The main achievements of ancient culture are almost when the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Assyria and Babylon were in the rising stage, and the ancient Indus River Basin civilization (or haraba culture due to the site excavation) also developed in South Asia.
The early residents of the Indus Valley enjoyed a more developed urban life.
They began to cultivate and domesticate livestock.
They knew how to make pottery, spindles and offensive metal weapons.
They liked to carve jewelry with gold, silver, ivory, bronze and gemstones.
Hieroglyphics and handicrafts appeared, and their architecture was relatively perfect.
Between the 20th and 10th centuries BC, one of the Aryan tribal groups in ancient Central Asia went south to the upper reaches of the Indus River Basin and established social hegemony there.
Indian Aryan culture began to occupy a dominant position in the form of Indian culture.
Almost all the main cultural languages used in later generations of India came from Aryan language.
The long historical period from the Aryans entering the Indus River basin to the 6th century BC is called the Vedic era, which is equivalent to China’s Western Zhou Dynasty and Yin Shang Dynasty.
The Vedic era is limited to the 10th century BC and is divided into early Vedic era and late Vedic era.
The Aryans of India, together with the indigenous peoples of India, have created a splendid Vedic culture.
The Vedic Sutra, which can best represent the Vedic culture, is the earliest literature, religious classics and literary works of the Aryans in India.
Manshura (Proverbs, poems and creeds) constitutes the oldest part of Vedic literature.
Veda, which means “divine revelation” and “mysterious knowledge”, mainly includes four collections: Rigveda, soma Veda, yarouveda and akvaveda.
The master of translated them into “praise Ming theory”, “sing Ming theory”, “sacrifice Ming theory” and “disaster Ming theory”.
Rigveda is an ode to the gods that the chief priest exhorts and praises in the process of sacrifice.
There are 1028 poems, which are divided into ten chapters.
The really early part of Rigveda, which neither knows caste differences nor despises manual labor, is often characterized by the desire to increase food and material wealth, and even gods are often described as cooperating with humans to complete this task.
Samaveda hardly contains any independent subject matter.
Of all its 1549 poems, except 75, the rest are directly taken from Rigveda.
The poems in Samaveda are sung by a specific group of priests during the sacrifice to the God of wine.
Yajouveda not only includes the contents of Rigveda, but also some original prose creeds, with a total of about 2000.
It is a compilation of mantras and rules used when offering offerings to God in the process of sacrifice.
However, due to different texts, it is divided into black yajouveda and white yajouveda.
The arvaveda was written late, including 731 hymns (or divine spells), which are divided into 20 parts.
It mainly collects the famous sayings and good sentences of curing diseases, expelling disasters and overcoming curses, including some hymns praising the emperor of heaven and the virgin of the earth.
In addition to the above four collections, they also include a set of complex Sanskrit books, namely jingxingshu, written in Sanskrit prose, which mainly explains the sacrificial rites of Brahmanism and its origin) The forest book (i.e. aranjoga, which mainly deals with the mysterious sacrificial rites and some philosophical topics of Brahmanism) and the Upanishads (also known as Vedanta, which mainly deals with the philosophical topics of mysticism and idealism).
There are many in Sanskrit and its commentaries, which reflect the social situation of the later Vedic era to a certain extent.
The forest book is said to be written for reading in the forest.
Upanishads, which means “the end of Veda” and “the knowledge taught secretly by Shidou sitting together”, were the epitome of various esoteric knowledge at that time.
There are a large number of Upanishads, mainly including 13 kinds, including his Upanishads, the Upanishads of the singer, who is the cause, Guanglin Upanishads, doubt uphads, disaster uphads, partridge uphads, white mule uphads, Qi uphads and love uphads.
In addition, there are more than 100 other minor uphads.
After the 6th century, a number of scriptures with more extensive contents gradually appeared, such as inheritance Sutra, heard Sutra, family model Sutra, ritual Sutra, Dharma Sutra, Sutra of numbers, and bharatisa shake punishment ā Dusha Wren А Penalty.
They mainly include phonetics, phonology, etiquette, literary law, etymology and Astronomy (including mathematics and astrology).
Although these scriptures are no longer “divine revelation”, they are usually included in the Vedic scriptures, known as “Vedic diversity”.
Before and after the emergence of Vedic diversity, 18 books of Puranas came out, which were translated into ancient history pool in China, such as Vishnu Puranas, so-called Puranas, man and son Puranas, etc.
The content of the book of purgatory generally includes four aspects: God created the world.
The activities of Manu and his descendants.
Activity records and genealogy of Japanese and lunar dynasties in the Ganges River Basin.
In fact, there is only the last part of the content that can be regarded as historical documents in the past books, and most of the rest are filled with absurd myths and legends related to religion.
Plagiarism and similarities are common.
Vedas and Puranas are one of the important achievements of ancient Indian culture, the most important of which is the Rigveda.
Its importance lies in the fact that “it is a true folk belief that has not been affected by monk religion, and believes in countless kinds of elves, ghosts and witchcraft, which is an extremely valuable source of knowledge”.
It not only provides the blueprint and inspiration for the late Vedas, but also an important document for the study of Ethnology and religious history.
The hymns, prayers, incantations, blessings, myths, legends and folk songs in the Vedic scriptures and Puranas turn them into literary works, thus depicting us a picture of religious and social life in the Vedic era.
For example, the sacrifice described in the late Vedas is usually a religious ceremony presided over by the kings who have achieved territorial expansion to a certain extent.
Victory wine, topping ceremony and horse sacrifice begin to appear in the ceremony, which may indicate the emergence and development of religion and the emergence of the concept of political unity.
In the Rigveda, the caste system only exists in a vague form between the Yuli lines, but it has been finalized in the later Vedic era.
The study of the Vedas can provide us with a clear context of the evolution of the ancient caste system.
In the early Vedas, women could participate in sacrifices with their husbands,Access to education.
But in the late stage, the birth of a girl is often seen as a “source of misfortune.
” The two epics Mahabharata and Ramayana compiled from the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD are another fruitful achievement of ancient culture.
They contain 100000 lines and 24000 lines of Psalms (two lines and 16 notes per line), which is equivalent to eight times of Homer’s epic or 19 times of the Bible.
The two epics reflect the social life in the era of the decline of slavery and the rise of feudalism in India, involving philosophical, religious and legal issues at that time.
They also contain rich folklore, fables, myths, myths, ethics, morality, geography and astrology.
They can be said to be a great Encyclopedia of ancient India.
Ramayana is translated as “Rama travels” or “Rama biography”.
It tells the story that Prince Rama was exiled due to the jealousy of the old princess, and his wife siduo was robbed and captured by ten demon kings.
After that, with the help of Monkey King Hanuman, he was able to reunite his husband and wife and restore the throne.
This story was originally created by folk oral.
It has been enriched in the long-term popularity.
Finally, it was compiled by the poet ant leech.
Rama is regarded as the embodiment of Vishnu, the great God in Brahmanism.
His character of bravery, diligence, filial piety, couple loyalty, brotherhood and magnanimity reflects the ethics of ancient Indian society.
Ramayana has a strict structure and a single plot, while Mahabharata is much more complex and loose.
The main plot of this epic has appeared in the early 10th century BC.
In the process of enriching for several centuries, it was finally compiled by Piyasa and others.
In addition to the epic stories, there are about 200 legends, story style interruptions, contents of legal theory, poems praising God, theological and philosophical works.
Mahabharata is paraphrased as “the story of the great bharata royal family”.
It takes the Indian society in the era of the dispute and decline of slavery and the rise of feudalism as the broad and profound Beijing, and takes the struggle of the descendants of King brahdo for the throne as the central story.
It vividly describes the images of hundreds of important figures of all classes and strata, and effectively reflects the spiritual outlook of the society and the people’s desire for the country at that time.
The basic outline of Mahabharata is that the descendants of King bharata are divided into two branches: Pandu and Gulu.
After the death of their father, the five brothers of Jianzhan king of the Pandu family were occupied by the difficult enemy of the Gulu family, persecuted and avoided living among the people.
Later, Jianzhan got half of the barren land and managed miserably, but he was won by the difficult enemy’s dice trick.
After twelve years of hard war, my brother fled to another country and lived in exile.
After the expiration of the exile period, the enemy still did not hand over his territory, so the two sides joined the alliance, and after 18 days of fierce fighting, they won the battle and returned to the country.
Throughout the book, the 18 day war only accounts for about one fifth of the space, and the rest is other content.
Mahabharata is very much like an Old Testament, including genesis, kings, Psalms, songs of songs and Ecclesiastes, as well as laws, customs, morality and lessons.
It contains a lot of historical materials of ancient Indian society, but due to the processing of previous dynasties, the level of the times is very unclear.
After India’s independence, after decades of efforts by many scholars, Mr.
suktanga’s “refined edition” edited according to various existing manuscripts has been published, but the rich content of the epic still needs scientific analysis and research.
If Ramayana puts forward a lofty ideal of Aryan life, Mahabharata is a great representative work of Indian civilization, culture, science and knowledge, including many exemplary interruptions.
The climax of Indian civilization began in the Ramayana period and reached its peak in the Mahabharata period.
Referring to the significance of this epic, the author of Mahabharata wrote: “although someone is proficient in the four Vedas, various Vedic branches and Upanishads, he is not a good scholar if he knows nothing about the legend of Mahabharata.
” Many chapters in Mahabharata provide profound knowledge, lofty piety, esoteric prayer theory, grand sacrifice and Dharma preaching, so that we can obtain all the knowledge of Indian Aryans.
The world-famous philosophical works Bhagavad Gita (the old translation of the song of God and guitar), as well as the works of piety and gods, Vishnu thousand list, continued God song, vishmo song and the liberation of the elephant king, are all part of Mahabharata, which are known as the “five treasures” of Hinduism.
The two epics, especially Mahabharata, have had a great impact on the literary development of India and even abroad, and their significance can not be ignored.
At the same time, Indian scholars call it “the fifth Veda” because it provides the last key to study the general picture of ancient Indian ethics, customs and religious teachings.
There are many chapters in the Vedas and the two epics, which express the amazement of ancient Indians about nature and the joy of understanding the laws of nature, as well as their understanding, mastery and attempted application of the laws of nature.
This understanding, mastery and attempt to use is manifested in witchcraft which is both with mythology and from religious sources.
Just as alchemy and alchemy were to the production of chemistry, witchcraft was also the bud of “science” at that time.
It not only promoted the emergence of religious theology, but also guided people to start philosophical thinking to a certain extent.
The early Vedic era is only human childhood, and people still need to develop the abstract thinking ability of philosophy.
They see everything in the eyes of children.
The hymns in the early Vedas, such as the Rigveda, are simply expressions of daily wishes: for livestock, food, rain, safety, health and offspring.
However, it should be admitted that people have begun to think about the universe.
It was only in the Upanishads era that ancient Indians first liberated the consciousness of philosophical theory in the modern sense from their only interest in witchcraft rituals, and really put forward some philosophical problems.
For example, the Upanishads of Baishu clearly asks, “what is the reason? What is the Brahma? Where are we born? What do we live on? What do we stand on?” On the eve of the rise of Buddhism in the 6th century BC, India was immersed in philosophical thinking, emerged a large number of different views and systems, and actively publicized them in different social strata.
Later philosophical activities, basicIt is only the development and interpretation of these original views.
Although a number of philosophers have appeared one after another, generally speaking, they basically can not put forward any new philosophical views, but each supports an ancient Indian philosophical system.
The development of ancient Indian philosophy can be roughly divided into three stages.
（1） From the emergence of Upanishads to Philosophy in the 6th century BC.
It is generally believed that the beginning of Indian philosophy began with udaleg Aruni’s theory of living things in the Upanishads of the singer.
Although the theory of living things is still a very primitive materialist philosophy, Aruni was the first person to systematize the earthly concept of prehistoric India.
The concept of “movement” is the foundation of Aruni’s theory of “existence” (change).
After Aruni, jevonga put forward the oldest idealism theory in India, holding that “existence” is the immovable “Brahma”, and put forward the thoughts of karma, reincarnation and liberation.
Thus, the debate between the two schools of philosophy began.
（2） Philosophy from the 6th century BC to 330 BC.
This is a stage in which a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend in the ideological field.
On the issue of upholding or opposing the theory of karma, reincarnation and liberation, many new theories have been developed and formed, such as the theory of elements, the theory of destruction, the theory of chance, the theory of self nature, the theory of impermanence, the theory of selflessness and the theory of twelve causes.
I don’t know, fate and asceticism.
In the Chang ahan Sutra, Buddhists summarized the philosophical views at that time into 60 “theories”, and the names of these philosophical schools were recorded in the Upanishads of the white mule.
（3） Philosophy from 330 BC to 320 ad.
There is an obvious phenomenon of systematization in the Indian philosophy system.
An overview of the most popular Indian philosophy in ancient times discusses 16 philosophical systems, and they are generally divided into nine schools at present.
These include the maimansha sect (pre thinking sect), Vedanta sect (post thinking sect, upanishadism sect), number theory sect (sengyisang, yoga sect, righteous sect (niyaya sect), Shenglun sect (vishishi sect), and the “heresy” against the authority of Veda: shunshi sect (vavaka sect, vakhobati sect), Buddhism and Jainism.
Among the above philosophical schools, maimancha and Vedanta represent the ideological trend of subjective idealism.
They believe that “existence” is only an illusion, and consciousness and spirit are real and reliable.
Only when the internal spiritual “I” is communicated with the cosmic spiritual “Brahma”, can we achieve the emancipation state of “Brahma and I are one”.
Zhengli and Shenglun school is a philosophical trend of objective idealism.
It absolutizes human consciousness and general concepts, and develops a thought similar to Buddhist Yinming (logic and Ethics).
It believes that “Brahman and I are one” can be achieved only through the correct steps of logical thinking.
Strictly speaking, yoga school is not a school of philosophy at all.
It means the worship of a certain practice handed down from ancient times and believes that supernatural power can be obtained from it.
Although it also discusses a special philosophical point of view, there is no internal connection between the two, but philosophers of different systems often rely on the unique experience gained from yoga practice to defend their own philosophy.
The school of number theory is an incomplete ideological trend of idealism, which recognizes both the importance of the material world and the reliability of thought.
They are “stragglers” such as Aristotle in the development of human dialectical thinking.
Jainism advocates that the highest truth is absolute eternity.
The Upanishads theory and the eternal flowing Buddhist theory are both extreme things.
They only admit that there are some truths in them and believe that eternity and change are true.
This is the “non determinism” of the school.
In order to maintain this harmonious attitude in philosophy, the school developed a special logical Dialectics: “seven branches of theory”, that is, there, no, there and no, can not be said, there and can not be said, there and can not be said, there and can not be said, there and can not be said, there and can not be said.
To sum up, it is not difficult to see that the development of Indian philosophy mainly means the development of different systems with clear boundaries, rather than generated and developed in answering the basic philosophical questions such as “the relationship between thinking and existence” and “whether thinking can understand the real world”.
Of course, shunshipai is the only exception.
Shunshi school represents a simple trend of materialism and spontaneous dialectics.
Such a philosophical view appeared earlier in India.
For example, Mahabharata once mentioned the theory of nature, the theory of self nature and the theory of transformation.
Naturalists believe that the material world is eternal, not dominated by any spirit or law, nor created by God, but a collection of various accidental factors.
Although it denies the regularity of the objective world, it has a distinct tendency of materialism and atheism.
The theory of self nature affirms the regularity of the objective world and holds that everything moves and stops due to the function of internal “self nature”.
The theory of transformation takes another step forward.
While affirming the primacy of material, it believes that the reason for the transformation or development of the material world lies in the interaction of three “ancient” virtues, such as joy, sorrow and madness.
In addition, the “atomism” of Jainism and Zhengli school, the recognition of the objective material world to some extent by the maimansha school and the principle of “touch” (caused by contact) of Buddhism also contain materialistic factors.
However, shunshi school can be said to be the epitome of the trend of materialism in ancient India.
It believes that the spiritual world is derived from the material world.
The universe is composed of earth, wind, water, fire and air.
There is no soul in the world, nor the highest spirit and inner self of the universe.
A complete negation of the Vedas.
It believes that sacrifice and reincarnation are deceptive tricks, denies the existence of the afterlife, and emphasizes that people should pursue happiness in the real world.
It is not difficult to see that the materialist epistemology of shunshi school is very obvious.
It abandoned the argument about supernatural entities, but failed to establish a positive theoretical system, so its materialism is limited to opposing religious ideas.
It should be emphasized that the shunshi School of materialism, like other idealist philosophical schools, has a common feature, that is, the existence of external things only pays attention to its situation and nature, dynamic (concrete change) or static (Abstract eternity), without paying attention to the space-time conditions of its existence.
In addition to the achievements in literature and philosophy, ancient India also produced a large number of legal books to safeguard the interests of the ruling class, such as the code of Manu, the code of man and son (narata), Vishnu code, Shusi code and sacrificial code, yegina vogya code, bodayana code and vakhobati code, which are collectively referred to as “legal theory”.
The earliest meaning of the so-called “law” may be “order of things”.
In addition to “all dharmas (things) are empty”, the Buddhist law also refers to religious theory.
By the 2nd century BC, the concept of “law” was gradually transformed into political law.
The theory of law generally focuses on the problems of religion, civil law and criminal law.
Its basic content is to maintain the social order centered on Brahman.
It can be said that it is a theory specialized in the code of conduct in Brahmanism and later Hindu tradition, and it can also be called “law”.
There are two forms of works on Legal Theory: Legal classics and inheritance.
Since the sixth century BC, the code of moru has been replaced by the code of moru.
In the history of legal theory, the manu code is a milestone.
It plays a role of connecting the past and the future.
Up to now, the “law Sutra” no longer appears, and the “inheritance” starts with it.
Moreover, all the later legal works take the “manu code” as the authority, which is basically the product of revision on the basis of the “manu code”.
The manu code is the code of conduct used to consolidate and develop social relations and social order conducive to the ruling class in the era on which it came into being.
Among the 2682 hymns in its 12 chapters, “the king’s law” accounts for 982 hymns in three chapters, including more than 150 hymns in the civil law dealing with property disputes.
There are 131 eulogy articles in one chapter, and there are many similar eulogy articles in other chapters.
The criminal law safeguarding the interests of the ruling class accounts for about 394.
There are 606 hymns in about three chapters that clearly and unmistakably safeguard the status of Brahmanism.
The articles advocating karma and “reincarnation and liberation” account for 106 hymns in one chapter.
The other 463 odes respectively include the creation theory, the origin of the law, the general theory and the conclusion.
The code of Manu obviously imprisons the people’s thoughts with legal provisions that embody the will of the exploiting class, safeguard religious bad habits, unequal social hierarchy and safeguard the interests of the rulers.
At the same time, it also uses the sermon of reincarnation and liberation to make them content to endure the exploitation and oppression of the present world.
The manu code regards those rebels who dare to fight and think, calm and think as “heresy”. II. Main achievements of medieval culture after entering the middle ages, India inherited and carried forward its ancient cultural tradition and made brilliant achievements in some aspects.
There were several cultural centers, such as Jianzhi in the South and Nalanda in the north.
According to Xuanzang, there are more than 10000 students in nalantuo temple, including many foreign students.
There are special research institutions in the temple.
Although they mainly study Buddhist and Brahmanic classics, they also include medicine, pathology, literature and other disciplines.
Jianzhi in the South focuses on spreading Indian culture to East and Southeast Asia.
Ancient grammar masters Bernini and boteni and others basically eliminated the slang and colloquial elements in ancient Sanskrit in Sanskrit grammar books “eight chapters” (Bologna Sutra) and “Da Shua” (DA Shua), which made Sanskrit purified to a great extent when entering the middle ages.
However, Sanskrit gradually separated from the people, Become the professional literary language of the upper class.
Of course, without the purification or standardization of Sanskrit, there will never be the prosperity of Sanskrit Literature in later generations.
Sanskrit literature developed greatly in the kusana Dynasty, especially in the Gupta Dynasty, mainly in three aspects: (1) there were a wide range of literary creation activities in all India, forming a number of creation centers such as Fahrenheit City, wangshe City, mojietuo, Qunu City, Gujarat, Kashmir and Jianzhi.
（2） The form of literary works is no longer limited to poetry.
Indian unique Rhymes (prose and poetry are used alternately), poetic dramas, stories, novels, literary and artistic theories have begun to develop.
（3） With religious literature still accounting for a considerable proportion, secular literature has developed greatly.
Although Sanskrit literature has made great achievements and there is no lack of realistic expression in its works, its main feature is to imitate the ancient format, pursue the description of formalism, pile up words and sentences, and can only be appreciated by a few people.
Around the 10th century, in order to popularize the doctrine, the Hindu reformers began to preach and write in local dialects instead of the Orthodox tradition of preaching in classical Sanskrit.
Therefore, in addition to Sanskrit literature, there are literary works created by Bangladeshi, malat, Gujarat and Telugu in their own spoken language.
In the literary creation of the middle ages, long poems, poetic dramas and story literature have made outstanding achievements.
At the same time, it also produced a number of prestigious writers and excellent works handed down to later generations, such as: Wang Mian, Kalidasa, bharavi (Rihui), Ma Wu, Baisha, shoudharaja, bharata (Drama theorist), vishagadado (old translation of disushu), tanding, subandu, Bana, Sanbu zunzhe, Gongde Fu, Anzhu and Yuetian.
“Luohu family”, “Yunshi”, “Shanmin and Youxiu”, “little mud cart”, “collection of drama theories”, “moropica and huotianyou”, “Yong Jian and Guangyan”, “sagundara”, “seal of the minister”, “Longxi”, “Zhu Ying”, “five volumes of books”, “the line of the king of Jie Ri” and “the deeds of the ten Princes”, etc.
Now on its specific situation, a few examples are as follows.
Indian dramas are mostly poetic dramas, which originated from ancient pantomime dance.
The real dramas began in the kusana Dynasty.
The works of Ma Wu, a famous Buddhist theorist and poet at that time, were very popular.
His “what the Buddha did” was discovered in Turpan Basin in China in the early 20th century.
At that time, Baisha was also a famous playwright.
His latest works include five nights and the dream of bosuo pocado.
The Gupta Dynasty was an era of dramatic talents, such as shoudharaja, whose masterpiece was the little mud cart.
The traditional Indian drama theory was systematically sorted out during the Gupta Dynasty.
In the collection of drama theories, bharata involved all aspects of drama creation and talked about the feelings expressed by Drama: love, excitement, panic, fear, disgust, pity, envy and so on.
At that time, Kalidasa, the world’s first-class writer and playwright, left us three famous works.
Among them, the seven act play sagandara can be called a world famous work.
It is also the first Indian play published in English translation.
“Whirlwind”Build the philosophical foundation of Hinduism in the times.
As an Indian philosopher pointed out, “after entering the vast Brahma sea, different philosophical trends converge into a perfect unity.
” With the spread of Hinduism, Vedanta philosophers who respected this system have been persistently looking for their own philosophical basis from the Bhagavad Gita since the era of shangkala, making notes for the heart of the Bhagavad Gita and widely publicizing it.
Bhagavad Gita is a fragment of Mahabharata.
In terms of form, it is a long poem with beautiful rhythm.
In terms of content, it is a metaphysical work, which covers almost all ancient Indian philosophical schools.
From Vedas, Sanskrit, Upanishads, scriptures, Vedanta to number theory, yoga, righteousness, victory theory 1, maimanca, Buddhism, Jainism, shunshilun and other important philosophical thoughts or ethical theories of philosophical schools are all included in its complex system.
Its central thought and ultimate purpose is to provide proof for the “liberation” of religion, so it creates an “I” that exists independently from the material world.
In terms of specific argumentation methods, generally speaking, the gavad Gita does not deny the objective material world, but its purpose is to deny the subjective initiative, and then deny the possibility of influencing and transforming the world, so as to make people succumb to and endure all the disadvantages of the earth, so as to rise into the eternal silent paradise after liberation.
In addition to their achievements in literature and philosophy, the Indian people have also cultivated lush flowers of art, such as dance, in the long historical process.
The katakali dance in the North expresses the scenes in the two epics with delicate feelings by coordinating the movements of the eyes and face with the limbs.
Katak dance, which is also a northern dance, has a very strong rhythm.
While the dancers keep swinging their arms, they also step on the rhythm with beautiful bell on their feet.
It is lively and natural, showing the profound dance attainments of the Indian people.
Most of the southern bharata dances are female solo dances, mainly showing the sculptured gods in temples.
However, the most outstanding artistic achievements of ancient and medieval India should be plastic arts, including the rock pillar edict made of a single boulder in the age of Asoka, the @ blocking wave and tower of Mahayana Buddhism, the lecture halls, temples and Buddha statues carved by Mahayana Buddhism on the rocks, and the Gandhara carving art combining realism and idealism in the Kushan Dynasty, The world-famous art of Ajanta grottoes and erola grottoes and the Taj Mahal, known as one of the seven largest buildings in the world.
Among the plastic arts in India, the art of Ajanta Grottoes can be regarded as one of the best.
It was excavated in the 2nd century BC.
In the following 800 years, the Indian people turned a barren mountain into a magnificent art treasure house with simple tools and tenacious perseverance on the f rock cliffs in Maharashtra.
Ajanta Grottoes include 30 caves.
Let’s take cave 1 as an example.
In front of it is a stone statue of Sakyamuni about three meters high.
The three faces of the Buddha show expressions of joy, pain and meditation, which is one of the important features of ancient Indian plastic arts.
This stone carving is the best representative work in Buddhist art.
The lintel is exquisitely carved.
The arch and six stone pillars are carved with “flying sky” and fairies.
The stone statue of four deer with the same head is engraved on the middle stone column on the right.
The four deer bodies stand on two sides and lie on two sides, and the head of the deer is carved very vividly no matter which deer body is connected with it.
From the Ajanta grottoes, we can also see the general picture of the material and cultural life of India at that time.
The countless pearls inlaid on the head of the Buddha and the body of fairies, the rich courtyards and gorgeous clothes show the social and economic development of ancient India.
In addition to sculptures, there are murals with harmonious layout, vivid image, bright colors and exquisite skills on the cave walls on both sides of the Buddha Hall and monk’s room.
It is precisely because Ajanta Grottoes have reached a very high artistic level in performance skills that it has been highly praised by artists all over the world.
The Taj Mahal, known as “stone poem”, “marble dream” and “solidified music”, is a masterpiece of Indian Islamic art.
It was built between 1632 and 1654.
The Taj Mahal is deeply influenced by the architectural style of Persian Shiraz, but it has changed and innovated.
If we say that Hindu temples are simple, thick and richly carved stone carvings, the Taj Mahal is a fresh and crystal jade carving with exquisite carving.
However, the Taj Mahal also absorbs some advantages of Hindu architecture and plastic arts, especially in terms of luxury and richness of decoration, which embodies the perfect integration of Hindu art and Islamic art.
The Taj Mahal is beautifully decorated.
On the arch of the bedroom, the scriptures of the Koran are engraved and inlaid with decorative lace of precious stones.
Walking into the arch is like opening a golden and jade set dowry.
It is dazzling and dazzling.
The doors and windows of the five palaces inside the bedroom are made of white marble.
Natural light is adopted to make the room bright, like a temple with lights and candles.
The vines and flowers carved on the door leaf and window lattice are made of gold and emerald.
They are inlaid with various gemstones, crystals and agates.
The patterns are fine and the veins of the leaves are clear and discernible.
The most precious work of art is an octagonal white marble openwork screen in the central palace, which is engraved with a variety of reliefs and glittering gemstones as many as stars.
The snow white Taj Mahal buries the love between the Mughal Shah Jahan king and queen mumataj Mahal, but in fact, it is not only the crystallization of the wisdom and sweat of the working people of India, but also an immortal masterpiece of Indian national cultural tradition and Central Asian architecture, modeling and garden art.
When reviewing the great achievements of ancient and medieval Indian culture, we should not forget that the Indian people have also made remarkable achievements in medicine, astronomy and mathematics.
The development of agricultural production and the prevalence of religious sacrifice have directly promoted the progress in some fields of natural science.
For example, in medicine, “arvaveda” records 77 diseases and corresponding symptomatic drugs, most of which are golden stone plants.
The number of bones in the human body is also contained in the arvaveda and the Bodhisattva, which is only slightly different from modern ones.
In the late ancient times, two famous doctors appeared: Miao Wen and ^ Luojia.
It is said that Luojia was the royal doctor of King kaniska and wrote the collection of ^ family.
He divided ancient Indian medicine into eight parts (branches): extraction medicine (Dentistry), sharp weapon medicine (surgery), body medicine (internal medicine), ghost medicine (Neurology), children’s medicine (Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology)Department), general medicine prescription, long-term disease medicine prescription and sexual medicine prescription.
He also used a special chapter in his book to discuss that nutrition, sleep and diet are the three elements related to human health.
From the 7th to the 8th century, both doctors named pobaita wrote medical monographs “synopsis of eight subjects” and “collection of eight subjects classics” on the basis of Luojia.
People’s respect for sacrificial rites promoted the development of art, geometry and astronomy to a certain extent.
The symbol and concept of “zero” began to appear in the “solar manual” produced in the 4TH-5TH century.
The application of “zero” undoubtedly makes the decimal method and positioning counting carry method that have appeared in the ancient Indus River Basin civilization more perfect.
In this way, Indian scientists have been able to study the methods of square root and cube root, master the summation rules of arithmetic series and geometric series, find the square root of irrational numbers, solve quadratic inequality equations and identities, and study and formulate the sine table of trigonometric functions.
In the 6th century, the calculation of PI was very accurate, which was set as 3.1416. The development of mathematics promoted the development of astronomy, and produced a number of famous astronomers and astronomical works, such as Aliye, the old tryst, the Vatican, the Vatican, the cloak *, and the five Handbook, the manual of Brahman, the Brahman astronomical Scripture, the goggal astronomy, the modern gal and the star Brahman, and Brahman Sutra.
In their observation, they believe that the earth does not move, and the sun, moon and stars go around the earth.
This is recorded in long Shu’s theory of great wisdom.
For example, the method of calculating the year of the sun and the moon is: it takes 27 days and 21 / 60 days for the moon to circle the earth.
According to the relationship between the moon and the earth orbiting the sun, there should be 29 and 15 / 31 days per month.
If calculated according to the solar year: it should be 30 and a half days per month.
It is customary to calculate according to 30 days.
Undoubtedly, this is very accurate.
However, the development of astronomy is the same as that in the ancient two river basins.
Cover and contain everything from astrology.
For example, the “Guang Ji”, which is written by *, is an encyclopedia book that uses astrology in gardens, stone, marriage, divination, architecture, animal design, etc. III. The overall characteristics and influence of ancient and medieval culture the development of ancient and medieval culture in India is unique and rich in connotation.
It is difficult for any professional scholar with profound attainments to explain all aspects of it incisively and vividly.
Therefore, we can only roughly summarize its overall characteristics as follows: first, it has strong religious connotation.
Culture is the sum of material wealth and spiritual wealth created by human society in the process of historical practice.
There is the closest relationship between human power and the knowledge he has.
In the ancient and Middle Ages, there was basically no significant progress in India’s social productivity, and there was no amazing innovation in production technology.
Although natural science has made some achievements, it is directly related to the mysterious sacrificial rites.
Such low material living conditions can not provide people with any fundamental possibility to correctly understand and understand, and then artistically reflect the world in which they live.
Considering the fact that religion has been prosperous in India for a long time and has played a great guiding role in people’s spiritual life, it is not difficult for us to understand why religious doctrines, religious ethics and religious philosophy are more or less mixed with the main cultural achievements of ancient and medieval India.
For example, in the earliest Vedic literary works, there has been the emergence of God from natural phenomena, which reflects the existence of Vedism.
In the later Vedic literary works, there are many ode poems reflecting the ritual of sacrifice and the dialogue between man and God, which is the evidence of the rise of Brahmanism and the reappearance of art.
Although there are differences and contradictions among many philosophical schools in ancient and medieval India, they basically have one thing in common, that is, they recognize that the universal spirit “Brahma” is the primary noumenon.
It creates God and the world in its self-development, and advocates and strives to reach the highest level of “Brahma and I as one”, which is directly derived from the teachings of Brahmanism.
As for the schools of Buddhist philosophy and Jainism philosophy, they are inseparable from the teachings of Buddhism and Jainism.
In terms of law, we take the most influential manu code as an example.
According to statistics, only about 25% of the book speaks of pure law, and most of the rest is related to religion, especially Brahmanism.
In its twelve chapters, it praises civilization with 1034 articles to ensure the maintenance of the teachings and rules of Brahmanism, accounting for about 38.
55% of the content of the book.
The influence of religion on art is also extremely obvious.
For example, the Gandhara culture and Ajanta grottoes, in which the carvings and a large number of murals mainly reflect the legends and teachings of Buddhism, so they are famous for the profound connotation of Buddhist art.
Religious connotation is most prominent in literary works.
Many literary works are originally religious classics, such as the Baiyu Sutra and the Buddha Bensheng Sutra, while more literary works are directly based on religious classics or religious legends.
These works consciously or unconsciously spread religious teachings to varying degrees, such as Mahabharata, which is famous for the “Encyclopedia” of classical India.
In the life of the Indian people, Mahabharata, like Ramayana, is regarded as the “fifth Veda” that clarifies the whole essence of Brahmanism and Hinduism, and is worshipped by most Indian people in the image of religious classics.
Second, obvious continuity and ideological rigidity.
The development of culture has historical continuity, which is reflected in the continuous development of future cultures on the basis of inheriting the cultural traditions of previous generations.
Under the influence of this universal law, Indian medieval culture comprehensively inherited the ancient cultural heritage and brought the prosperity of medieval culture to a certain extent.
All ancient cultural heritages, including the civilization of the Indus River Basin in ancient times, have found their place in medieval culture.
For example, the image of Shiva.
In the Indus Valley civilization, a seal in the shape of a male God as a yogi was found.
The seal shows that the male god is surrounded by some animals.
He himself has three visible faces and two horns on both sides of the towering headdress (triangular together with the headdress).
It was the male god who developed into the god Shiva of medieval Hinduism, which is recognized by HinduismShiva is a great yogi and the king of beasts.
His main symbols include three eyes and Trident.
It seems that the inheritance or origin relationship between the two is more obvious.
By extension, it is not difficult for us to see a certain origin relationship between Brahmanism, Hinduism and Indus civilization.
Another example is literature and philosophy.
The greatest achievement of ancient India is to promote two epics, whose influence on later literature is well known.
For about 2000 years before the 17th century, Sanskrit writers created their own works based on the stories of the two epics, or were busy making notes on them.
In other words, the two epics became one of the important themes of medieval literature and produced many poems, long poems, plays and story works of Sanskrit literature, such as story sea, story Guangji Huaju, strange mirror “Children’s bharata”, “children’s Ramayana”, “Bhagavad Gita and Rama”, “Pandu biography”, “sagandara”, “Rahu family”, “Nara biography”, “Rama biography”, “jasmine wreath” and so on are countless.
The great achievement of ancient culture is beyond doubt.
However, it is the duty of future culture to reject its essence and discard its dross.
In this regard, the performance of Indian medieval philosophy is unsatisfactory.
Indian philosophers in the middle ages and even later generations, even when they reached a real height of philosophy, did not know for what reason, but always tried to leave a place for traditional knowledge and superstition in their thoughts.
No matter what kind of thinking ability they have acquired, generally speaking, they are still unwilling to go beyond the scope of ancient wisdom they think, so they always praise the original elements contained in ancient thought, and even try their best to rationalize it.
For example, the Jain philosopher akaranko systematically summarized the basic views of Jainism in logic, so when explaining the karma theory, Jain philosophers began to take pains to introduce a myth that is not beneficial to philosophical thinking with logical knowledge.
In the four hundred years after akaranko, a group of Jain philosophers, writers and logicians, such as vidyanande and heimchandra, have been unswervingly maintaining the same Jain system without any doubt about its absurd karma preaching.
From one point of view, medieval culture actually inherited the ancient cultural heritage and fully reflected the historical continuity of culture.
However, from another point of view, this situation shows the rigidity and rigidity of Indian thought in the middle ages.
The old thought has awe inspiring and inviolable authority over the new thought, which shows the conservative and ancient tendency of Indian medieval culture to a considerable extent.
As Indian philosophers pointed out at the beginning of this century, “at the moment of rapid development of new culture or new knowledge, Indians will never succumb to the temptation of the moment, but stick to traditional beliefs and bring new things into the old track as much as possible.
This conservative liberalism is the secret of the success of Indian culture and civilization.
” Third, the tolerance of foreign culture.
Although Indian culture shows strong inheritance to its own cultural traditions, it does not exclude its ability to be inclusive, digest, absorb and transform foreign cultures.
It is easy to think of the Islamic culture entering India after the 10th century.
In fact, kusana culture, which appeared as early as around AD, is a mixture of ancient Indian, Persian and Greek cultures.
For example, Gandhara carvings in kusana culture are mostly amiable figures, showing the curvilinear beauty of the human body under transparent or translucent clothing.
These features undoubtedly come from Greek art, so Gandhara art is also known as Indian Greek or Indian Roman art.
It expresses the theme of Indian Buddhist belief with Greek carving technology and aesthetic point of view.
In addition, as far as we know, the titles of King kaniska of kusana Dynasty include the words “” and “son of heaven”.
On the coins he minted, we can see Shiva of India, Buddha, Zoroastrian God of Iran and Greek God.
One coin of kaniska period is even engraved with a statue of Sakyamuni dressed in Greek clothes, surrounded by the word “Buddha” in Greek.
It is not difficult to see that kusana culture is influenced by Greek, Roman and even Chinese culture.
Of course, the external factors in Indian traditional culture are by no means the above ends.
For example, China has had an impact on Indian culture in many aspects, such as religion, customs, medicine, science and technology.
The Indian nation with relatively mature civilization tradition will eventually absorb, digest, absorb and transform them into a part of its own structure.
At the end of this chapter, it seems necessary to talk about the influence of ancient medieval culture on Indian modern and world culture.
First of all, let’s talk about the impact on our own culture.
This influence is far-reaching and extensive, and has penetrated into almost every detail of modern life in India.
For example, the concept of “karma”, one of the core theories of Indian religion, is still haunting the minds of farmers today.
For generations, this concept has led them to believe that their tragic fate is the result of previous sins, not due to backward production technology and the same backward social structure.
Therefore, they do not welcome or even resist land reform or advanced agricultural technology provided to them.
In terms of law, although the legal theory works represented by the manu code have not become the standard to restrict people’s behavior in form, as the legal creed respected by the Indian people, they are still playing an important role, and the British and Indian governments have to read it from time to time when formulating judicial provisions.
The influence of literature and art is obvious to all.
Here we only talk about the content of dance.
Indian dance has developed with religious rituals since ancient times.
In the middle ages, Shiva, the great Hindu God, won the title of “dance king”.
Up to now, the content of Indian national dance has not changed much on the basis of ancient tradition.
Indians have established a number of institutions, such as the darpana Dance Academy and the kadam dance school, to systematically study, inherit and perform the traditional national dance.
Religion does not determine human desires, but modern Indian artists show all kinds of gods as mortals, full of joy and pain.
We believe that with the progress of society and the development of science, God as a religion will continue to reduce its influence in people’s real life, but the beauty of dance art expressing people’s feelings will last forever.
Ancient and Medieval ChineseFor example, the philosophical circle’s defense of traditional philosophy, especially the fierce defense of Bhagavad Gita.
Rommohan Roy, tirak and others are well aware that the Bhagavad Gita believes that everyone has the possibility of transcending the suffering of the world, so it has been widely believed by the Indian people.
Therefore, when they launched the national revolution, they spared no effort to publicize the ideas in the Bhagavad Gita, which led to the emergence of the situation that “every patriot can step firmly on the gallows as long as he holds a Book of Bhagavad Gita”.
India is a country where religion prevails, so it is also a country where superstition prevails.
Astrology, which appeared in Rigveda as early as the 1980s, is still enduring.
From civilians to government officials, everything depends on astrological instructions.
The times of India, India’s most authoritative newspaper, pointed out in 1985 that Rajiv Gandhi was a government leader who believed in astrology.
He often consults astrologers before making decisions in governance or national policies.
For example, when RA Gandhi wants to determine the date of the general election, take the oath of office or reorganize the cabinet, the magician divines the date in advance.
So did Mrs Gandhi, the former prime minister.
In 1983, when King Elizabeth II visited India, she changed the date because Mrs.
Gandhi followed the advice of the astrologer.
She once announced the list of new cabinet at dawn, and RA Gandhi was sworn in at midnight.
It was also the idea of warlocks.
In India, before the commencement date of all large-scale buildings and bankers provide loans to customers, when businessmen sign a transaction of tens of millions of rupees and when the government dock holds the launching ceremony of a new ship, the Ministry also needs to make divination in advance to determine that the horoscope is beneficial to itself.
It is not difficult to see how tenacious “vitality” the traditional cultural consciousness has.
Finally, let’s briefly analyze the influence of Indian culture on the outside world.
As early as the Neolithic age, Indians had contact with the outside world.
Since then, India has gradually maintained economic, political and cultural exchanges with many regions in Asia, Europe and Africa, and Indian culture has been able to take root, blossom and bear fruit all over the world.
Indian characters were once popular all over Central Asia.
“Zero” and decimal notation were introduced into Europe after being absorbed by Arabs, which had a great impact on the development of mathematics.
Buddhism and Hinduism have been introduced into East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and many other regions.
In particular, Buddhism has developed into one of the three major religions in the world, deeply affecting the philosophy, literature and plastic arts of many countries and regions.
Southeast Asia was once called “distant India”, from which the influence of Indian culture can be seen.
In modern society, India’s traditional culture is still affecting the external culture.
For example, in the 19th century, the eight chapters of ancient India was introduced to Europe, which promoted the development of comparative research in linguistics.
Many literary works have been translated into English, French, German, Chinese and other foreign languages.
The two epics are particularly popular.
In 1986, French cultural workers, with the support of the government and after nearly ten years of hard work, adapted and staged the epic drama Mahabharata, which caused a sensation in the western drama world.
The friendly exchanges between China and India have reached more than 2000 years, and the influence of Indian culture, especially Buddhist culture, can be seen everywhere.
The wide spread of Buddhism in China has created a precedent in the history of literary translation in China, led to the birthplace of bibliography and the birth of block printing, promoted the development of phonology, enriched Chinese vocabulary, and added new gorgeous flowers to China’s inherent literature and art garden.
In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, various Buddhist sects flourished together, famous monks came forth in large numbers, and Buddhist philosophy was unprecedentedly prosperous.
The temple towers arranged in famous mountains and rivers are dotted with China’s mountains and rivers, giving the majority of people the enjoyment of beauty.
Buddhist culture has penetrated into the center and end of China’s medieval and near ancient culture, and its influence on China’s culture is extensive and profound.