There is a saying that this kind of stone building is used to hold sacrificial ceremonies.

British Druids held a long-standing summer solstice sacrifice ceremony in the ring stone array.

Because the sunrise on the summer solstice is of far-reaching significance to the farming nation.

It announces the arrival of the sowing season and the recovery of life.

Another view is that this huge stone building is used to observe the sun.

Some scholars pointed out that the prehistoric megalithic buildings in southern England in 1800 BC showed that people in the Neolithic Age used their best efforts to fix and symbolize the space-time coordinates obtained by observing the sun at that time.

The building consists of a circle of vertical boulders, which point to a horizontally placed slate and two small circles inside.

The whole structure points exactly to the position when the sun rises on the horizon on the summer solstice.

Another view is that this kind of boulder building is a kind of tomb.

In “art before art”, Deng Fuxing listed the megalithic buildings in France with a decay period (about 5000-4000 years), which were not actually the residence of people at that time.

Most of them are tombs (another kind of totem pole), which has a strong primitive religious significance.

Such buildings also use huge stones to build “dormen” (tomb), “Ali Jimen” (neatly arranged stone path rows), “menril” (erected boulder rows and stone tombs, as well as the stone walls of amisburg, England).

These huge stone buildings also use large projects to build fortresses to defend the enemy and wild animals.

Although they only show a simple and magnificent modeling beauty, they also reflect the creative courage of human beings to struggle for life.

Primitive nation and primitive architecture we need to understand the origin of architecture.

We can understand how the most “primitive hut” is built by observing the primitive nation of modern relics.

Marc Antoine Laugier, a French scholar, said that savages had to build a home for themselves to protect themselves rather than bury themselves.

The fallen branches in the forest are the right material for his target.

He picked the four strongest branches and stood them up to form a square.

And put four other branches on it.

On top of these branches, he set up two different rows of branches to tilt each other and cross at the highest point.

Then he covered the roof with leaves tightly so that neither sunlight nor rain could leak in.

Therefore, the savage had a house to live in.

However, ethnic groups in different places have different ways of building.

The unique cultural characteristics of a nation are often the best way for them to adapt to their natural environment.

This situation is often seen in the relatively backward national culture in today’s world.

For example, in the culture of Eskimos living in North America, the most distinctive ones are sleds, igloos and so on, which are the best cultural mechanism to adapt to the polar climate.

If Eskimos are moved to desert areas, they will abandon the original culture represented by sleds and ice houses and adopt desert culture characterized by camels and tents, otherwise they will be eliminated by nature.

Here, the natural principle of survival of the fittest is very important.

Taylor cited several examples.

One was that in the depths of the Brazilian forest, travelers met the houses of homeless and destitute Puritans.

They were not even shacks, but inclined roofs made of many eight foot long palm leaves leaning against the crossbars.

These windward facing shelters hide Indians stretching in hammocks suspended between two trees.

Because there are dense leaves on it to protect them, their life does not lack some comfort in good weather.

But in bad weather, the family even the dog had to squeeze into the bonfire on the ground.

Almost the same original buildings can be seen among the aborigines in Australia.

After they settled down in their residence, they were usually satisfied with inserting many branches with thick leaves on the ground and setting up a shelter for themselves at night.

When they connect two rows of branches above their heads, the screen becomes a shack.

When they settled in a place for a long time, they built a real shack frame with branches, covered the roof with bark or leaves and grass, or covered the roof with turf, and plastered the shack with clay from the outside.

Robert Rowe also said that the Tasmanian house 100 years ago was very simple.

They just nailed a few wooden stakes on the ground and leaned against it with bark one by one, even if it was completed.

The thatched houses of the eastern Indians used crossed columns, and the roof was covered with grass or reed mats.

Hunting or nomadic people use a kind of tent.

This kind of tent is conical and made of animal skin and bark.

It has the same form from Siberia to North America, South to Texas.

A considerable part of modern African architecture remains in the primitive period, such as ramming earth to build sacrificial buildings and mud to build houses and barns.

These primitive buildings, whether based on archaeological discoveries and documents, or the description of modern uncivilized or closed primitive tribes, all show that buildings are the product of natural environment and way of life.

At the same time, with the development of architecture, human beings began to move towards civilization from the primitive period of ignorance, and different types of buildings were produced due to different needs.

Religious rituals and primitive architecture according to archaeological findings, in the Paleolithic age, primitive people used natural caves as places to live.

It can be seen that cave is a way for primitive people to live.

The book of changes says, “in ancient times, people lived in caves and in the wild.

Later sages changed their palaces and buildings to shelter them from the wind and rain.

” Therefore, in mythology, a considerable number of gods live in caves, such as the queen mother of the West.

“The book of mountains and seas · the great wilderness West Sutra” said: “someone Dai Sheng, tiger teeth, leopard tail and cave are called West Queen Mother.

This person has everything.

” Here, “cave dwelling” means living in a cave.

By the Neolithic age, there were simple artificial earth caves or shacks.

Then, who invented the construction of houses? Ancient humans always attributed the founder of primitive art to God.

The book of changes attributed it to “sage”, while other documents attributed the invention of architecture to “Youchao”.

The literature shows that there are two main construction methods of “nest dwelling” and “cave dwelling” in the original architecture.

For these two original construction methods, there are “the lower is the nest and the upper is the camp”The earthly representative of the sun – the immortality and immortality of the Pharaoh.

Egyptians are more important to death than life, and more important to the afterlife than this life.

The Egyptians had a special worship of the Nile.

They observed the sun coming out from the East and setting from the West in nature, so they believed that the sunset was the city of the dead, so the tombs were built on the West Bank of the Nile.

Herodotus once mentioned that the Egyptians were the first people to claim the immortality of the soul.

The Egyptians believed in immortality after death.

In the concept of ancient Egyptians, there are two elements of life in the world: one is human body, the other is soul.

After death, the soul can fly away from the body freely, but the body is still the basis for the existence of the soul.

Therefore, it is necessary to carefully make the corpse into an incorruptible mummy before it can be resurrected and continue to live in the afterlife.

Three thousand years later, eternal life will be resurrected in the paradise.

Because they believe that the dead must traverse the lives of all animal systems in the Three Kingdoms of land, water and air for 3000 years before they change back to human form.

So they paid special attention to the construction of tombs, which gradually evolved into pyramids.

The Nile determines the characteristics of Egyptian architectural art.

Across the Nile, the West Bank is the residence of the dead and the east bank is the city of the living.

The Nile is an ideal golden passage.

In order to build temples and tombs, huge granite stones can be transported downstream from Aswan quarry by barge or raft.

The tombs of Pharaohs in the ancient kingdom appeared in the form of pyramids.

There are more than 70 large and small (80 in one word) in Giza and Sakala in the lower reaches of the Nile.

The most famous are the pyramids of zhaoser and Giza.

Zoser Pyramid: zoser, located in Sakala, was built around 3000 BC.

Its base is 140 meters long from east to west, 116 meters long from north to South and about 60 meters high.

This stepped pyramid is surrounded by six layers of stairs.

It is reduced from mastaba from bottom to top, symbolizing different levels of heaven and the survival of all things.

Through the corridor and tomb passage, you can enter a tomb chamber with a depth of about 28 meters.

The purpose of this architectural treatment is to create the illusion of moving from the present world to the underworld.

Outside the pyramid is the sun in the desert, while inside the pyramid is ruled by darkness.

Giza pyramid (Ciza): built in the Fourth Dynasty around 2700-2600 BC, three great pyramids of three generations were built in Giza in the Nile Delta, which is a model of ancient Egyptian pyramids.

They are all precise square pyramids with extremely simple form, which is a big step higher than the zhaoser pyramid.

The Cheops pyramid is the highest.

It is called the Great Pyramid and is known as one of the “seven wonders of the ancient world”.

The tower is 146 meters high and 230 meters long at the bottom.

It is made of about 2.

3 million stones with an average weight of 2.

5 tons.

The gold lettering of Chephren is 143.

5 meters higher, and the four sides of the tower base are 215.

5 meters long.

In the east of the tower, there is a flat rectangular temple, commonly known as the upper temple.

Near the Nile Valley, there is a lower temple.

There is a passage about 496 meters long between the upper temple and the lower temple.

The famous Sphinx is located in the northwest of the lower temple.

Menkaura pyramid is 66.

5 meters high and 108.

5 meters long at the bottom, with a small scale.

The Egyptian pyramids embody the new concept of Egyptian burial ceremony and the belief in the sanctification of the monarch.

How should we evaluate such pyramid buildings? It is amazing, especially in different light, the pyramid will show its different beauty.

In the vast desert, only the tall, stable, heavy and concise image of pyramids is eternal and memorable, and they have expressive force only in such an environment.

It is characterized by grandeur and simplicity.

Schelling said, “The pursuit of greatness in Egyptian architecture is reflected in another aspect.

The eternal and difficult sky and the uniformity of movement in nature make this nation pursue firmness and eternity.

it is reflected in the style of pyramids, just like other ancient buildings they left us.

This eternal and difficult style never allows Egyptians to build with other things, but boulders.

” Boulders are the “eternal stone” of Egypt.

Egyptians use this “eternal stone” to create “art of the afterlife”.

However, people are still not satisfied with such an explanation.

Hegel said, “We found that the oldest magnificent tomb memorial is the Egyptian pyramid.

At first glance, what makes these amazing works amazing is that they are too large to measure.

This immediately reminds people of how long and how many manpower it will take to complete such a huge building.

If they are not fascinating in terms of form alone, You can digest them in just a few minutes.

Because they are so simple and neat in shape, the question of their purpose has been debated for a long time.

” So what is the meaning of the pyramid’s form besides being the tomb of the Pharaoh? Many scholars believe that the form of pyramids reflects the ancient Egyptians’ worship of the sun god.

Patrick newkins pointed out: “A plausible answer to the mystery of Egyptian architecture is that so many geometric forms do not come from natural abstraction.

They all come from the Egyptians’ worship of the sun god, who occupies an overwhelming position in their lives and is respected as the king of gods.

The pyramid tower is a ladder to the sky, which is based on the metal decoration on the top of pyramids and obelisks And the sun with wings is engraved on all sides of the pyramid.

” At this time, the ancient Egyptians still retained the primitive fetishism of the clan era.

In addition to the worship of the sun god, they believed that the mountains, deserts and rivers were sacred.

Early emperor worship took advantage of primitive fetishism, and the emperor was proclaimed as the God of nature.

Therefore, the typical characteristics of the images of mountains, deserts and long rivers were given to the monument of imperial power.

Such artistic thinking is intuitive and primitive.

Jinyu tower has strong primitiveness and eternity, as if it were artificially piled rocks.

They are therefore in harmony with the scenery of the Nile Delta.

Around 2000 BC, the Egyptian pyramids were repeatedly threatened by tomb robbers, which transformed the Pharaoh’s tombs from pyramids to grotto tombs.

But apart from the pyramids, the most famous building in Egypt is the temple.

The Egyptian temple is a system of administrative and religious integration, and the pharaoh is one with the monarch and the priest.

Temple buildings spread all over Egypt, occupying one sixth of the country’s land in one period.

The priests used altarsThe statue and temple are Trinity.

On every sacrificial Festival, the priests carry the statues of the gods of the temple to visit other temples, play mythical roles in the ceremonies and chant the poems of the God of rites.

In Egypt, the temple is God’s “Castle” and “Palace”.

The “gate wall” in the temple has a special meaning.

The “gate wall” is called “the mountain on the horizon”.

The sun rises between the two mountains.

The two towers represent iside and nepthys respectively.

According to the myth, the rising sun is held on the arms of the two goddesses.

The gate wall emphasizes the facade of the temple and the role of the entrance gate, which enhances the solemnity of the temple.

For the Egyptians, the pillar in the temple symbolized stability.

Jack tricid said that in the ancient world, the symbolic meaning of columns was usually extremely important, representing the power and authority of God and vitality.

Egypt’s djed column (later built with four capitals) is said to represent the spine of Osiris.

The temple composed of columns is the most important religious space.

In the Middle Kingdom, Thebes was the worship center of Amun.

Amun was originally the God of wind or air.

Then it was integrated with other gods, such as the rich God “Min” of coptos, and then combined with the sun god “La” of eliopolis, and finally formed the God of the universe “the God of all gods”.

With the blessing of this God, we can win the war.

In the temple dedicated to this God, people sacrifice most of the spoils of war and the tribute of the conquered nation.

Amun RA became the patron saint of the Empire: the goddess Thebes was “given” to him as his wife and the moon god Hons was recognized as his son.

This forms the trinity of God.

The most famous temple architecture dedicated to Amun is the Amun Sun Temple of Karnak and Luxor, which is the richest gift to “Amun” in the new kingdom.

Every year in the second month of the Nile flood season, the king presides over a ceremony carrying the God am ū n) The ship of the statue of the goddess mut and their child Huns escorted them from the Karnak temple to the Luxor Temple.

This is one of the most important festivals of ancient Egyptians.

In addition to water, there is also land.

Between the two temples, there is a one kilometer long Sphinx Avenue lined with two rows of holy sheep statues.

If the religious ceremony is held, it also starts from Kanak and ends at Luxor.

What a magnificent ceremony it will be! Karnakdi Temple am ū n-R ē) Founded in 1400 BC, the multi column hall in the temple was built in 1000 BC, and the last of the six pylons was built in 400 BC, thousands of years apart.

“Kanak” means “city stronghold”.

The temple of Karnak Amun is located in the northern half of the eastern city of Thebes, the capital of the Middle Kingdom and the new kingdom of Egypt, on the East Bank of the Nile about 700 kilometers south of Cairo.

The temple is 366 meters long and 110 meters wide.

Centered on the main temple in the west, the main hall is 103 meters long from north to South and 51.

8 meters wide from east to west.

The main hall is densely lined with 134 strong stone columns, which stand in 16 rows.

On both sides of the central passage, there are 12 column capitals with umbrella paper grass flowers, up to 23 meters high, which is the largest existing ancient stone column.

The temple is also the largest temple in the world today.

Luxor Temple is located on the East Bank of the Nile River in Thebes.

It is slightly smaller than the Amun temple in Karnak, with a total length of about 260 meters and a width of 60 meters.

14 thick stone pillars up to 20 meters are located between the two yards, full of dark and mysterious feelings.

Interestingly, the architectural structure of Karnak temple and Luxor Temple gives people the convenience to observe the stars and the sun and their relationship.

Especially in the direction taken by the colonnade of Karnak temple, the priests can see the setting sun at the spring equinox and autumn equinox on the altar.

It can be seen that this kind of temple had special significance in religious worship at that time.

Hegel said that when people walk through these huge and amazing human works, they can’t help thinking about the enlightenment and what the works made of these boulders have to say about what is sacred.

Because when you look closely, these buildings are generally intertwined with many symbolic meanings, such as the number of Sphinx and memnon, the location of stone square and passage marks the number of days per year, the twelfth house of the zodiac, seven planets, the season of December and so on.

Sometimes sculpture is not independent from architecture, and sometimes the real architectural factors such as size, spacing, the number of columns, walls and steps appear that the purpose of these relations is not in themselves, that is, not in symmetry, harmony and beauty, but in their symbolic significance.

Therefore, such works seem to have independent purposes.

They themselves are a kind of religious worship, in which the monarch and the people are combined.

Because of the symbolism of temple architecture, Hegel listed it as a symbolic architecture.

Edith Hamilton, an American cultural scientist, praised the giant Egyptian temples and amazing large granite.

It seems that only the power of an earthquake can carry them together.

Egyptian temples are not the creation of a combination of geometry and symmetrical beauty, but something else.

It embodies science and a moving spirit, but the most important thing is power, a superhuman power, a rock solid, incomparably powerful power and overwhelming momentum.

In contrast, everything that man has is insignificant, and man seems to no longer exist.

Egyptian architects deeply feel the power of nature and its irresistible absolute dominance.

In their minds, there was no thought of man – this insignificant molecule.

Because in ancient times, human beings were indeed insignificant in front of the power of nature, but human beings created buildings comparable to nature.

In other words, to express the power of God, human beings must realize it through this huge and solemn building.

Therefore, in the view of H.W. Miller, as a building of significance to the whole Zizhou order, the construction of a temple needs a specific motivation, a detailed design and a special foundation laying ceremony before construction.

The Egyptians not only built the temple, but also built the temple garden next to the temple building.

This kind of sacred garden can also be called holy forest, which is to plant trees near the temple.

Japanese StudiesZhong Ji of the valley of needles pointed out that the kings of ancient Egypt (Pharaohs) frequently built shrines to honor the gods, and arranged shrines around the shrines.

It is said that this kind of God garden has appeared in the Middle Kingdom era, but it is generally believed that after the New Kingdom era (16th ~ 11th century BC), the temple of BAHARI is the most famous.

On both sides of the Sphinx, acacia is planted to form street trees.

Trees are also planted near the tower gate and on the three platforms.

This form of divine garden can be seen in the painting.

As early as the ancient kingdom, there was a wooden palace of abidos.

Later, the Pharaoh began to exercise the authority of God.

He guaranteed that the land had the magic of prosperity, and his divinity was symbolized by the pyramids.

Due to the increase of new rituals, this authority was constantly strengthened, so the Pharaoh began to absorb the vitality given to him by the sun god, and then the Pharaoh became the “son of the sun god”.

During the Middle Kingdom, the 12th dynasty Pharaoh amenimhet III built a huge palace called “maze”.

According to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, the palace has 1500 houses on two floors above and below the ground.

There are 12 courtyards on the ground floor, which are connected by a channel surrounded by six doors facing south and six doors facing north and double rows of stone columns.

In the New Kingdom period, with the development of urbanization, the centralization of power was gradually consolidated, and the Pharaoh gradually became the embodiment of the highest and ruling God of all gods.

So they were not satisfied with ordinary mansions, but built palaces and even temples for themselves, pursuing a solemn and grand scale.

In the early days of the New Kingdom, the palaces in kahune had been combined with the temple of the sun, but the layout was not strict enough.

Several palaces were built in Tel El Amarna, the new capital.

Ceremonies can be held in the palace, and the worship of pharaohs gradually reached a climax.

In the 19th Dynasty, the palace and temple became one, and the most typical is the temple, the Palazzo Latinos of Thebes of Ramses II.

Babylonian architecture Babylon is located in the two river basins.

The two river basins refer to the fertile plain between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia.

This land is a very rich impact Delta, which was once described as a “fertile new moon”.

It is called holy land in the Bible.

It is said that the garden of Eden described in Genesis in the Bible is here.

The story of the ancient Babylonian tower is also described in the Bible.

Robertson pointed out that in Babylon, the same as in Egypt, the country was unified under one city-state at first, and then under another city-state, which led the priests to attempt to arrange the gods of each city in a separate hierarchy of temples.

When Babylon became the ruling City, its god Marduk merged the rituals and myths of other gods.

Indeed, Babylon was founded on the basis of Sumer Akkad and declined after two booms.

In 4000 BC, many city states (city states) were established in the two river basins, which are mainly composed of three cultures: the first is Sumerian Akkad culture, which is mainly built in Uruk and ur.

The second is Babylonian culture.

In the early 19th century BC, the kingdom of Babylon unified the lower reaches of the two rivers, conquered the upper reaches and established the city of Babylon.

“Babylon” means “gate of God” in Akkadian.

At the beginning of the 16th century BC, the kingdom of Babylon perished and the city of Babylon was destroyed by the king of Assyria.

From the second half of the 7th century BC, the Chaldeans destroyed the Assyrian Empire, established a unified new Babylonian Kingdom and rebuilt the city of Babylon.

The most famous building in this period was the hanging garden.

The third is the ancient Assyrian country, whose buildings are mainly in the capital city of Assyria, with the famous sagon palace.

By the middle of the 6th century BC, the Persian Empire rose with the palace of pasepolis. V. Gordon childe, a British archaeologist, said that in Sumer and Akkad, the land is divided into 15 or 20 urban countries.

Each urban country is politically independent, but everyone enjoys a common material culture, a common religion and a common language, while economically, We are also very interdependent.

Every city center has a so-called “God Castle”, including some temples of the City God and other gods.

If we are happy, we can infer that God is the personification of some magic.

Dramatic replays of plant death and regeneration, sowing and harvesting, may once have been held as magic rituals to force the growth of crops.

The ancient Babylonian mythology inherited the rich heritage of Sumerian mythology.

In Babylonian mythology, it symbolizes the opposition between orderly gods and irregular gods and monsters.

From the depths of the original concept, the Babylonians made a dualistic interpretation of the world, that is, the eternal opposition between good gods and evil gods and monsters, and believed that the strength of good would win the final victory.

In the world view of Sumerians and later akkads, worship of the power of nature – sky, land and water accounted for a large proportion.

Because these forces are of great significance to the lives of agricultural residents in the two river basins.

Ancient Sumerians worshipped celestial bodies and mountains.

They believed that the gods in the sky lived in the mountains, so they called the temple “the residence of the mountain”, and gradually formed a religious mountain platform.

Mountain platform is a multi-storey high platform.

Because it is built of brick and clay, it is not so much the gods in the temple to bless people who believe in celestial bodies and mountains as the “mud Bodhisattva” (Patrick newkins).

Through continuous reconstruction, the mountain platform forms a ramp or ladder.

There are high platforms facing the front of the platform, going up along the front left and right, or spiraling up.

This kind of high platform first existed in Uruk.

Uruk is Erech mentioned in the Bible.

American scholar B.M. Fagan said that anyone approaching Uruk would see the huge Assyrian ancient pagoda temple and stepped Temple pyramid a few miles away.

The ancient Assyrian pagoda and its affiliated temples, an expensive public plan, are the center of Uruk life.

He said that the whole life of the Uruk people and their connection with cities, towns, merchants and mines hundreds of miles away were carried out around the temple.

From the archaeological findings, there are two quite obvious architectural relics here, one of which is located in the city center“Significance of the ceremony: first of all, divination should be used to select the site, and demons, elves and other gods other than the main gods provided by the temple should be expelled from the site, so as to ensure that there is a harmonious correspondence between the selected area and the universe “.

According to Mario bussali, the basic theme of Indian architecture is the expression of the “center”.

This theme is equally applicable to architecture and urban planning.

Every temple or palace is a cosmic axis, a sacred center, which is the intersection of heaven, earth and even the underworld.

Since villages are regarded as the basic unit of human settlement in the whole Indian region until today, expanding the symbol of this center has become a recurring motif in the urban plane.

This concept was first reflected in the city of mohenzo Daro.

In 3000 BC, in the lower reaches of the Indus River in present-day Pakistan, there was a city called Mohenjo Daro, which means “hill of the dead”.

The city is divided into East and west parts.

The main road in the middle is 7 meters wide (one says 10 meters).

In the west of the city is the castle, which is built on an artificial platform about 10 meters high.

There is a pool in the middle of the north half of the city, which is 12 meters long, 7 meters wide and 2 meters deep.

It is speculated that it may be built by religious sacrifice.

There may be houses in the East and north of the pool and barns in the west of the pool.

The southern half of the castle is a hall and temple.

The hall may be used for sacrifice.

It is a square hall about 28 meters long on each side, with four rows of brick columns inside.

There are colonnades around the temple, with walkways and various rooms inside.

In addition, there are high towers in the city.

It can be inferred from pools and temples that ancient India had formed its own religious system at this time, and the architecture also initially formed its own form.

India is a religious country with many religious sects, including Brahmanism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.

In such an environment, people’s activities are centered on religion.

We can understand why Indian buildings are mainly temples.

Just as Babylonians worshipped mountains, Indians believed that God lived in mountains and caves.

So they began to build buildings that could be called hills and caves.

Hegel pointed out: “according to the Indian view, human beings themselves are gods or want to become gods, and the strict distinction between living and dead does not exist in India.

Therefore, Indian buildings are not used to live the dead when they are not affected by Islamic sources, but belong to an earlier period of architectural art like the strange caves mentioned above.

” In India, temples have become a metaphor for mountains because of their huge size.

In the eyes of Indians, mountains are the symbol of the pillar of the universe and the axis of the world.

The temple is truly sacred only when it is connected with the mountain.

The temples in India are mainly Zhiti and Vajra.

Chaitya, originally defined as the firewood heap for cremation, generally refers to places of worship.

In Buddhist architecture, it especially refers to pagodas, temples, ancestral halls or Buddhist temples.

One of the most famous is the Zhiti Grottoes in Buddhist chaitya, Karli.

Vihara means a garden for leisure and living, and Buddhist architecture refers to monk’s houses, essence houses and monasteries.

The early Zhiti and Vajra were wooden buildings.

This kind of Vajra (monastery) mainly includes a square courtyard surrounded by several rows of monasteries.

It may also have three or more floors.

In the middle of the yard is a small court hall supported by stone or wooden columns.

Most of the remains today are rock chiseled buildings with imitation wood structure, which are called Zhiti Grottoes or pikaro grottoes.

This kind of grotto architecture is often located in caves on cliffs, which is a typical architectural type in India.

In the Indian concept, there is a certain relationship between the hidden depths of the earth and the divine realm.

Buddhist monks dig caves along the mountain, which are often used to hold religious ceremonies.

The main manifestation of Hindu temples is @ stupa.

Patrick newkins said that all Indian temples are Temple mountains.

The classical structure of Buddhist tradition is @ blocking slope, but it is not a building at all, but actually a huge earth hill@ Blocking slope is used to bury the bones of Buddha or saints.

It often adopts hemispherical buildings symbolizing the sky.

Mario bussali pointed out that @ doupo has multiple symbolic meanings, such as: the center of a mysterious force (the axis of the world): a cosmic form seen from the outside.

As a tomb, a cloakhouse, or a sanctuary for sacred bones.

And the monuments of the Buddha’s missionary and holy relics.

It was also built on the newly occupied land as a sacrifice and a symbol of loyalty to the land.

It replaces the meaning of the altar and is regarded as the incarnation of the Buddha whose magic power pervades the universe.

According to the research of some domestic scholars, @ Dupo has the meaning of “the tree of the universe”, “the cave of the gods”, “the pillar of the universe” and “the beginning of Taiqiu”.

The most famous @ blocking slope is sangi @ blocking slope, which was built in 250 BC.

Sangji @ blocking slope has a hemispherical body with a diameter of 32 meters and a height of 12.

8 meters, standing on a circular platform 4.

3 meters high.

The hemispherical body is made of brick, and its surface is pasted with a layer of red sandstone.

There is a circle of stone railing poles unique to India around, and a door is set in the middle of each side, facing the positive direction.

The railing is a wood like structure.

Three stones are arranged between the columns by inserting falcons, and the section is olive shaped.

The top of the column is connected into a ring with a stone.

The door is 10 meters high, covered with deep reliefs, and the outline is decorated with round carvings.

Most of the themes are the Bunsen stories of the Buddha.

The British scholar Walder described that in addition to the symbols (the lotus represents no dye and no wear is the most prominent), the complex flowers, vines, the gods, heavenly daughters and birds and animals waiting on them, the great feature of these carvings is the Bunsen stories.

There are also a few historical scenes of the Buddha’s life.

Mario bussali said that the importance of the sangi complex is not only reflected in its religious significance, but also in its integration of architecture and sculpture, so that its origin can be traced through its decoration.

Here, @ Tupo has truly become the embodiment of Buddha, and it is the manifestation of the essence of Buddha and its boundless magic power that governs the whole universe and spiritual world, that is, to express the existence of Buddha in a non idolized form.

It symbolizes the omnipresence and invisibility of Buddha with a metaphor for the sky.

In this way, the Buddha is regarded not only as the mentor of mankind, but also as the noumenon of the universe.

Interestingly, at the top of sangjizai blocking slope, there is a circular umbrella structure with the shape of a tree surrounded by a square stone fence with a gradually smaller diameter.

In addition to sangjizai blocking slope, there are still original @ blocking slopes in Ceylon, such as anuradpuleThe ancient capital, thupraramadogoba, was built in the 3rd century AD.

this @ blocking slope is called dagaba in Ceylon.

Mayan architecture Mayan architecture can be divided into three stages: the first stage is the pre classical period, about 2500 BC ~ 250 ad, which is the formation period of Mayan civilization.

Its architectural form is that there are simple tombs, stone walls and earth platform buildings near the houses, which indicates that the sacrificial worship center has been formed.

The second stage is the classical period, about 250-900 A.D., which is the heyday of Maya civilization.

During this period, there were large-scale cities and settlements, and the main cities were Tikal, Copan and Palenque.

The third stage is the post classical period, also known as the Mayan Toltec period, about 900-1520 ad.

New city states appeared in Qiqin Itza and other places on the Yucatan Peninsula in the north of Maya, which is called the revival of Maya civilization.

After 1450, the Mayan civilization declined again.

Since 1520, the Spanish invaded Mexico and madly destroyed the Mayan region, leading to the collapse of the Mayan civilization.

In Maya, the center of most ancient cities is a castle or a temple.

Mayan architecture emphasizes the solemnity of religious buildings, and temples are built on the platform, on which the Mayan pyramids are developed.

Maya buildings are mainly distributed in Tikal and other sites.

Tikal is the center of Mayan culture.

The center of the city is the center of sacrifice and rule.

High platforms are built according to the terrain, and several of them are magnificent pyramidal temples.

The highest temple is 75 meters high, and people can reach the temple gate through a steep ladder.

The small temple towering at the top of the pyramid almost completely imitates the model of brick hut.

These temples are also the tombs of the king.

American scholar B.M. Fagan pointed out that Mayan temples were used for sacrifice.

“The Mayan rulers often chose the right time to comfort their many gods (some good gods and some evil gods) in the exquisite sacred calendar .

Every sacred year and every cycle of several years are controlled by different gods.

It is necessary to use the tribute of sacrifice to please God in order to ensure the continued existence of the country.

Some of the offerings are human.

” This kind of sacrifice can be said to be the cruelest sacrifice of living people in the world, reaching a bloody level.

Mayan palaces were built on high platforms, characterized by long, low buildings and built on open grounds.

Patrick newkins believes that there is no need to raise the foundation to make the building higher than the jungle.

For example, the governor’s residence in usmar is 330 feet long and is located on a man-made platform 43 feet high.

It is estimated that 2000 people need to work continuously for three years, 1200 days per person per year, and the daily material handling capacity is as much as 1000 tons.

Toltec culture is very similar to Mayan culture.

They have jointly created monumental buildings with the Mayans in Qiqin Itza and taodihuagang.

Zhu Di pointed out that some religious concepts embodied in architecture are far more complex than ordinary people think.

A Mexican made an amazing discovery on the site of Chichen Itza in the ancient Mayan city, that is, on the first day of spring and the first day of autumn, it falls on the 200 foot high castino pyramid twice a year, just making the tower show the profile of a giant snake.

And the top of this pyramid really has a temple that respects the feathered snake as a god! American archaeologist E.H. Thompson found that the pyramids of Qiqin Itza are decorated with snakes.

“Among the four corners of the pyramid, each corner is composed of a large stone snake.

On each side, there is a snake head with a wide upper and lower jaw, which is carved from a large limestone.

” “The stairs used for the ceremony are carved with two big snake heads.

The thick stone pillars are made into the traditional snake shape.

” Therefore, Maya toltek is called “the nation of snakes”.

These snake worshiping nations have a strong religious consciousness.

But the sacrifices of the Toltecs seem to be more bloody than those of the Mayans.

In order to worship the bloodthirsty tribal god teskatlipoka, they sacrifice the hearts of living people.

Aztec Temple is the representative of the last stage of ancient Indian culture in Mexico. W. H. Prescott once recorded the scene of the Spanish explorer Hernando Colchester’s first arrival in Aztec: the Spanish general got out of bed at dawn.

Through the morning fog, you can vaguely see the holy flame in countless temples, indicating that it is the capital.

Gradually, the sun rose from the eastern horizon and the valley was covered with brilliant light.

At this time, the temples, towers and palaces were vividly remembered.

The temple is not only the symbol of Aztec capital, but also the symbol of Aztec culture.

The Aztecs built the capital, tenochtitland, on Lake Tesco island.

There are more than 40 pyramid shaped platform temples built in the big square in the center of the city.

The main temple is what the Spanish call the “big temple”.

Its tower base is 100 meters long and 90 meters wide.

On the top of the tower, there are temples dedicated to the main gods viziluoportli (also known as the sun god) and tralock.

Thousands of people’s hearts are sacrificed to the gods every year so that solar energy can continue to rise and fall through the sky every day.

Germain Bazin said that the horror of the “Millennium” has left unforgettable scars on our own culture, so we can fully imagine the psychological state of a people like Aztec, who fall into despair every 52 years for fear of the destruction of the world.

Their way of expressing despair is to hold a grand sacrificial ceremony.

Patrick newkins said that it is to meet the needs of this grand ceremony that it has developed into this urban center model: a wide square for public assembly, religious dance and entertainment is formed in front of the pyramid temple, and the small God Temple on the pyramid can be reached through the huge steps.

A statue of God is usually placed at the top of the ladder, which is the place where the priests hold a public sacrifice ceremony.

The sacrificial platform faces a square full of crazy admirers.

The tiny figures on the platform give the impression that they are very close to the sky.

This madness makes it very easy for people to fall into madness.

The Aztecs inherited the architecture of the dortecs and even used the craftsmen of the dortecs.

Their monuments are mainly in the city of Tenochtitlan.

Near today’s Mexico City.

The city is in the center of the salt lake and uses water pipes to send fresh water from the land.

cityThe city is square, and the central square covers an area of 275 square meters × 320 meters, surrounded by three palaces and a pyramid.

The tower is 30m high and the base is 100 × 100 meters.

Palaces and ordinary houses are quadrangles, made of rubble and pebbles, with fine mortar and wide seams.

The mortar is smooth and silvery.

The roof is flat with battlements all around.

Aztecs also like to use snake heads or monsters as decorative motifs.

But this decoration is mysterious to the Aztecs.

Inca architecture “Inca” means “son of the sun”.

According to legend, its earliest ruler, Manco Kapak, led the tribe to Cusco in Peru, South America, around A.D. 1000 to establish an empire.

The pyramidal temples and palaces in Cusco are built of huge stones.

Among them is the tiawanako Sun Gate built in the 12th century.

Some people describe the Inca Sun Temple as built on a holy land facing east.

The whole temple is made of carefully trimmed, flat and huge stone slabs.

In order to let the air circulate, the roof is built high, made of thatched houses, and there is a very beautiful altar.

The walls around the main hall are inlaid with thick pure gold from top to bottom, so the temple is named “golden palace”.

On the front wall is the sun god idol, which is a round piece of gold painted with a man’s face surrounded by light and flame.

It faces to the East and emits thousands of golden lights when directly irradiated by the rising sun.

On the left and right sides of the sun god idol, according to the ancient custom, the mummies of Inca kings of previous dynasties are enshrined on the gold imperial chair.

From a distance, they look like real people.

There is a gorgeous Royal chair in the center of the hall.

When the ceremony is held, the Inca King will sit on the Royal chair.

Some people have experienced that standing on the roof of the temple and seeing the sun rise in the morning, they will naturally worship the sun.

It is worth pointing out that the civilization of ancient America was a highly developed civilization, but it was destroyed.

What is the reason? Some people think it is due to war or foreign invasion.

Some people think that the ancient Mayans died in a large number of infectious diseases, or in a series of infectious diseases, and civilization fell from the middle.

Others believe that according to the local farming methods, there will be no good harvest if the land is planted continuously for three years.

Many cities are densely populated.

The population of Qiqin Itza alone has increased sharply from 200000 to 500000, which makes it necessary to have broader corn fields to meet people’s requirements.

Therefore, the huge cost of living has led to the decline of Mayan civilization. E. H. Thompson insisted on his own point of view and believed in the concept of cosmic cycle of the ancient Greeks.

He believed that the same was true of nations and civilizations.

The Mayan civilization only completed a life cycle by living and dying, and so was the rise and fall of other nations before that.

Germain Bazin pointed out that in other parts of the world, no civilized nation has been dominated by terrible supernatural forces for such a long time, and there is no place where human beings are more tragically aware of their weakness and incompetence in a hostile world.

They believe that living in the world is to die, kill and poke, and even offer blood donations.

The sun must feed human blood day by day to continue its process.

It makes sense that civilization has completed a life cycle.

We can explain it from ancient Egypt, ancient Babylon and even ancient India.

However, the civilization of ancient America still has its particularity.

This is “cool love of death” and “killing”, which may also lead to the destruction of a civilization.

Ancient Greek architecture ancient Greece is located in the south of Europe and the northeast of the Mediterranean, including the Greek peninsula and the Aegean islands.

Today, the southwest coast of Turkey, the south of Italy and the east coast of Sicily all belong to the scope of ancient Greece.

In this marine geographical condition, Greece does not seek survival by farming, but by sea exploration.

Herodotus pointed out in the first volume of history that the Greeks had established their own cities in the most beautiful climate and seasons we know in the world.

Because no place around Ionia, whether North, South, east or west, is as blessed as it is.

In other areas, the climate is either cold and wet, or hot and dry, which is very annoying.

In Greece, the temperature is between winter and summer, in a moderate state.

The more moderate the climate is, the brighter and happier the nature there is, which is more widely reflected in the image of vitality and intelligence, and in the characteristics of decisiveness and great achievements.

In such a suitable climate, people put more energy into artistic creation, including architectural art.

From 2000 BC to 1100 BC, Greece was in the era of lute civilization or Minoan civilization.

Crete was the largest island in the Aegean Sea.

Non Greek carians created Crete civilization.

The akayas, a branch of the Greeks, went south from the north of the Balkans to create the menesian culture.

Due to the discovery of Aegean civilization, Greece has become one of the birthplaces of the world’s five civilizations.

The period from 1100 to 800 BC is the Homer era, also known as the heroic era.

From 800 BC to 500 BC is the formation period of Greek city states, which is called the ancient and simple era, also known as early Greece.

The Ionian city-state formed Ionian architecture, and the Dorian city-state formed Doric architecture.

Between 500 and 330 BC, Greece entered the classical era, which was the golden age of Greece and made great achievements in architectural art.

The main architectural types include Acropolis, temple, amphitheater, square, etc.

, and a new Corinthian column has been formed on the Peloponnesian peninsula.

From 334 B.C. to 325 B.C., the eastern invasion ended, and a huge empire was established.

Its territory ranged from Greece in the west, the Indus River Basin in the East, Central Asia in the north, and Hellenized the East.

At the end of the 1st century BC, Greece was conquered by Rome.

But Greek architecture influenced not only Roman architecture, but also the architecture of the whole Europe.

The palacet Knossos belongs to the Crete culture of the Aegean civilization and is located in the southeast of the city of iraclion, Crete Island, Greece.

The palace was built around 1900 BC (I say around 2000 BC).

After being damaged by the earthquake around 1750 BC, a more magnificent palace was rebuilt and became the center of Minoan civilization.

The palace has a construction area of 22000 square meters and is generally square.

In the center, there is an open-air courtyard 60 meters long and 30 meters wide,It provides the only unified principle of composition combination.

The total number of rooms in the inner court of the palace is about 1500.

There are three floors on the west side of the courtyard, which is the area for religious sacrifice.

It is used for sacrificial ceremonies, with shrines, altars, sacrificial halls, etc.

The courtyard east building has 4 or 5 floors, which is the living area for the king’s daily life, including the main hall, the empress’s bedroom, the reception hall, etc.

There are stairs connecting the central courtyard, the East and the west, and the stairway forms a colonnade with the passages on each floor.

Roland Martin said that as soon as visitors entered the palace, they encountered a long corridor.

This is the “procession” of the famous “procession”, which is connected with the “procession” of the palace.

The palace of Knossos was occupied by the menesians around 1450 BC and destroyed around 1400 BC.

The palace building of Knossos in Crete marks the beginning of the history of Western architecture.

Between Crete and Greek buildings, there is also a building of manixi civilization, including manixi City, Talon Acropolis, etc.

the most famous is the Lion Gate of manixi.

Like Crete architecture, menesi’s architecture had a direct impact on Greece.

The Acropolis and temples of Athens each city has its center and its patron saint.

Oswald Spengler said in the decline of the West that cities have their own culture, and the relationship between farmers and their homes is the relationship between modern civilized humans and cities.

Farmhouses have various gods of farmhouses, cities also have patrons of cities, and have their own local saints.

Cities, like farmers’ farmhouses, are rooted in the soil.

Athens in Greece is named after its patron Athena.

Acropolis originally meant “the top of the city” or “the highest part of the city”.

Typical cities are clustered around a hill or high rock.

The reason is very simple.

The top of the mountain was originally a natural fortress.

At the same time, it is easy to build fortifications to defend the enemy.

Therefore, the peak or castle was originally a city, which was called polis in Greek.

Due to the expansion of the reservation, it was distributed far away from the mountain.

The Acropolis is a place high in the center and crowned with buildings.

The top of the Acropolis is roughly flat, 70 ~ 80 meters higher than the flat ground.

It is about 280 meters long from east to West (one says 300 meters), and 130 meters wide from north to south.

An important innovation of the Acropolis complex is to break through the limitations of small city states and regions, and integrate Doric art and Ionian art.

Propylaea, built from 437 to 432 BC, was designed and built by the architect Mnesicles.

There are six Doric columns in front of and behind the mountain gate.

The height of the East is 8.

53 ~ 8.

57 meters, the height of the west is 8.

81 meters, the bottom diameter is 1.

56 meters, and the ratio of eaves height to column height is 1:3.12. In order to pass through the sacrifice team composed of vehicles and sacrifices, the mountain gate has five bays, and the Central Bay is particularly large.

The distance between the center line is 5.

43 meters and the clearance is 3.

85 meters.

In the west half of the gate, there are three pairs of Ionian columns on both sides along the central road.

When pilgrims enter the temple through the mountain gate, they will feel that the mountain gate is very beautiful.

Plato once praised the Greek ceremony.

He said that there was a time in the past when beauty itself looked brilliant.

At that time, we followed Zeus in the procession and others in the procession of gods.

We saw the blissful scene and participated in the initiation ceremony of the deep esoteric religion, which can be said to reach the highest divine blessing among all deep esoteric religions.

At that time, we praised the deep esoteric religion, which still maintained the integrity of its original authenticity and had not been infected with the sins we would later be infected with.

At that time, the scenes unveiled by the grand initiation ceremony were all complete, simple, quiet and joyful, immersed in the purest brilliance for us to stare at, and we ourselves were just as pure.

We can imagine how the ancient Athenians lined up in a long queue from the square to the way into the Acropolis during the celebration festival, Go up the steps leading to the mountain gate, and the outward protruding wings of the mountain gate are like outstretched arms to meet the admirers from the outside.

On the castle to the right of the mountain gate stands the temple of Nick epteros (victory Temple).

When entering the holy land of the Acropolis, the most striking is the Parthenon temple.

The Parthenon temple is the most important temple in the Acropolis.

It is located at the highest part of the Acropolis and is a temple dedicated to the God Athena.

The temple is the most splendid building in ancient Greece.

The temple is written naos in Greek, and the Ionian dialect is Neos, which originally means “the place where God lives”.

The word is also used in a narrow sense, meaning “a shrine or chamber in which a statue is placed”.

The construction of temples is an important symbol of the development of Greek religion.

The buildings in the original holy land were open-air altars.

With the institutionalization, stylization, rudimentary and natural places of worship of religious activities, they do not meet the needs of religious activities.

With the improvement of architectural and technological level, people have been able to cast exquisite statues, large and small, and feel the need to build a place for the incarnation of these gods.

In addition, with the formation of the city-state system, Greek religious activities have become increasingly close to the social activities of the city-state, which also makes it necessary to build a temple in the holy land for the normal conduct of sacrificial activities.

Because the temple construction and statue casting condense the artistic talent and wisdom of the Greeks.

So that some western scholars call classical Greek culture temple culture.

By the 5th and 4th centuries BC, Greek temple architecture reached the peak.

Germain Bazin said that Greek temples are much smaller than Egyptian temples.

They usually include a rectangular light wall surrounded by single or double columns.

The statue of God is placed in the inner hall, which is usually divided into three parts: in front of the inner hall is the entrance hall, and behind the inner hall is the sacred vessel room or treasure house.

The rooms are dark, only the top is transparent.

At the front and rear (facade), the slowly sloping triangular roof forms two triangular sections – Gables, decorated with carvings.

Ancient Greek temple architecture runs through every period.

Ancient Greece believed in polytheism.

These gods are said to live on the top of Olympus in the north.

They changed from the original ancestor worship to the patron saint worship.

Therefore, all nationalities, cities, and even families and all people have their patrons, so temples are built everywhere.

The original Greek temple was very simple.

Later, the temple changed from brick and wood structure to stone structure.

By the 6th century BC, it was gradually shaped into a corridor type.

The most famous is ParthenonTheater, square and other buildings.

Public buildings are more reflected in the cities of divinity and power, while in the cities of religion and ethics, public buildings are not paid much attention.

In the city of divinity and power, public buildings are the window of a city, and the city is the basis for the survival of public buildings.

Holy Land: it is said that in Greek mythology, in order to determine the center point of the universe, Zeus, the emperor of heaven, sent two birds to leap over the four vertices of the square universe.

The intersection center is Delphi, an elegant mountain city two hours north of Athens.

Delphi holy land includes Apollo temple area and Mary temple area.

In the Apollo temple area, there are APOLLO TEMPLE, treasure house, theater, playground and other buildings.

In the marmalian temple area, there are Athena temple, rotunda, treasure house, altar and other buildings.

The ancient Greeks held regular festivals and celebrations in the holy land.

The ancient Greeks came here from various city states to participate in sports, drama, poetry, speech and other sports competitions.

In the most important place of the holy land, the temple, the center of the building complex, was built.

The place centered on the temple has become a gathering place for public celebration.

Theater: one of the most important public buildings in Athens.

Ancient Greek theatres were often built near temples.

Their earliest feature was a circular venue.

Before the tragedy was formed, they may have been used for song and dance performances.

The audience sat or stood on the hillside and watched the play around the circular venue.

Around the 6th century BC, a platform was officially built at the foot of the mountain, on which a 66 foot diameter “Orchestra” was built.

This round scene has been used for performance since then.

The building behind the round court was later added, called “Skene”, which originally meant “dressing shed”.

The most famous theater in ancient Greece is Epidaurus, which was designed by the architect Piri Kratos and built in 330 BC.

The center is a ballroom.

The auditorium is built on the hillside to form a grandstand around the orchestra floor, which can accommodate 13000 people.

Surprisingly, its acoustic effect is very ideal.

Aeschylus’s orestea is recognized as the earliest script that clearly needed a background building to be used as a palace or temple.

In the birth of tragedy, it is praised that the Greek theater architecture reminds us of a lonely valley: the architecture of the audience seat is like a bright cloud.

In bakui’s view, it is as if they were hugging down from the mountain, so wonderful structure.

In its center, Dionysus showed himself to them.

Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and plants.

When he showed it to people, not only tragic art, but also architectural art was really born.

Vitruvius believes that the Doric column shows the proportion, strength and beauty of the human body and is a perfect male model.

The Ionian column shows the characteristics of women’s weakness.

The Corinthian column imitates the thin and small figure of girls, which is not very different from the Ionian column.

Vitruvius opened the door for the personification of the pillar, and even entered the house in the Renaissance.

German philosopher Schelling explained architecture as “solidified music” in detail.

He believes that Doric orders focus on rhythm, Ionian orders on harmony, and Corinthian orders on melody.

However, whether the Greek order imitates the human body or has symbolic significance is controversial.

John Wood said that Vitruvius had cited the cochlea decoration on the pillar of Diana temple as an example.

Therefore, the onyni order is composed of this kind of cochlea decoration.

It seems obvious that the cochlea decoration on the pillars of the temple of Diana is not used to imitate hair curls (Vitruvius believes it is used to imitate hair curls), but as a symbolic symbol.

Like the horn used by Jews and Orientals, the cochlea decoration symbolizes all the characteristics of majesty, power and monarchy.

Greek art pursues harmony and elegance.

Edith Hamilton pointed out that “Greek art is the art of wisdom and the art of thinkers with clear and concise ideas”.

“This talent and wisdom are most fully and prominently displayed in Greek architecture.

Greek temples are the most wonderful creation to achieve the balance between reason and spirit.

” “Greek architecture in the great era is the embodiment of man”, “Greek temples are the perfect embodiment of pure reason inspired by spirit and spirituality,” simplicity “is one of its major characteristics, and great buildings everywhere can not be compared with it”.

Here, “simplicity” is a kind of beauty.

As Pericles said, Athenians are “simple lovers of beauty”.

Generally speaking, ancient Greek architecture is the pioneer of European architecture, or has a great impact on later European architecture.

Compared with the three tiered tombs of Greek temples, the Roman temple is built on high piers.

In front, it is easy to enter the main hall through steps.

In front of the main hall is a deep porch, and the colonnade of the porch extends around the temple.

The most typical building is the Pantheon.

Pantheon was originally the temple of M.V. Agrippa, the commander of ancient Rome in 27 B.C., but it was struck by lightning in 80 A.D. It was rebuilt by the Roman emperor Hadrian from 120 to 124 ad.

In 609, Pope Boniface IV renamed it the Church of Notre Dame and martyrs.

The basic idea of the Pantheon is the symbolic meaning of the universe.

It is the single space of Rome, the representative of centralized composition buildings, and the representative of Roman dome technology.

Before the 19th century, it was the largest dome building in the world.

The Pantheon was a colonnade, but after burning, it was rebuilt in a centralized form covered by a dome.

The porch is 33 meters wide and 16 Corinthian columns are arranged in three rows.

On both sides of the gate are statues of Augustus and Agrippa.

The Pantheon is round, with a dome diameter of 43.

3 meters and a top height of 43.

3 meters.

According to the concept at that time, the dome symbolizes the sky.

A round hole with a diameter of 8.

9 meters is opened in the center of it, symbolizing the connection between God’s world and man’s world.

The soft light from the round hole (round skylight) illuminates the spacious interior, with a unique flavor of religion.

John B.

ward Perkins praised the Roman Pantheon, saying that the building surpassed the Parthenon in Greece· Savi spoke highly of the space of the pantheon in Rome, he said, before the appearance of the Roman Pantheon, human beings had never created internal space, just empty orifices.

Primitive people were afraid of space.

The symbol of this era was the rough stone pillar – an upright feldspar: useless.

The ancient oriental people created many physical buildings, such as pyramids and temples with huge pillars.

In these temples, a large number of huge columns occupy the space.

Ancient Greece personified the pillars in temples, but still ignored space.

The pantheon in Rome first took space, which is invisible and actually existing, as a means of architectural expression.

Its space is shy, surrounded by heavy entities, and the internal and external relations are too narrow.

The only daylighting opening in the main hall is the circular skylight at the top, which strengthens the light and shadow changes on the square caisson inside the dome, making the building appear thick and solid.

However, compared with Greece, Roman architecture is mainly reflected in the new types of public buildings.

Roman public buildings the most important buildings in ancient Rome were public buildings.

Hegel said: “The characteristics of Greek architectural art are that it is completely in line with the purpose and has the perfection of art.

It is high, simple and beautiful, and the decoration is very light and beautiful.

Although Roman architectural art has advantages in machinery, it is richer and luxurious than Greek architectural art, but it is not as noble and beautiful as Greek architectural art.

In addition, in the Roman era, there are many buildings that are unknown to Greeks The purpose of Tao.

As I said at the beginning, the Greeks only applied the luxury and beauty of art to public buildings, and their private houses were always insignificant.

As for the Romans, they not only expanded the scope of public buildings, such as their theatres, colosseums and other public entertainment places, which combined the purpose of structure with the luxury and magnificence of appearance, but also made great progress in private buildings.

Especially after the civil war, villas, bathhouses, corridors and steps were built extravagantly, which opened up a new field for architectural art, including garden art, which developed perfectly in a way full of intelligence and aesthetic taste.

This type of Roman architecture provided a model for later Italians and French.

We Germans were influenced by Italy and France for a long time, and finally returned to Greece to set an example in the purer form of ancient times.

Public buildings are mainly reflected in square buildings.

The Roman square “forum” is directly deduced from the Greek “Agora”.

Roman cities have central squares, which were built by successive emperors to meet the growing needs of society, law, commerce and festivals.

Announcements, trials, festivals and even fights can be made in the square.

John B.

Ward Perkins pointed out that when Rome square was first formed, it was a multi-functional open space, which was alternately used as worship facilities in the community, political or military assembly places, open-air courts or markets, as well as public entertainment places.

There are three famous ones, namely Caesar square, Augustus square and Trajan square.

Caesar square is dedicated to the Venus temple.

There are eight columns in the front porch and three spans deep.

The square has become the front yard of the temple.

Venus is the patron saint of Caesar’s family, so the square is obviously Caesar’s personal Memorial.

In the middle of the square stood a gilded bronze statue of Caesar on horseback.

Augustus square was formed in the form of buildings for the first time.

Like Caesar’s Square, a semicircular gallery and lecture hall were built on both sides for eloquent speakers.

The Wai corridor temple is dedicated to the God of war.

The turajen square almost religiously worshipped the emperor.

Trajan built the largest square in Rome next to Augustus square.

The shape of the square refers to the characteristics of the architecture of the eastern monarchy.

It is not only symmetrical in axis, but also has a multi-layer in-depth layout.

It consciously uses the architectural layout to brew the arrival of the climax of architectural art, which is the climax of emperor worship.

Under the monarchy, the square itself is a product of political etiquette.

Fang Long pointed out that the Romans liked to build the Arc de Triomphe and memorial columns, and they should be covered with exquisite carvings from top to bottom.

He said that on the commemorative column of Trajan in Rome, the image occupies 660 feet, with a total of 2.

500 characters in various forms, indicating various scenes of emperor Trajan’s Crusade war in Dacia, including the scenes of the emperor pulling open his slingshot to shoot, and the beheading of hundreds of leaders of captured barbarians.

The main gate of Trajan square is a three span Arc de Triomphe.

At the intersection of the vertical and horizontal axes stands the gold-plated bronze horse riding statue of tulazhen.

The most distinctive is the Jigong column up to 35.

27 meters.

On the capital stands the full body image of Trajan, which was changed to the image of St.

Peter in 1588.

These merit columns and Arc de Triomphe are for ceremonial purposes.

The theater is the most important public building in Rome.

The most famous are theatreof Marcellus built in 44-13 BC and theatreof orange built in 50 ad.

The auditorium of the matherus theater can accommodate 10000 to 14000 people.

The outer wall is divided into two layers, both of which are in the form of coupons and columns.

Now some walls are still preserved.

The orange theater in the present southern France has an upright stage, which unifies the appearance of the theater.

The theater can accommodate about 7000 people.

It is built on a hillside.

Half of the audience is made of terrain and half is constructed.

The basic design of Roman theater is changed from Greek theater.

It was pointed out that Roman theaters are generally built on flat ground, while Greek theaters use the natural slopes of mountains to open up audience stands.

The audience stand of Greek theater exceeds the semicircle, while the audience stand of Roman theater is a positive semicircle, and the audience seats outside the semicircle are cut off because of poor sight.

The height of the entrance of the Roman theater is generally no more than 5 feet, and the architectural walls on the stage are very gorgeous.

The orange theater mentioned above has a front wall with three doors, decorated with many symmetrical columns, triangles, niches and statues.

Therefore, in terms of design, architecture and decoration, theater is one of the highest achievements in Roman architecture.

Clolosseum, also known as the Colosseum, is built for the performance of gladiators.

It is not only the most representative public building in Rome, but also a symbol of eternity.

The plane of Dajiao arena is oval, and the center is a central “performance area”, with an auditorium with 60 rows of ladder seats, which can accommodate 80000 spectators.

The auditorium is divided into five areas: honor seat or VIP seat, Knight seat and civilian seat.

There are 5 parts above and below the grandstand, with 80 entrances and exits.

The appearance of the big horn arena is very majestic.

It is 48.

5 meters high and is divided into four layers.

From the first layer, it is Doric column, yuanoni column and Corinthian column, which are surrounded by continuous coupon galleries.

The top layer is Corinthian pilaster.

In terms of scale, technology and artistic style, the big horn arena is one of the representative works of ancient Roman architecture.

In the 3rd century AD, the balance system of the cross arch was mature, which further promoted Roman architecture.

Compared with memorial buildings, the bathing building is a functional building, and its representative work is bathsof Trajan in Rome.

Bathsof Caracalla and bathsof Diocletian.

As early as the Republican period, the Roman city imitated the model of late Greece to build public baths.

Later, the playground, library, concert hall, lecture hall, friendship room, shop and so on were organized in the bathing place to form a multi-purpose building complex with social activities.

Bathrooms are a very important part of their life, even in the building, said Robert rich.

Mathier once described a public bath like this: “Oh, obianus, if you haven’t bathed in the Etruscan bathroom, you haven’t bathed at all in your life.

” The large-scale bathing pool is paved with green and white marble.

There are some pools next to the hot air room.

A canal built by Titus directly leads the water here from Apennine mountain.

The scale of the bathing beach is very large.

For example, the karakara bathing beach built in 217 ad can accommodate 1600 people.

Daikeli first bath can accommodate 3000 people.

These buildings are not only the landscape of Roman architecture, but also enrich the skyline of Rome.

According to B.M. Fagan, the material heritage of Rome lies in the road system and urban construction.

This road system still provides the basis for many traffic in Europe and the Near East today.

And cities are still prosperous modern cities.

After visiting Italy, Chen Zhihua described: “At that time, the urban construction in ancient Rome was the first-class in the world.

Even in a long period of time, there were few urban construction on such a scale.

For example, the ancient Roman Empire built post roads, especially in Italy, which were densely covered with post roads.

As the old saying goes, all roads lead to Rome, and the most important one is the Apia Avenue from Capua to the central square of Rome.

This is the “ceremonial road” where the army triumphed and held a ceremony in the central square after all major battles since Caesar the great.

“The diversion canal is also a landscape of the ancient Roman city.

There are 11 water transmission channels leading to the ancient Roman city.

They are all built on tall stone bond arches, more than ten kilometers long and tens of kilometers long.”. From this, we can imagine the spectacular scene of Rome.

Roman gardens and courtyards the ancient Roman writer Virgil (70-19 BC) described an “ideal landscape” in his work Elysium, which can be comparable to God’s garden of Eden.

As someone pointed out, “the ideal landscape is not a description of pure natural landscape, but a concept of idealized human life, another version of the garden of Eden.

” However, from the perspective of the gardens and courtyards existing in ancient Rome, it was influenced by ancient Greece, mainly divided into palace gardens and noble manors.

The most famous is Hadrian’s departure Palace (126 ~ 134) in the suburb of Rome.

The Golden House garden of the Roman Emperor Nero.

From the excavated ruins of Pompeii and herculanemou, we can clearly understand the situation of Roman villas and gardens.

Zhongji pointed out that the two third-class towns in Roman times were destroyed by the lava after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D. and have been revealed to the world after many excavations since the 18th century, especially the old city of Pompeii.

In general, it is a family residence with the combination of Guangting and column gallery and a flat street door layout.

The building is also rich in decorative arts such as sculpture, stroke and stone inlaid painting.

Among them, the Vitti residence is a building in the late Pompeii period.

Now plants have been cultivated in the residence, making it almost completely restored to its original state.

This is an example of an ancient Roman residential courtyard.

It consists of colonnades and water spray statues.

Ivy, shrubs and flowers were planted in the popular boxwood flower bed with corrugated edges at that time.

It can be said to be a miracle that such a complete monument is presented to people.