Russian sculpture in the 18th century received little attention in ancient Russian sculpture.
The 18th century was a turning point in Russian history.
Sculpture developed with the needs of architectural decoration.
The high relief decoration of the bell tower of mesikov and the wood carving decoration in petropavlovsky church are representative works of this period.
The sculptor Rastrelli (1675-1744) was Italian.
He took Russia as his second hometown and became the most outstanding sculptor in Russia in the early 18th century.
He had a great influence on the development of Russian sculpture art.
When Raj trelli first arrived in Russia, his work style had strong characteristics of Baroque art.
Later, he paid more attention to the characterization of characters.
His representative works include the bust of Peter the great, the horse riding statue of Peter the great, the portrait of mexicov, Queen Anna with a little black, etc.
In the second half of the 18th century, an outstanding national sculptor Shubin (1740-1805) appeared in Russia.
Shu bin was born in a peasant family.
His father was a stonemason.
After romonosov’s recommendation, he entered the Royal Academy of fine arts and then studied in Paris.
After returning home, he became an outstanding portrait sculptor.
Shubin’s carving skills are superb.
He is best at carving with marble.
Marble is like soft soil in his hands and can be carved into various shapes at will.
Most of his portraits are chest portraits, which have a strong realistic color.
Shubin created portraits for a series of famous figures of his time, such as the portrait of romonosov (1792), the bust of goritzen (1773), and so on.
Shubin was not interested in Rococo ornate techniques and affectation elegance, and he was not keen on empty decorative effects.
In the portrait of romonosov, Shubin outlines the decorative accessories on the dress at that time and the wigs popular in the upper class society, and expresses the scholar romonosov as a figure full of poetry and brilliant personality.
In Shubin’s era, classical sculpture gradually prevailed.
His portrait carving style was not favored by the aristocratic government.
He was commissioned by the court to produce very few works and paid very little.
There was no seat for him in the Academy of fine arts.
Finally, Shubin died of poverty in obscurity.
Sculptors of Shubin’s contemporaries usually followed the interest of French Rococo art, and later pursued classical style, which was very different from Shubin’s artistic style.
Schubin’s classmate gordievli (1744-1810) spent his early years in Paris.
His early works had Rococo style factors and were influenced by Falcone.
In his artistic maturity, he pursued classical style.
Prometheus is his early works.
His mature tombstone carvings, such as golizin tombstone and golizina tombstone, pay attention to dramatic effects in composition, which is consistent with the style tendency of contemporary historical paintings.
In addition, he is also good at decorative carving.
He once created decorative reliefs for the Earl of slemedev manor near Moscow.
These reliefs are based on classical myths and depict the dance of Dionysus, the wedding of Eros, the sacrifice of Zeus and other story plots.
The scene is happy and interesting.
The creation of sculptor kozlovsky (1753-1825) reflects the artistic style before the formation and transformation of Russian classical carving style in the 18th century.
Kozlowski studied at the Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts in his early years, then studied in Italy, and then came to Paris to work in sculpture.
After the age of 40, he taught at the Petersburg Academy of fine arts.
Kozlowski has made in-depth research on classical sculpture and human anatomy, is good at exploring poetic images in classical heritage, and pays attention to the combination with reality.
His works are slender and exquisite in shape, with elegant pastoral mood, but there are also some works of solemn classical style.
He played a great role in the development of Russian sculpture art.
The statues of shepherd boy (1775, bronze), sleeping God of love (1792, marble) and God of love with arrows (1797, marble) made by kozlovsky have warm emotions, stable and varied composition and exquisite modeling.
They use ancient themes, but show the beautiful image of mankind.
In addition to monument carving, kozlovsky is also good at decorative carving.
He once created large relief sculptures for St.
His other masterpieces include polikrat tied to a tree and the alert of Macedonia.
“Hagris on the horse” and “suvolov monument” are monument sculptures created by kozlovsky in the late period to commemorate suvolov, the outstanding commander of Russia.
The other two sculptors, schedrin (1751-1825) and Prokofiev (1758-1828), are somewhat similar to kozlovsky in style.
At that time, he was good at combining the sculpture with the architectural decoration, which made him pay attention to the architectural decoration perfectly.
His representative works are the goddess of Neva (1804) for the fountain of Peter palace and the statue of the goddess holding the globe (1812-1813) for the Navy Building in Petersburg.
In the second half of the 18th century, schedrin’s distinctive works in Russian sculpture include some mythical statues, such as mathea, sleeping Endymion and Venus.
Prokofiev is a student of gotiev.
His early art was influenced by Rococo art.
In the mature period of art, he became the representative of classical sculpture.
The fountain of Peter palace is carved with “happy sea god” and “volkhev”, which are neat and elegant, with a classical style.
Prokofiev also showed his outstanding talent in relief art.
The painting genius (1785) and winter (1819) take the simple plane as the background.
They are orderly in composition, full of rhythm and have an idyllic artistic conception.
The historical contributions made by some foreign sculptors employed in Russia in the 18th century can not be ignored.
For example, Nicolas Riley (1709-1791) taught in the Academy of fine arts for 20 years and trained many famous sculptors for Russia, including several sculptors mentioned above.
Falcone, a French sculptor who created the head of Peter the great and the monument to Peter the great (also known as the bronze Knight) for Russia, also made outstanding achievements in Russian sculpture art.