Early Christian architecture is like a Greek temple.
Early Christian architecture was first built in heaven, which is the product of human fantasy.
Early Christianity inherited the pure spirituality of Judaism and excluded the worship of idols.
Therefore, the religious architecture of early Christianity, like Judaism, remained in imagination.
Gu Xiaoming said that the Bible has revealed all kinds of information to us.
According to legend, the “Temple of God” was first in Bethel, “The Lord stood on the ladder and said, I am the Lord, the God of your father Abraham and the God of Isaac.
I will give you and your descendants the land where you are now lying.
Your descendants will be as numerous as the dust on the earth and will spread to the East, West, North and South.
How awesome this place is! This is nothing else.
This is the house of God and the door of heaven.
The stone I set up as a pillar However, due to the mobility of the Hebrews and the dispersion in history, the “Temple” was actually mobile for a long time.
The establishment of the temple was after the settlement of Canaan.
Earlier, after the “Revelation of Mount Sinai”, there was a Jewish mobile temple, mishkan (tabernacle), It is described in detail in Exodus.
Just as human beings create God according to their own image, “the temple of God” is not a realistic existence, but it also has a realistic basis.
With “the temple of God”, there will be “the city of God”.
At the same time, “the city of God” is also corresponding to the secular city.
In the book “the city of God” written by St.
Augustine in the 5th century, it is written that in A.D. 410, the Goths looted the Roman city, and some people attributed the disaster (which is a preview of the destruction of the Roman city in A.D. 476) to the result that the Romans no longer believed in the ancient gods.
They said, When the Romans believed in Jupiter, Rome remained strong.
But now the emperors no longer believed in him, so it no longer protected the Romans.
Augustine said that since Adam committed the original sin, the world has been divided into two parts, two cities: one is the city of God and the other is the secular city.
The former is the kingdom of heaven represented by God, and the latter is the hell ruled by Satan.
But in this world, these two parts are mixed human history, that is, the history of the struggle between believers of God and believers of the devil.
The result of the struggle is to separate the two cities at the final judgment, so that the believers of God can live in the happy kingdom of heaven with God, and the believers of the devil can be tortured by hell.
The secular city is sinful, and its disaster and destruction are inevitable.
It is on the ruins of Rome that an eternal, benevolent, bright and happy city of God will be built.
However, in the government and society, the two cities described by St.
Augustine go hand in hand.
As a monument to the duality of medieval life, two outstanding medieval buildings, church and castle, stand tall.
At the same time, paradise is also corresponding to the garden on earth.
Jerioth Salem: in 996 BC, King David of Israel captured Jerusalem and made it his capital.
Northrop Frye pointed out that the image of the city is naturally concentrated in Jerusalem.
Cities are women in a symbolic sense.
As the word “metropolis” reminds us, it is “mother’s city”.
In his view, the temple in Jerusalem is divided into three parts: badger and thorium sheath.
The inner temple is the gathering place of believers.
The innermost is the supreme temple, which represents the existence of God.
It is covered with a tent.
The high priest enters once a year (Hebrews).
In Frye’s view, Jerusalem is located at the top of the mountain, so it symbolically becomes the highest point in the world.
The psalm says, “go up there, all the tribes, the tribe of the Lord.”. The place referred to here is Jerusalem.
Its temple rises above the sky, as the devil’s imitation of the tower of Babel once attempted to achieve (Genesis).
He believes that for Christianity, a city or building in this position is the capstone of the world.
Removing it will release all kinds of forces that cause chaos.
Psalms has repeatedly symbolically linked the temple or holy city of God to controlling the “flood” under it.
Psalms, for example, links the world built on chaos to the ranks of the temple.
Built in 335, the Church of the holy sepulchre was built by Queen Mother Helena, the mother of the ancient Roman Emperor Constantine I, in the cemetery of Jesus.
It is one of the sacred relics of Christianity.
For Judaism, King Solomon, the son of David, completed the palaces and temples built by David, expanded the city, and built a Jewish temple on Mount Anxi, laying a sacred position as a religious center.
Robertson said that in 621 BC, the chief priest of Jerusalem reported to King Josiah that he had obtained a “code” in the temple.
As a result, drastic reforms took place to prohibit idolatry, and all shrines except the temple in Jerusalem were converted to secular use.
The west wall of the Jewish temple, called the “wailing wall” by Jews, was built at the end of the 1st century BC and destroyed in AD 70 and ad 135.
Later, a wall was built on the site and became one of the Jewish holy sites.
Here, it is meaningful that Judaism, Christianity and even Islam regard Jerusalem as a holy land.
Solomon’s temple: theocracy has a similar expression among the Hebrews.
Northrop Frye pointed out that it is said that Solomon built a temple on Mount Zion in seven years, built his own palace in 13 years, and then followed the advice of his 700 wives to build a temple on a mountain opposite mount Zion for Molo and Kemo (1 Kings).
According to morgensden’s research, the architectural location of the Solomon temple is very special.
Whenever the sun shines into the temple on the new year’s day, it is regarded as the glory of God and the Lord.
The king directly acts as the high priest, enters the inner temple with a censer in his hand, rekindles the fire of the altar, and holds the annual atonement ceremony, So as to reconfirm the sanctity of their own rule.
New year etiquette plays an important symbolic role in Hebrew.
Eden: in the sense of gardening, we can trace back to the Bible.
The Hebrew word for “heaven” is “parde”.
Persian is “pairidaeza”.
HopeThe Arabic is “paradeisos”.
According to the Bible Dictionary, “Eden” means “joy and joy, which comes from the Hebrew word” Eden “.
The garden of Eden is also called “paradise of God” and “garden of the Lord”.
The second chapter of Genesis in the Old Testament describes the garden of Eden: the LORD God set up a garden in Eden in the East and placed the man he had made there.
The LORD God made all kinds of trees grow out of the earth to please people’s eyes and its fruit for food.
In the garden, there were also the trees of life and the trees of good and evil.
A river flows out of Eden to moisten the garden.
Japanese scholar nakaji Nakatani said that the garden of Eden can be found in the Babylonian plain, while according to Northrop Frye, the scope of the garden of Eden extends from Egypt to India.
In my opinion, the garden of Eden is not so much a real existence as an imaginary existence, or a prototype.
The garden that exists on earth is Solomon’s garden.
Solomon’s Garden: in the middle of the Old Testament (1000 BC), the deeds of Solomon, the king of Israel for three generations, should be studied as a real history.
King Solomon can make people feel kind, as can be seen in the New Testament.
The Old Testament Kings (1) said, “King Solomon devoted himself to building.
He built ‘Lebanon Palace’, ‘pillar court’, ‘Solomon Palace’, ‘house of Barrow’s daughter’ and other temples in Jerusalem.
In addition, he also built castles’ storage city ‘,’ vehicle city ‘and’ War city ‘.
” In the second chapter of the Old Testament Ecclesiastes, Solomon said, “I built a large building for myself, built a house, set up a vineyard, built a garden, planted a variety of fruit trees, and dug a pool to irrigate the lush trees.”. Solomon became the code name of the king of great glory because he loved architecture and was so keen on architecture.
Of course, he also paid attention to gardening and gardening.
Roman catacombs: the distinct landscape from churches, castles and gardens is the Christian catacombs.
Because Christianity began to operate underground, a large number of underground tombs were found in the suburbs of Rome in the 16th century.
Roman catacombs are the underground tombs of early Christians.
It was built in the 1st ~ 5th century.
The total number of Grottoes is as high as 600000 ~ 800000, and places of assembly and prayer are also opened in the grottoes.
Generally speaking, there are about 43 tomb grottoes, with a total length of more than 480 kilometers.
The tomb cave of San carlisto is the largest of them.
Carved Sarcophagus, holy oil altar, round colored glass relief, murals painted with the image of Jesus and biblical legends, inscriptions and religious labels were found in the tombs.
The architecture of the church has a special meaning in medieval cities.
Shuerxiang said, Church “buildings are all traditionally oriented to the East, in other words, the garden behind the church is oriented to the East – towards the place where the sun jumps out, the sun is born (rises) in the east every morning, and the front of the church building is facing the west, the West – the sun sleeps every night, or the cloud sun seems to die (sets) A place to live.
This orientation reflects Christians’ belief in the resurrection symbolized by the disappearance and return of light every day.
Obviously, this does not involve the worship of the sun, but the worship of the creator through the image of the sun.
When people climb to the top of the bell tower in the church in a more important city, they will be moved by the consistency of the orientation of all other temples in the city.
They seem to give a direction to the numerous roofs of private homes, which are extremely chaotic.
From this, people understand the importance of religious buildings in the overall urban architecture “.
Indeed, as Shuer Township said, in the noise of the city, the clear and loud church bells rang, and they became an order and a direction, just like shepherds calling their sheep.
Byzantine architecture in the 4th century AD, the Roman Empire has declined.
In 330 ad, the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital to Byzantium in the east of the Empire, which is called Constantinople.
In 395 ad, the Roman Empire split and became the eastern and Western empires.
The capital of the Western Roman Empire, Ravenna, was annexed by the Germans in 476.
The Eastern Roman Empire took Constantinople as the center and established the Byzantine Empire.
It includes Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, the Balkans, Egypt, North Africa and Italy, as well as some Mediterranean islands.
After the 7th century, due to the development of feudal division, the Byzantine Empire gradually disintegrated and declined, leaving only the Balkans and Asia Minor.
Later, it was ravaged and dying by the crusaders of Western Europe several times, and finally perished by the Turks in 1453.
Although the Byzantine Empire is regarded as the continuation of the Roman Empire on the east coast of the Mediterranean, in fact, it is more like the reproduction of the Greek Empire established by the emperor.
It absorbed some contents of Roman culture when it became a part of the Roman Empire, and after a long period of integration.
By the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century, it was gradually displayed in front of people with the characteristics known as “Byzantine Culture”.
This is a magnificent and vibrant “cultural” expression and the “liberation” of a culture with deep roots.
In the field of architecture, Cyril mango believed that “in the early (4th ~ 6th century), although in the process of transformation, it basically belonged to ancient Roman architecture”.
“Byzantine architecture in the 6th century (considered the architecture of the ‘Cosmic’ Empire) represents the end of the long-term development of ancient architecture.
” “One may be inclined to say that after the 7th century, or certainly after the 9th century, Byzantine architecture did have a special appearance and remained until the demise of the Empire”.
Byzantine architecture is the image embodiment of Byzantine Culture, which is mainly reflected in Constantinople.
Constantinople was founded in 330 AD and was named after the Roman Emperor f.v. Constantine (about 280-337).
The site is in Istanbul, Turkey.
The city is surrounded by water on three sides and controls the throat of the Bosporus Strait.
At the same time, it is located between Europe and Asia.
The situation is very dangerous.
By the 6th century, it developed into the largest city in Europe, with a population of 400000 ~ 500000.
The main buildings at that time were Constantine’s palace, which was the city in the city.
The arena is not only the amusement center, but also the center of the ceremony.
There are only a few churches left.
At that time, only part of the Constantinople wall, which was called extremely strong at that time, remained.
ConstantineAesthetic value of.
Van Loon said that the Gothic architectural form is the inevitable result of seeking more light and more space.
This art we call Gothic has always been a beautiful fairy tale throughout its popularity.
Indeed, when it comes to Gothic architecture, architects will talk about pointed arches, decorative panes, crossed arch ribs, supported vaults and flying buttresses.
French architectural historian Louis Grodzki said that the characteristics of Gothic architecture include beam columns, spires (usually crowned with a small spire in the upper part to increase the weight of the buttresses), mountain flowers, leafy rose windows and doors and windows separated into pointed leaves.
The changes of these form combinations mark the national or regional attributes of Gothic architecture and its development stage.
It is these characteristics that make it another architectural tradition besides the classical art represented by Greece and Rome.
The word gotische, which is associated with the form of “barbarism”, can be said to be a contempt, which was put forward by Vasari, an art historian in the 16th century.
As Germain Bazin said, “Gothic” is a French synonym for “Tedesco” or “Teuton” (a term used by Renaissance Italians to belittle medieval art).
To be exact, Gothic originated from the Gothic nationality, which was a nomadic people in the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea.
It was the main force among the “barbarians” who invaded Europe in the early Middle Ages.
Barbarians brought fresh blood to Europe in all aspects of literature and art, especially in architecture.
Architecture is the main artistic contribution of medieval Christianity in Europe.
The main representative works are some cathedrals, most of which are Gothic.
The classification of medieval art as romantic art also focuses on Gothic architecture.
Germain Bazin, a French Gothic church, pointed out that, like ancient temples, churches are monuments to cities.
Among all the great monuments created by civilization, churches best represent the joint efforts of the whole society.
But in our opinion, the church is the ceremonial center of the city.
In the middle ages, as a ceremonial center, the Church played a cohesive role.
In other words, Gothic churches play a very important role in religious etiquette in a city.
For citizens or believers, it is a matter of pride for a city to have a magnificent church.
The main church of the French city of Charleston and the main church of Charleston compete with each other.
Among them, Chartres church has formed a model of cathedral architecture.
Chartres Cathedral was originally a Romanesque church built in the 9th century.
It was rebuilt from 1194 to 1260 after being destroyed by a fire.
From the outside, the West facade has a harmonious proportion, but the two towers with different styles are obviously asymmetric.
Above the twin towers are the towering conical spires, which pierce the sky.
Entering from the main entrance in the middle, the first thing you see is the spacious nave, with side aisles on both sides.
There are two brick windows with a height of about 160 meters, which are connected with the top of the 13th century arch.
William Fleming said: “The space of the wall communicates with the worshippers through the language of form and color and the religious themes expressed.
On sunny days, the transmitted sunlight turns the ground and the wall into a mosaic of constantly changing colors.
The mysterious light columns and skylights also make the arch, parapet and vault seem to have infinite space and height.
Because the viewer’s eyes are natural Attracted by light, it makes people feel as if the interior is completely composed of windows.
” Anyone who walks along the trifoliate arch of Chartres Cathedral, “bathed in the ruby red liquid and the green of the prophet’s Robe”, will understand how the dream has become a reality, “standing in the church will have the feeling of entering heaven”.
(Patrick newkins) the architectural process of Chartres Cathedral is the exploration process of Gothic architecture, which forms a perfect Gothic architectural system.
In France, Notre Dame de Paris seems to be more famous.
On the one hand, Paris is the center of France.
On the other hand, it benefits from the spread of the novel Notre Dame de Paris.
The foundation of Notre damede Paris was laid in 1163 when bishop Maurice de sully was bishop.
It was basically completed in 1250 and was not fully completed until 1345.
Like all famous buildings in Europe, such a long construction time means that it is building an eternal building, and artistically, as Hugo said, it is “a large-scale stone Symphony”.
Its plane is cross shaped, 47 meters wide and 125 meters deep.
It can accommodate 10000 people to attend the worship ceremony.
The center forms a dome, on which the spire is up to 90 meters high and straight into the sky.
At the lower part of the famous West facade are three deep concave gates, the middle one is the main gate of the “final judgment”, and the left and right sides are the secondary gates of “virgin” and “Santa Ana”.
The three doors have continuous surrounding arches, each engraved with the statues of the virgin, the baby and the saints.
Above the three doors, there is also a row of statue belts engraved with 29 kings of French dynasties.
There is a 13 meter diameter “rose window” on the statue belt.
Above is a series of continuous pointed circular arches, connecting the two 60 meter high square towers into a positive whole.
Some people describe that when the sun shines in, or when candles are lit at night, the colored glass reflects strange light and shadow, the tall dome, the sagittal pointed circular arch, and the church is mixed with the loud organ, the singing of the choir and the sermon of the priest, all of which set off a movement of rising from the sky and a mysterious illusion of approaching heaven, It strongly embodies the religious emotion of being detached from the world.
This is a mysterious intoxication, similar to Plato’s “highest immortal blessing”.
In other words, believers will have a mysterious experience when they worship in such a church.
Perhaps it is precisely because of this mysterious feeling that Hugo created Notre Dame de Paris.
It is also under the influence of Hugo’s novels that the building damaged by the war and the French Revolution took 20 years to repair under the auspices of viole leddick, making the building as immortal as Hugo’s novels.
British Gothic architectureGothic architecture in China, mainly from 1170 to 1240, is called early English style.
Woodford pointed out that British Gothic architecture is characterized by simple sharp pointed windows without window lattice, similar to the windows and entrances of French Gothic architecture.
However, there are also different styles from French Gothic.
For example, emphasizing the horizontal factor is the design feature of all medieval churches in England.
In addition, the arches and vertical pillars are decorated with composite decorative moldings, and the column body decorated with black Purbeck marble is compared with the light limestone.
As a result, this design emphasizes lines and decorative effects more than those popular in France.
Canterbury Cathedral is the earliest Gothic architecture in Britain, and Salisbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey are the most famous.
Salisbury Cathedral was built from 1220 to 1265.
The church is said to have been built on the plain far from the village because of an arrow or a dream.
From the outside, the church is a long and short building with a tower about 123 meters high in the center.
The inner middle hall is low and deep, with one hall on both sides, which can accommodate more priests.
The interior is divided into horizontal strips, and there is an ambulatory and octagonal priest’s Hall in the south.
Luis Grodzki said, “Art historians have a special interest in Salisbury Cathedral: its rectangular chapel on the central axis (built between 1220 and 1225) , with a side hall of the same height as the middle hall, which is combined with a rectangular ambulatory.
The pursuit of transparency and refinement has led to the integration of space and the unity between various parts, which has been strengthened by extremely slender marble columns.
” This church had a direct impact on later churches.
Westminster Abbey is located in the southwest of London’s Parliament Square.
In the 10th century, King Edgar built an official church here, presided over by Benedictine monks.
In 1050, King Edward ordered the expansion.
The transept was built in 1065 and the nave was built in 1163.
The existing Gothic church was rebuilt by Henry III in 1245 and then continuously expanded.
The church uses a fan-shaped vault with a Latin cross on the plane.
The total length is 156 meters, the width is 22 meters, the height of the big dome is 31 meters, and the height of the bell tower is 68.
The whole building is considered a masterpiece of British Gothic architecture.
In addition, there are Gothic buildings in Germany, such as Cologne Cathedral, which is the first real Gothic building in Germany.
Although Italy rejects Gothic architecture, the famous Milan Cathedral is a typical Gothic architecture.
The form of architecture and decoration, and most of the ideas about beauty.
On the contrary, Gothic art gets rid of the burden of old forms that restrict the driving force of Romanesque art and starts from nature.
Some scholars compare Gothic churches with Romanesque churches, and can also see the artistic style of Gothic churches.
Compared with the Gothic church, the difference between the Roman Church and the Gothic church is obvious: the former is mainly horizontal and round arches, which is wide and stable, but it can not help feeling dull and bulky.
The latter is dominated by spire arches and vertical lines, which are towering, light, beautiful and exquisite.
The former has a large wall area.
The latter has almost no walls except doors and windows.
The former’s decorative carving and painting tend to be stylized and geometric patterns.
The latter’s sculpture and painting emphasize the reality of life.
The former can take the main church of Pisa next to the famous Italian “Leaning Tower” as an example.
The latter can take Notre Dame in Paris and Milan Cathedral as examples.
In terms of appearance, Romanesque architecture looks stocky, while Gothic architecture is very thin.
Secondly, the architecture of Gothic church expresses the flying scene of human beings entering the “gateway” of God’s “Kingdom of heaven”.
Wang Guixiang pointed out that the character of Gothic architecture is an upward “force”.
The towering spire, flying buttresses, mountain flowers and side eaves, and countless upward statues and small spires on the female wall seem to be pulled by some upward force.
Thirdly, there is an upward mysterious “force” in the architecture of Gothic churches.
In terms of appearance, Gothic architecture has a natural form.
Schelling said that the so-called Gothic architectural art shows us this instinct which is still in a completely primitive state.
Among them, the plant world has become a model.
We should think of Gothic architecture as a giant tree: the trunk is small, and the huge crown extends its branches in all directions.
If there are many trees attached to the main body, it is like a city without branches.
The trees with tangled roots and dense branches and leaves are particularly directly related to this initial type.
Their branches and stems cover each other and interlace each other, forming a dome.
Here, Schelling compares the Gothic church to a plant, which is also a new imagination.
Finally, Gothic architecture attaches great importance to decoration.
Edith Hamilton pointed out that the whole Cathedral in Gothic architectural style is decorated with patterns and patterns from top to bottom.
It is countless, with fine carving, exquisite craftsmanship, originality and impeccable.
Xu Jianrong also said that Gothic churches are dominated by spires, arches and vertical lines.
There are almost no walls except doors and windows.
They are towering, light, rich and exquisite.
Inside the church, it is tall and bright, with large stained glass windows between the gold painted columns, which looks brilliant and mysterious.
For the stained glass of Gothic church, many artists do their best to praise.
Christian believers have not seen heaven, but they can feel the existence of heaven through the stained glass of Gothic church.
For example, people describe and praise the stained glass of Chartres Cathedral.
Glass has such special value for Gothic church, which is rarely seen in other types of buildings.
In medieval Indian architecture, Brahmanism in India rejected Buddhism and later absorbed some Buddhist doctrines and was named Hinduism.
Since the 10th century, a large number of Brahman temples have been built all over India.
Their forms refer to the public assembly buildings of rural communes and the branches of Buddhism.
The temple is not only the residence of God, but also the noumenon of God.
Indian Brahmanic architecture is divided into several types: Northern, central and southern.
According to Patrick newkins, the temples in the north are simple in appearance, consisting of a tower gate hall and a surrounding promenade, with a circle of aboutA six foot high wall separates the holy land from the secular land.
The Dravidian temples in the south are very complex.
There are many courtyards on one axis, and their independent parts can be clearly seen from the outside.
The courtyard is connected by corridors, but has its own entrance.
There are two main structures in the temple.
One is the broad-based worship hall, which is low and low in outline.
Another is the smaller square shrine room, the sihara high above it.
The brahmeswara temple in barnesvar, the capital of Orissa, was built in the 9th century and is located in Northeast India.
Its appearance is a three-stage combination, which is composed of a pedestal, a gorgeous carving belt and a sihara on the top from bottom to top.
In addition, there are rockhewn temple, Mahabali puram, Temple of the sun, kanarak and kesava temple.
Jainism is a branch of Brahmanism.
“Jaina” is the title of raft Tuo mana, the creator of this religion, which means “winner” and “completion practitioner”.
Therefore, Jainism is also known as “winner religion”.
However, because Jainism denies the authority of Veda, it is regarded as heresy by Brahmanism.
Like Buddhism and Brahmanism, it also has its own temples.
Jain temples, mainly in the north of India, prevailed from 1000 to 1300 ad.
British scholar a.
maitangna pointed out that the remarkable feature of the number of Jain temples in North India is a statue of Jain sage standing in front of the door of the monasteries, sitting on his legs like a Buddha.
The entrance door is composed of a dome supported on eight columns.
Each pair of adjacent columns of the dome form an arch, which is formed by the “pillars” separated from the lower “column head” at the top of the column.
In this way, the “pillar” gives additional support to the “porch edge” attached to the column head.
The dome chamber is constructed of parallel stone, which is covered to the center layer by layer until the highest roof part, and then the roof is closed with a stone slab.
There is no doubt that the original parallel circle was octagonal, and there were flat stone plates at the intersection angle, but as it grew higher, the stone plates were gradually chiseled into a bow stone shape in the circle, so a gradually narrow stone ring was formed, and the dome was closed until the highest place.
It is hard to understand that Jainism advocates austerity, abstinence and even cruel self torture, but its temples attach great importance to gorgeous carving.
Among them, vimala temple, Mount Abu is the earliest and most complete Jain temple.
However, for India, Hinduism and Jainism have declined one after another, while Islam has flourished.
When the Mughal empire ruled India, it worshipped Islam and built a large number of mosques, tombs and other buildings characterized by the great dome.
The most famous mosque is bran dawaza, and the most famous mausoleum is Taj Mahal.
The Taj Mahal was built in 1632 and completed in 1647.
It is the most outstanding building of the Mughal Dynasty.
It is famous for its beauty in the world, known as “the Pearl of India” and one of the seven architectural wonders of the world.
Taj Mahal is the tomb of the concubine of Shah Jahan (1628-1658), the fifth generation emperor of the Mughal Dynasty in India.
There is a beautiful love story about this building, that is, the love story between the emperor and his concubine.
Therefore, some people also call this building a building symbolizing eternal love.
Designed and built by Ustad Muhammed isa ethendi of Asia Minor, this building is in the form of Islamic architecture.
It is backed by the zhumuna River and forms a large rectangular garden 576 meters long and 293 meters wide.
A cross shaped canal divides it into four parts, with a square pool in the center.
There are spouts in canals and pools.
Behind the grass, in the middle is the mausoleum of white marble, which is built on a square platform with a height of 7 meters and a length of 95 meters.
A round tower 40.
6 meters high stands at the four corners of the platform.
The body of the mausoleum is a 56.
7-meter square by the sea, and the four corners are erased.
The diameter of the central dome is 17.
On top of the dome, a short drum raises a onion shaped shell dome, whose top is about 61 meters above the base level, forming a group of perfectly arranged buildings.
The poet Nizami said that the palace was “hidden in a veil in harmony with the air”, and its dome was “shining like a mirror.
The sun inside and the moon outside”.
It showed three colors in a day.
Blue at dawn, white in middle age and yellow like the sky.
Such a building can be said to be a perfect existence.
Ancient Indian gardens have not been preserved.
It is inferred from the accounts of the Greeks in the 4th century BC and the two major Indian Literary epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Later, it was recorded with reference to the records of the western regions of the Tang Dynasty by the Chinese eminent monk.
According to the Japanese scholar Nakagawa, among the main components of India’s classical courtyards, water ranks first, and water is often stored in the pool, which has three purposes: decoration, bathing and irrigation.
That is, the pool is not only a spring pool with fresh and cool breath, but also a bath for bathing and purifying religious activities, but also a reservoir for cultivating and watering plants.
Although the use of water and pavilions has also achieved this goal, they also create more shade of green trees in the garden.
Therefore, green shade trees, as garden plants, have also attracted much attention.
Instead of gardening with flowers and plants, they only plant lotus in the pool and seem to like flowering trees in particular.
However, due to the entry of Muslims into India, Indian garden art has an Islamic style.
One of the most representative is the “sincere garden” (1508-1509) built by Babel, the founder of the Mogul Empire.
Unfortunately, it no longer exists today.
The garden is a square flower bed, which is divided into four parts by a cross shaped canal, and there is a fountain in the center of the intersection.
There are trees and flowers in the flower bed.
Indian gardens characterized by water have unique aesthetic significance.
The style of Indian architecture is first reflected in the parallel French dome architecture. A. Madonna said that the advantage of this kind of parallel dome building is that there is no transverse pressure, while classical and Gothic buildings often feel the compression of transverse pressure due to the use of radial domes.
So more subtle and exquisite branchesColumns can be used in Indian buildings.
Another result of this type is the use of bell ornaments in the center of the dome, which is also a centripetal ring shape, rather than the vertical lines of Roman or Gothic domes.
This kind of dome can not be seen in other places because of its exquisite style.
Mario busari proposed three ways of Indian architecture, hicaro, vinamo and qubro.
Secondly, it shows that the decoration exceeds the building itself.
Ornaments play a very important role in Indian temples, as Edith Hamilton said, “The temples in India are a collection of dazzling decorations.
The magnificent decoration covers the outline lines of the buildings.
Carved beams and painted buildings, the carving of various forms and manners and the decoration are overlapped and dazzling.
The impression is that they are not a whole, but a collection of various patterns.
The content is extremely rich and confusing, which seems to have no meaning The design and arrangement just meet the needs of decoration in this way.
” In Hamilton’s view, “every ornament is a masterpiece of exquisite workmanship and has a mysterious meaning.
The importance of the appearance of the whole temple lies in allowing artists to engrave the form of truth on it”.
Therefore, this kind of temple is not so much a building as a decoration.
German philosopher Schelling compared Indian architecture with Gothic architecture and believed that Indian temples and tower architecture were similar to plants like Gothic architecture.
Schelling pointed out: “The similarity between Indian architecture and Gothic architecture is full of meaning and has attracted people’s attention.
Temples and tower architecture are purely Gothic style.
even ordinary buildings can’t be without wings and spires.
As a leaf of architectural decoration, it undoubtedly comes from the East.
Oriental interest goes everywhere, avoiding the so-called boundaries and focusing on infinity.
this kind of extravagance is no doubt in Gothic architecture There are also traces to be found.
And Indian architecture is even more grand.
Each of its buildings is equivalent to a huge castle.
This scene can also be seen in the tall plants in the world.
” Mario bussali compared Indian architecture to Baroque architecture, “Hindu temple” (Hindu architecture only) In a sense, it is very close to Baroque style, especially the momentum of architectural surface and the resulting light and shadow effect.
Of course, this is an exaggerated, thick and exotic baroque style, but its diversified artistic vocabulary and ways of expression have produced extremely rich and implicit effects.
Compared with Western Baroque architecture, the decoration and treatment of the appearance of Hindu temples do have an unfamiliar and puzzling style.
” These style characteristics of Indian architecture have influenced the architecture of Southeast Asia.
The influence of Southeast Asian architecture on Indian culture can be compared with that of Greek culture.
Southeast Asian architecture is mainly influenced by India, and Buddhist and Brahmanic temples are the main buildings, among which the most famous are Angkor Wat in Cambodia and Borobudur in Java.
Interestingly, these two temple buildings were suddenly abandoned or disappeared after experiencing extremely brilliant prosperity, and later discovered, which shocked the world.
Khmer people regard temples as the residence of the gods they worship, not the gathering place of believers.
They believe that God does live there in his true form.
Alcangero Santoro said that the temple not only gave specific forms to the religious beliefs of the local people, but also expressed its connotation in a symbolic way.
These sacred buildings strictly follow the central layout and determine the orientation according to the four main directions.
The facade and the main entrance face the East, which represents the source of life.
The main temple symbolizes the center of the world and the residence of the gods – Miaoshan mountain.
It is built in the center of the city and near the king’s palace, because the king is the person authorized by God to rule the earth.
The structure and layout of this temple have lasted for hundreds of years, and there is no change even in the continuous renewal of architectural style.
Obviously, the static characteristics of this architectural type that pays attention to spiritual significance hinder its fundamental change.
But from a religious point of view, repetition is not a sign of weakness, but shows the importance of a sacred ritual.
This layout is reflected in Angkor Wat, the most important building.
Angkor Vat, founded by King Suriya Bama II of the Khmer empire, is the largest religious complex in the world.
This is a temple with both Buddhist and Brahmanic significance.
It is also the tomb of the king.
It is located in the southeast of Angkor city.
The temple base is about 1000 meters long and covers a total area of 40000 square meters.
The outermost fence is about 1480 meters long from east to west and 1280 meters long from north to south.
Outside the wall is an artificial river 190 meters wide and 8 meters deep.
The center of the complex is a King Kong throne tower.
The King Kong throne tower is at the intersection of the vertical and horizontal axes.
The foundation base is 211 × 184 meters, surrounded by a circle of corridors along the side, they form a field shaped layout with four rectangular halls and the square shrine in the center, connecting the five towers.
The central God tower is about 25 meters high, and the total height of the platform base and the two-story platform is about 65 meters.
The building was severely damaged by war twice in 1177 and 1431, and was neglected for 500 years due to religious belief.
In 1861, the French naturalist Pierre Loti came here.
When he was looking for precious tropical plants, he found the treasure of Cambodian art.
After hard work, it finally regained its former glory in 1873.
Angkor Wat occupies an important position in the world architectural history in the middle ages.
Germain Bazin said that among the eastern nationalities, the Khmer people alone showed real architectural talent.
They know how to plan the city according to clear principles, how to build the city into a harmonious and magnificent whole, and create a temple type comparable to the best buildings in the West.
Khmer people are more confident than Indians and avoid any accuracy that may hinder the free development of thought.
They unequivocally believe that temples should be the image of the universe, so they create temples in the form of mountains.
They placed the Indian portal tower symmetrically and layer by layer on the angular conical platform building, so that the whole building gradually rises to the central palace.
This central layout with a series of ancillary buildings,Reminiscent of medieval prisons and castles, it is the perfect symbol of monarchical theocracy created by the Khmer people.
The possibility of setting up a temple for themselves prompted the kings to compete for victory and explained why architecture flourished in that country.
Bazin spoke highly of Angkor Wat in Cambodia.
Brobudur in Java is a stone structure composed of many stone pagodas, also known as “Thousand Buddha pagoda”.
Patrick newkins said that when the Portuguese came to Java in the early 16th century, the building was densely covered with trees and bushes, and no one knew its existence.
It was discovered a long time later.
In the past, people mistakenly thought it was a place on the top of a hill, but it turned out to be a big Buddhist tower.
This “Buddhist tower” is the Java borotu, which was built about A.D. 800. It was built on a thousand huge square hills at the foot of Mount Mera.
It was built by tens of thousands of labor force in 15 years and about 2 million stones.
Borobudur @ doupo is one of the most important memorial buildings in Indonesia and even the world.1. Ehrlich Neumann said that around the temple, such as from the Egyptian temple to the Borobudur in Java, participants must follow a ritual path from the outside to the central temple.
Java borotu is such a ceremonial building.
The Pilgrims’ journey to borotu is actually the journey of soul nirvana.
Like Angkor Wat, the pilgrims walk up and in along the long corridor, and realize it through the nine stages of self denial – the nine storey pagoda.
The etiquette of worshippers starts from the tower base (desire boundary).
The first to sixth floors are angled square, symbolizing “Earth” (color boundary), and the seventh to ninth floors become round, symbolizing “heaven” (colorless boundary).
There are 432 Buddhist niches on each floor.
Small towers are set on each round platform.
There are 72 in total.
Finally, the worshippers climbed to the top of the mountain and stared at the big tower about 10 meters in diameter and 7 meters high, where there was the mysterious thing they always expected.
Alcangelo Santoro said that it is reminiscent of the wonderful mountain (the mountain in the center of the universe), which is the symbol of “mountain” and “center”.
He pointed out that the symbolic meaning of Borobudur has always been a hot topic widely discussed.
Some scholars believe that it is a place for worshippers to meditate and understand.
Worshippers try to reach the high level of Buddha in this way: another view is that it may also be a mysterious and religious symbol of Dharma, who rules the whole island and even the whole universe.
It is also suggested that the whole building is a huge tomb.
In addition to being a symbol of the universe, it may even be a dynastic memorial of charlindra, where the king of charlindra is regarded as the embodiment of Bodhisattvas.
Such a building has the meaning of religious ceremony, which can also be said to be a monument to human life.
Islamic architecture Islamic architecture is mainly scattered in the vast Arab region and areas affected by Islam, including buildings in India and Central Asia.
After the 7th century, the Arabs established an empire across Europe, Asia and Africa, and later gradually became some independent countries.
Hogg said that the so-called Islamic architecture refers to the buildings built by the believers of the Prophet Muhammad in places where the religion created by the Prophet (it has various names, such as Islam, Muslim religion, Muhammad religion, etc.
) is popular from the 7th century to the 18th century and the 19th century (in some places even later).
Islamic architecture is mainly religious architecture.
If the Western religious architecture is mainly represented by the church, then the Eastern religious architecture takes the temple as the main body, and in Islam, it is the mosque.
The architecture of the mosque is related to the Islamic concept and environment.
American geographer Semple pointed out that desert residents have accepted a unified concept from an extremely monotonous environment.
In a clear desert sky, stars are clear, and herdsmen see the orderly operation and repetition of celestial bodies in the sky.
It is conceivable that these revelations make the star observers in the desert think of a pair of dominant hands controlling this orderly system.
Semple’s conclusion from typical environmental determinism is that desert residents “must tend to monotheism”.
Indeed, Islamic mosque architecture is related to the unique desert environment in the Near East and the Middle East.
Xu Jianrong said that on the land where the majority of Muslims live, against the ancient purplish red and golden sea background, there are rose colored mountains on the edge.
On the horizon, like an alien ball, there are several sand dunes, bare rocks, a stream, several poplars, and several crooked and dilapidated hostels beside the road.
Suddenly, a cool and green mosque stands in front of us.
This presents a completely unexpected religion – aesthetic value.
In addition to the constantly thought of desert scenes, there is also the incomparably pure and fresh atmosphere on the grassland, which makes each color more refined and beautiful.
Against the blue sky, the green or blue, which is loved by Muslim architects, radiates an unusual gem like light.
They are left behind and isolated in the arms of the endless desert.
Between this religion and its art, “there is a deep harmony, a close relationship beyond human factors, and it will last longer, because the ruins here are presenting the same scenery as this land, and the desert itself has the same tone and appearance as its ruins and historic sites.
” In other words, the Islamic mosque is very harmonious with the desert environment.
Therefore, Patrick newkins calls it “a wonderful flower in the desert”.
Mosques in Islam were the first to use local Christian churches.
They are Brazilian Lika style.
The altar of the Christian Church is at the eastern end, while Islamic rituals require worship to face Mecca, the Holy Land in the south.
Therefore, the ready-made Basilica is used horizontally.
Germain Bazin pointed out that Islam created a temple type Islamic mosque from the beginning, which is suitable for religions that do not practice rituals.
The basic activity of this religion is public prayer.
In order to protect the believers participating in prayer, Islam imitates the huge colonnade in the middle hall of the Christian Church and increases the columns to create an endless impression, but the columns are arranged in a cross shape and do not follow the length of the building.
The classical mosque has four porches or ring colonnades, which enclose the courtyard and stand in the center of the courtyardThere is a fountain for purification.
A prayer colonnade at the end of the courtyard, with several naves, side walls at right angles to Mecca, marked by arches or niches.
A wooden pulpit is set inside.
Sometimes a large, deep nave leads to a niche in the dome.
One or more minarets or bell towers for those who report the time of prayer to ring the bell to call the prayer.
These minarets come in many shapes.
At first, it was a solid square tower, and later in Mesopotamia, it took the spiral shape of Assyrian “zigura”.
Since the 9th century, Persia has created a thin tower, slender as a candle, with a balcony on the top.
Seljukus created the second type of mosque in the 12th century – the cross layout.
The most famous Islamic mosques are the Royal mosque in Isfahan and the Great Mosque in Damascus.
Masijid-i – shal was built from 1629 to 1638 by King Abbas.
It is located in the south of the Royal Square in the center of Isfahan, Iran.
Its main axis faces Mecca.
It is composed of the chapel, inner courtyard, the tall dome of the main hall and gorgeous gate hall.
On the left and right are beautiful light towers, 44 meters high, decorated with various kinds of glazed porcelain and glass inlays.
The shape and decoration of this mosque rank first among Persian Islamic mosques, which can also be said to be a world-class building.
The Great Mosque of Damascus was built in 706 and completed in 715.
Damascus is the central city of Muslims.
The mosque’s long wall forms a complex of buildings.
In the center is the worship Hall of the Great Mosque, and the central part of the horizontal hall is covered with a wooden double-layer shell dome.
The mosque is one of the most important classical buildings in the Islamic world.
Muslim architecture moved westward and finally settled in Spain.
It has its own style, which is the Spanish Moorish architectural style.
The most famous is the Great Mosque of Cordova.
This mosque is one of the largest mosques in the Islamic world.
In the style of Islamic architecture, mosques are neither like Greek or Egyptian temples nor Christian churches.
It’s very much like a Quaker’s meeting place, a Quaker’s hall.
Fang Long said that Muslims live in tents, sit on the ground and don’t use chairs and stools, so the requirements are also very simple at the rally.
As long as there is a roof, four walls and a niche on the wall to indicate the geographical location of Mecca, so that believers can know to crawl in that direction when praying every day.
In addition, there is a pulpit where wise men explain the teachings of the messenger of God when they chant scriptures every Friday.
This is the only place that is somewhat similar to the ceremony of the Christian Church.
Muslim mosques have one feature, which is different from Jewish synagogues, Buddhist temples or Christian churches.
That is, the mosque has a fountain.
Muslims must bathe before entering the hall.
Only those who have lived in the desert can realize how important water – cool and flowing water – is to Arabs.
Water is life.
This is the most realistic meaning of the word.
There are few things in the world like mosques and fountains in Muslim palaces that make people feel relaxed and happy when they think of them.
In fact, water also has special significance in Western religions, and baptism in Christianity has this significance.
The form of baptism expresses the mystery of twin born.
Joseph Campbell also said that baptism symbolizes man’s “second birth”, which is the basis of Christianity.
“A man cannot enter the kingdom of God unless he is born in water and the Holy Spirit.”. While fountains are also very important elements in western architecture, such as the fountains in the palace of Versailles, they are not as sacred as in Islamic architecture.
Indeed, in Islam, the mosque is the most sacred place.
Xu Jianrong pointed out that as the highest spiritual embodiment of heaven preaching in the Koran, it is the architectural art of mosque, the temple of Islam.
The Arab nation before Islam, as a nomadic nation, did not need permanent buildings.
Even in the first 50 years after Muhammad’s death, the ashram used by Muslims to pray was a happy go lucky place.
It can be a occupied Christian Church, a Persian cylindrical hall, or even a rectangular field surrounded by a fence or ditch.
These temporary “mosques” have a basic feature, that is, the sign of orientation: the direction of the colonnade must face Mecca, or simply set the entrance in the opposite direction of Mecca.
By the end of the 7th century, Muslim rulers had gained a foothold in the occupied territories, so they began to build mosques and Caliph palaces on a large scale, and tried to surpass the buildings before Islam in terms of scale.
These early objects have been annihilated, but according to relevant data, most of the people involved in the construction activities at that time were foreign craftsmen, some from Egypt, some from Syria, Persia and some from Byzantium.
They adopted their own traditional styles and styles in a variety of ways.
The truly unique Muslim architectural style was gradually established after the 8th century.
As soon as we see a person wearing a white robe and a headscarf, we will say that he is Arab.
As soon as we enter the mosque of Islam, we will find its architectural style.
Germain Bazin pointed out that the structures designed by architects have a finish full of practical decoration.
The structural component itself soon became the theme of decoration, such as the convex arch in the corner, which was used to transform the square into the dome.
The division and reproduction of this feature transformed into mukarnas, which were grafted on the arch, dome corner, column head, ceiling, lace, lintel, etc.
The parapet is decorated with flowers and leaves.
It is made of gypsum, plaster, wood and mosaic, or marble openwork in India.
In Persia, it is made of colored ceramic bricks under the influence of the Safavid Dynasty, like a robe wrapped around the whole building.
Therefore, we can say that the architectural style of Islam is distinct and unique.
Tang zhaoti temple was built in the 3rd year of Tianping baozi (759) and is located in pingchengjing (now Nara).
It was built by the Chinese monk Jianzhen and his disciples after crossing to the East.
Sub Golden Hall (main hall), lecture hall, tower, etc.
Among them, the golden hall is the original thing built at the beginning, with seven rooms wide and five rooms open in the middle.
Deep into four rooms, one into the open, the west city corridor column, the column is strong.
The roof of the single eaved veranda hall has a gentle slope, which obviously has Chinese style.
The Phoenix Hall of the equality court was built in the Heian Era (1504) and is located in Yuzhi City, Japan.
Yongcheng 6 years(1501) Japanese Prime Minister ryoshieye Fujiwara is a Buddhist temple, that is, the equality court.
The Phoenix hall was built later, “because its plane is similar to a bird”, so it is called the Phoenix hall.
The facade imitates the palace of the Tang Dynasty and is decorated with gold, silver, fake paint and mother of pearl, showing a luxurious architectural style.
In Japanese architecture, the shrine typically shows the characteristics of Japan.
As early as the 6th century, in the era of slavery, Japan popular natural Shinto, called Shinto, and the buildings that worshipped all kinds of gods were called shrines.
In the whole feudal era, despite the popularity of Buddhism, Shintoism still did not decline.
The establishment of shrines has never been interrupted and spread all over the country.
So far, there are more than 110000 shrines.
The shrine is a building that worships gods in Japan, Taoism, clan ancestors and heroic figures.
The shrine has always been rebuilt once every certain period, called the “creation and replacement” system.
Located in the dense forest on the seashore of Mitsuo Prefecture, Japan, the Yasukuni shrine is a holy land.
Legend began in ancient times.
It was built in the 1st century AD.
The temple is divided into inner and outer palaces.
There are four layers of fences surrounded by wooden boards or columns.
The section is rectangular, and the main hall is on the innermost layer.
According to the regulations, all the buildings in the inner and outer palaces are completely rebuilt every 20 years, so they are often kept in good condition.
However, new factors inevitably infiltrate into it.
For example, the railings of the main hall platform are basically Chinese style, and generally still do not lose their ancient appearance.
Successive emperors after the Meiji emperor ascended the throne have to pay homage.
American scholar C.
Alexander praised that Japan’s iseh Palace “is one of the most beautiful small buildings in the world”.
“Book of Japan” contains: in the first year of emperor Xianzong (485), “Qushui banquet in the court of Shangsi xinghou in March”.
This record is very meaningful.
First, it is said that as far back as the 5th century, Japan had the tourism content of “Qushui Liubei” influenced by Chinese culture.
Second, if it is compared with the “clear current and turbulent current, left and right, leading to the flowing source and winding water” in the preface to Lanting anthology, we can find the direct impact.
Preface to Lanting anthology was written in the ninth year of Yonghe in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (3530 years), which is enough to prove that the content of Chinese gardens spread early and had a deep influence on the outside world.
In the 13th year of the reign of Emperor Qin of Japan (552), Buddhism spread to the East, and Chinese gardens also spread to the East.
Xumi mountain and Wu Bridge were built in the Japanese palace.
Courtiers competed to build houses and gardens.
According to the book of Japanese history, in the 34th year of emperor tuigu (625), the minister Su wumazi “lived beside the bird River, opened a small pool in the court, and still prospered the island in the pool, so he was called the Minister of the island at that time”.
There are also works describing the aristocratic gardens in the poetry of the collection of ten thousand leaves.
The courtyard of Nara era has seen pools, rock islands, sparse houses around pools, etc.
In the era of Ping’an, the forms of “shuishiting” and “bedroom building” with Chi island as the main body appeared.
In Kamakura era, Penglai Island style garden was built, such as Luyuan temple garden.
In the Muromachi era, under the influence of Zen, dry landscape gardens appeared in Japan.
Chen Zhihua said that most of the masters of dry landscape are Zen monks.
They not only bring the mood of indifference and death into the garden, but also said that they use dry landscape to express the eternity of getting rid of all life, age, illness and death.
Without trees, flowers and plants, there will be no glory and thanks of the four seasons and the growth of successive years.
Without real water, there will be no surplus, dryness and movement.
Dry landscape symbolizes mountains with stones, water surface and pool with white sand, and only simple shrubs are dotted.
The most famous are the Daxian courtyard of Dade temple and the courtyard of Long’an temple in Kyoto.
The dry landscape of Japan has a unique Zen meaning of Japan.
From the middle of the 15th century to the end of the 16th century, Japan formed a set of etiquette rules with the theme of tea tasting and tea fighting.
For this purpose, a kind of building has sprung up, that is, the teahouse.
The ideograph of the teahouse is “digital house”.
It is composed of ordinary soil, sand, wood, bamboo and wheat straw.
Its appearance is very humble, a little simple or even poor.
It adopts a herringbone roof, and the rain can flow down both sides.
With four and a half tatami as the boundary, it is divided into large tea room and small tea room.
There are often niches with empty interior.
Some paintings of famous Chinese monks are hung on the front of the niches, and a basin of flowers is arranged under them.
Simple tea sets, charcoal stove, tea Yao, stove brush, etc.
Moreover, all these are arranged randomly and irregularly, so they are also known as “empty room” and “unequal residence”.
With natural light and exquisite windows, everything in the room looks quiet and elegant.
The guests also wore clothes that were not exciting.
So “it implies a noble poverty and exquisite coarseness”.
In the small teahouse, “we pursue and enjoy the noble luxury life spiritually”.
The Japanese tea ceremony was initiated by Zen monks.
The samurai, tyrants and gentry were elegant and competed to follow suit, which was prosperous for a time.
The samurai once built independent small teahouses according to the style of the upper section of the mansion built by the Academy, but it was not popular.
Widely popular is the tea house with the style of grass nunnery.
The tea ceremony in Japan is also called “Cao’an tea”, because the shape of the tea house in Japan is the same as that of the farmhouse in Japan.
Later, it gradually formed a tradition and became one of the most distinctive architectural types in Japan.
The tea ceremony and teahouse in Japan complement each other, and the teahouse had a very important impact on the later buildings in Japan.