past.
The international political phenomenon in the modern sense arises from this, and mankind has also entered the international political society from the general political society.
However, the main scope of international politics in this period was still limited to the capitalist countries in Europe, and the truly global international political system has not yet been formed.
The international political system in a truly global sense, as the sum of the relations between the global communities and countries, is the product of the development of capitalism to the monopoly stage.
At the end of the 19th century, capitalism began to shift from free competition to monopoly rule.
The process of Capital Agglomeration and production concentration also accelerated, and monopoly became the basis of all economic life.
The imperialist powers divided the world economically and finished dividing the world territory, and the capitalist world economy finally took shape.
All countries and nations in the world have been involved in the capitalist world economic system, and the whole world is integrated into a unified and opposing whole.
On the basis of the formation of the world economy, international political phenomena began to extend to all countries and regions, and the international political system in the global sense began to take shape.
After the Second World War, with KeWith the technological revolution and the great development of the world economy, a global interdependent international political system began to take shape.
The third wave of scientific and technological revolution, which rose after the war, has greatly promoted the development of social productive forces and accelerated the internationalization of production.
Based on the specialization of products, the scale and scope of international division of labor are further expanded.
The deepening of international division of labor will inevitably lead to the expansion of world market and the growth of international trade.
The development of international division of labor and international trade has promoted the internationalization of finance.
With the internationalization of production, trade and finance, the economic ties between countries have been strengthened unprecedentedly.
At the same time, a large number of international economic organizations and multinational corporations also came into being and joined the world economic system.
Moreover, the Second World War broke the international political pattern centered on Europe, led to the disintegration of the imperialist colonial system, and a series of newly independent sovereign states emerged after the war, making the scale of the world economic system grow unprecedentedly.
It is on the basis of this unified world economic system that a complete international political system, including more than 180 sovereign states and various transnational organizations, was finally established.
(2) the world economic pattern is the basis and premise of the international political pattern.
The world economic pattern refers to the structural state formed by the mutual relationship between various economic forces within the world economic system, or the strength comparison relationship between various economic forces.
It is the product of the development of social and economic life to a certain historical stage.
Its development and evolution has a significant impact on the international political pattern.
The international political pattern is a structural state formed by the mutual connection and interaction of the main forces on the international stage in a certain historical period.
It reflects the power contrast between the main roles in a certain historical period.
Different international political patterns are all formed on the basis of a certain world economic pattern.
Although the world economic pattern and the international political pattern are self-contained, they are interrelated and inseparable.
The relationship between them is mainly reflected in the important and even decisive impact of the formation and development of the world economic pattern on the international political pattern.
First of all, the formation of the power of international political actors is closely related to their economic strength and their position in the world economic pattern.
The strength of international political actors is essentially a kind of comprehensive national strength, while economic strength is the most basic element of a country’s comprehensive national strength and the most direct material basis of national strength.
Although the capacity of a country or group of countries in international politics depends on many factors, economic strength is the most basic and long-term decisive factor.
Economic strength is directly proportional to behavioral ability.
The change of the relationship of economic strength not only directly determines the structural state of the interconnection between international economic forces, that is, the world economic pattern, but also inevitably promotes the growth and decline of the international political power balance and leads to the change of the international political pattern.
Secondly, the change of the international political pattern is based on the transformation of the world economic pattern.
The world economic pattern has evolved with the changes in the comparative relationship between the economic strength of various countries.
The imbalance of economic development among countries in the world is a universal law of human society.
This imbalance is manifested not only in the difference of economic strength in space, that is, static imbalance, but also in the difference of economic development speed in time, that is, dynamic imbalance.
It is this dynamic imbalance that makes the original balance of economic strength constantly changing, thus changing the pattern of the world economy.
At the end of the 19th century, the economic development of Germany, the United States and Japan greatly surpassed the old colonial empires such as Britain and France and became a world economic power, which broke the original world economic pattern.
Therefore, wars between imperialist countries redrawing the world political map also appeared, which eventually led to the change of the international political pattern.
Thirdly, the world economic pattern determines the evolution direction of the international political pattern.
The change of the world’s political pattern is often the guide, and the change of the world’s political pattern is often seen from the perspective of history.
Although the evolution of the two is not synchronous, the trend and direction are always the same.
The international political pattern cannot deviate from the reality of the economic pattern for a long time.
After the 1970s, with the rapid economic development of Japan and Western Europe and the rapid expansion of economic strength, a three polar pattern of the capitalist world economy was formed, which promoted the development of the international political pattern from bipolar to multipolar.
(3) the reaction of the international political system and the international political pattern to the world economy.
The international political system and the international political pattern are formed on the basis of the world economic system and the world economic pattern.
Once they are formed, they have a significant impact on the economic relations of the international community, It even has a reaction to the types of the world economic system and the characteristics of the world economic pattern.
First of all, the struggle of various political forces in the international political system has an important impact on the formation and change of the world economic pattern.
The formation of any new world economic pattern is always realized by the struggle and contest of various forces around the world, which always presents the color of international politics.
Before the Second World War, the world economic system was characterized by the colonial oppression and economic plunder imposed by European powers on most residents of the world.
The final completion of this colonial system was closely related to the political struggle between the imperialist powers for colonies and spheres of influence in the international political system at that time.
As a result of this political struggle, the world is divided into two parts: oppressed nations and oppressed nations.
The vast colonial and semi colonial areas are the raw material producing areas and product markets necessary for the economic development of imperialist countries, and are the lifeline of the imperialist economy.
The colonial and semi colonial peoples were subjected to the cruel oppression, plunder and exploitation of imperialism.
This unreasonable and unequal international economic order is based on imperialist power politics.
Secondly, the basic characteristics of the international political pattern determine the type of world economic pattern to a great extent.
The international political pattern reflects the structure of the power comparison relationship between countries and a total resultant force between various forces on the international stage.
This total resultant force plays an important restrictive role not only in the structure of political relations, but also in the structure of economic relations.
After the Second World War, the United States and the Soviet Union formedThe international political pattern of bipolar confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union and the mutual opposition and mutual restriction between the two major powers and the East and West groups play a decisive role not only in international politics, but also in the international economy.
It divides the whole world into two, forming two camps with clear paths in politics and economy.
After the war, the complete world economic system was divided into two independent economic systems of socialism and capitalism and two parallel economic markets.
It is in this sense that American scholar Joan Spero said: “to a large extent, the structure and role of the world economic system are determined by the structure and role of the international political system.
” Thirdly, the international political pattern has a strong restrictive force on the economic relations between the main actors of the international system.
The structure of political relations plays a decisive role in establishing the country’s foreign economic ties.
The development of foreign economic ties not only reflects the economic requirements of the country, but also usually depends on the more important and essential political interests of the country, that is, security, sovereignty, and the status of the country in the international political system.
The country’s foreign economic relations and foreign economic policies are always restricted by the structure of political relations and contradictions among countries.
The international political structure is a general strategic relationship structure completed through countless differentiation and combination of political forces around several major power centers.
Once the international political structure is formed, it has relative stability in a certain historical period.
This relatively stable strategic relationship structure has a decisive impact on the development direction, scale and level of economic relations among various forces.
There have been traditional economic and trade exchanges between eastern and Western European countries in history.
Under the international political pattern of the confrontation between the two camps after the war, the sharp opposition between the two camps forced them to turn to their respective camps to develop economic relations, which almost completely interrupted all their economic ties.
For more than 20 years after the war, China and the United States broke off political relations and economic relations were almost completely isolated.
After the 1970s, political exchanges were resumed, and economic and trade relations were restored and developed.
Therefore, in the international system, political factors have a more direct and important impact on economic relations, both in space and time.
In the post Cold War era, the process of economic globalization has accelerated, political and economic factors have further penetrated into each other, and the trend of international political economy and international economic politicization is more obvious.
In a country’s foreign policy, the role of economic factors has increased significantly, and the competition between countries has turned to the competition of comprehensive national strength based on economy, science and technology.
All these have proved the close relationship between international politics and world economy, and the mutual influence and interaction between them constitute the basic content of the international community.