Ancient Egyptian sculpture ancient Egypt includes a long period from prehistoric times to 332 BC, during which Egypt experienced several historical periods: early Dynasty (3100-2686 BC), ancient kingdom (2780-2280 BC), Middle Kingdom (2040 or 2134-1778 BC), New Kingdom (1570-1320 BC) and later Dynasty (about 1090-332 BC).
Egypt is one of the birthplaces of ancient civilization and has formed its own independent system in culture and art.
In 4000 BC, a slave country appeared in Egypt.
Around 3000 BC, after a long war, upper and lower Egypt won and established a unified slave country.
In the period of continuous war and gradual unification in upper and lower Egypt, the initial basic characteristics of Egyptian sculpture gradually formed.
The palette is originally a tool for grinding cosmetic pigments.
It is usually engraved with decorative animal patterns.
Later, it was used as a religious sacrifice and a monument to record major historical events.
The existing stone slabs include animal stone slab, war stone slab, snake king tablet and so on.
The narmai stone slab (now stored in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo) is a master of palette stone slab relief.
This 64 cm high relief, made in 3000 BC, shows the scene of the king of Upper Egypt conquering Lower Egypt.
The relief on both sides of the rock wall depicts five scenes.
On one side, the king of Egypt wears an e-crown and a stick shaped beard under his chin.
His right hand holds a scepter high and his left hand is pressed on the enemy’s head.
At the top left of the relief is an eagle standing on six paper flowers at the base of his head.
The eagle is the symbol of Horus, the protective god of Upper Egypt.
Six papyrus flowers rich in Lower Egypt mark that upper Egypt captured 6000 lower Egyptian soldiers.
At the top of the relief, the two bull heads with human faces are the God of Seth believed in by the whole of Egypt.
At the lower end of the relief is the Egyptian who fled at the sight of the wind.
The other side of the rock slab is divided into three parts.
The upper part is a celebration of victory.
The Pharaoh wears the comprehensive crown of upper and lower Egypt and reviews the beheaded enemy bodies under the guidance of his servants.
Each scene of the relief is relatively complete and an integral part of the whole idea.
The proportion of human body in relief is basically correct.
Different identities of characters are expressed through different representations, such as clothing, headwear and body size.
People and animals are depicted from different perspectives.
This symbolic sculpture laid the basic principles of Egyptian art in the future from content to form.
Ancient kingdom sculpture (2780-2280 BC) the ancient kingdom period included the third to sixth dynasties of Egypt.
The Egyptians of the ancient kingdom believed that the king was the descendant of the gods who had ruled the land since ancient times.
Religious belief plays an important role in Egyptian daily life.
They believe that the mausoleum is a permanent place for people to live.
It is even more important than the palace.
Almost all the carvings of the ancient kingdom came from tombs and temples.
Egyptians believed that it was not enough to keep only the king’s mummy in the tomb.
The king’s statue could ensure that the king could exist more reliably forever.
The sculptors made the king’s head from hard granite and put it into his tomb, so that the king’s soul could live forever in the statue.
In the Egyptian language, the original meaning of the word sculptor is “a person who makes people live”.
In addition to the statues of the king, there are also a large number of statues of servants and slaves in the tomb.
Their colorful images together constitute the underground real world.
At first, there were only carved portraits of the dead king.
Later, the royal family and nobles also placed carved portraits in their tombs to enable the soul to live in peace.
Ancient Egyptian sculpture always adheres to the positive principle: the face of the character is the side where only one eye can be seen, the upper body is the positive image, the arms are close to the side of the body, and the lower body is the walking legs seen from the side.
This positive modeling principle helps to combine the sharp observation of nature with the regular geometric form, which is in line with the calm and elegant ideal pursued by Egyptian sculpture.
Therefore, it has been implemented throughout the development of Egyptian art.
This stylized modeling principle has been preliminarily improved in the ancient kingdom.
Egyptian sculpture in the ancient kingdom has strong realistic characteristics, and sculptors in this period have been able to rely on a high degree of skill.
More truly reproduce the shape of characters and objects.
This high achievement of ancient Egyptian sculptors came through long-term exploration.
They first took molds from the faces of the dead, then turned them into shapes, and then copied and processed them with stone.
In this way, I gradually mastered a set of skills to shape portraits.
The materials used for carving in the ancient kingdom included stone, wood, ivory, copper, clay and so on.
Egyptian sculptors can carve works of any size, from small wooden carvings to huge sphinxes.
Granite, diorite and basalt are mostly used for large-scale carving, limestone or sandstone are generally used for carving, and wood and copper are used for small-scale carving.
The appearance of all kinds of statues is almost painted with color, ochre for men and light yellow for women.
The representative sculptures of the ancient kingdom include the stele of the snake king, the statue of Pharaoh havra, the limestone statue, the seated statue of Prince rahutep and his wife Nefert, the statue of the Secretary, and the woodcarving statue of the village head.
The monument of the snake king (now stored in the Louvre Museum in Paris) is a limestone carving, 250 cm high and 65 cm wide.
It was made between 3000 and 2900 BC.
It is one of the masterpieces of relief at the beginning of the unification of upper and lower Egypt.
The snake represents the late Pharaoh and is placed in a rectangular box representing the front of the palace.
Three pagodas separated by two gates under the snake symbolize heaven, earth and Hades respectively.
At the top of the rectangle is a falcon.
Falcon is a fierce bird.
It is regarded as the God of Soros in Egypt.
It is the embodiment of Pharaoh and the patron saint of kingship.
The seated figure of hafra (now stored in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo) is made of black diorite with white stripes.
It is 1.
68 meters high.
The carving is very exquisite, showing the superb skill of the sculptor in processing on hard materials.
Pharaoh sat on the throne with his eyes straight ahead, his arms close to his body, his hands on his close knees, and his right hand clenched his fist.
The slightly exaggerated contours of shoulders and arms give people a sense of expansion.
The figures portrayed by the statue are accurate and realistic.
Full of power.
The whole shape is harmonious and concise.
The Pharaoh’s face was solemn and had all manner.
Behind the Pharaoh’s head, there is an eagle hols perching on the Pharaoh’s seat.
It spreads its wings to protect the Pharaoh’s head.
SeatThe legs of the chair are carved with lions to show the majesty of the Pharaoh.
The Pharaoh’s extremely quiet expression and dignified posture reflect his eternal ruling power.
The Pharaoh’s throne takes the whole stone without hollowing out, and the side is carved with relief patterns symbolizing the unity of upper and lower Egypt.
This work is one of the typical works that embody the law of Egyptian sculpture art.
The Pharaohs in Egyptian sculpture are always young and idealistic.
The statue of menkoala and the princess (now collected in the Boston Art Museum) is carved in slate, 142.
2 meters high.
It depicts a healthy and simple Pharaoh couple in a realistic way.
The anatomical relationship of human body is accurate.
Their breasts are plump and beautiful, and their limbs are slender.
They take a slight step forward with their left foot, but they don’t adopt the forward posture, but put their weight on their two feet, which has a sense of stability.
The Pharaoh’s arms are vertical and his hands clench his fists.
The princess’s left arm holds the Pharaoh’s arm and her right arm surrounds the Pharaoh’s waist.
This is the standard posture of the Egyptian couple.
Although the body posture of the Pharaohs was a little stiff, they all had a smile and bright eyes.
The expression is very vivid, giving people a sense of serenity and wisdom.
The statue of the Secretary (now collected in the Louvre Museum in Paris) is a colored limestone carving, 53 cm high, which was made from 2680 BC to 2565 BC.
The secretary is a high-ranking official in Egypt.
The figure sat cross legged, with a roll of papyrus spread out on his lap and his face straight ahead.
It seems that he is raising his head and listening attentively.
His thin hand holds the reed pen tightly (the reed pen is incomplete), as if he is shaking his pen and writing quickly.
The expression of the statue is particularly vivid.
Its eyes are bordered with copper, filled with alabaster and made of black crystal.
The expression that makes the eyes focus is vivid.
This delicate expression reflects the Egyptian sculptors’ pursuit of realism.
Many such works have been found in Egypt, but this sculpture is the best one.
In mastaba, near jinyuta in Giza, 20 heads called “spare heads” were found.
They are all made of limestone.
Among these avatars.
Especially some women’s heads.
These avatars have no stereotyped stylized faces and distinct personality.
The eyes of these avatars are not inlaid, but carved to make the expression of the avatars vivid.
These works reflect the development of realistic tendency in the first half of sculpture in the ancient kingdom.
In the sculpture of this period, there were also a large number of small statues of slaves for burial and combined round sculptures engaged in various labor.
Because these statues represent slaves of low status, they are not limited by fixed procedures in processing, so they appear quite free and can boldly and truthfully express their objects.
These statuettes are often grouped in groups and sometimes placed in wooden workshop models.
The woman making wine, which is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, is one of the more prominent works.
This is a limestone carving with a height of 26.7 cm. It shows a working woman with bare upper body.
Her arms are thick, her breasts are plump, and her physique is strong.
She is rubbing the thick dough in the urn.
The woman’s lower body is almost combined with the pottery urn, which makes the structure of this figurine extremely compact.
The Sphinx of Gize is the largest stone statue in the ancient kingdom, with a height of 20 meters.
It is 57 meters long.
Its face is 5 meters high, its nose is 1.
7 meters high and its ears are 2 meters high.
It is carved from a whole piece of limestone.
It was made from 2680 BC to 2565 BC.
The Sphinx is located to the east of the pyramid of havra.
Its head is a statue of havra, and its body is a lying lion with one front claw sticking out.
The two giant claws extending to the front are made of stones, and there is a small temple in the middle of the giant claws.
The Sphinx wore a Pharaoh’s striped headscarf, with a holy snake carved on its forehead and an original beard on its chin, which was said to have been destroyed during the invasion of Egypt.
The nose and eyes of the human face have been damaged, and the details of the face can’t be seen clearly.
However, when the wind and sand are diffuse and the day is at dusk, when you look from a distance, your face looks like a broken face, and there will be a hazy sense of mystery and an unpredictable smile on your face.
A “head of weselkaf” was found in the sacrificial Temple of weselkaf in faro.
It is also a huge stone statue, in addition to the Sphinx.
The oldest giant red granite statue found in the Pharaoh’s mausoleum.
Egyptian relief in the ancient kingdom is very similar to painting.
Most of the relief is line carving and painted with color.
It can be described as a kind of relief painting.
The content of relief painting is very extensive.
Ancient Egyptian reliefs are silhouette works based on side view and backed by walls.
The details of the image are implied by chisel drawing, rather than carving.
Nevertheless, the outline of the image is still very expressive.
Middle Kingdom sculpture (2134-1778 BC) the Middle Kingdom period includes the seventh to twelfth dynasties.
The orthodox art of the Middle Kingdom strictly imitates the tradition of the ancient kingdom.
The statues of some senior officials are works of this type.
They appear stale and empty.
Some portrait carvings in the same period showed a growing tendency of realism, which represented the new achievements of sculpture art in this period.
Pharaohs in the ancient kingdom were usually created after the death of the Pharaoh and placed in the tomb of the Pharaoh.
In the Middle Kingdom, statues were made for the living pharaohs and placed in temples to increase the prestige and influence of the Pharaohs in people’s minds.
This requires sculptors not only to maintain the dignity and silence of the traditional Pharaoh, but also to portray the real face of the Pharaoh with realistic techniques.
The best portraits of this period are a series of portraits of Pharaoh shenuselt III.
In these works, the statues of Pharaohs in the ancient kingdom have the serenity.
Solemnity and self-confidence disappeared, replaced by a mental state full of anxiety and tension.
There are also some portrait sculptures that try to depict the characters’ emotions and complex inner world.
The portrait of shenuselt III (now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo) is 29 cm high and carved in gray granite.
Only a slightly mutilated head remains.
This sculpture did not beautify the Pharaoh’s face.
Instead, it reproduces the true face of the Pharaoh in a realistic way.
The Pharaoh’s face was overcast, his eyes were swollen, and his heavy eyelids hung low, revealing fatigue and melancholy.
In previous Egyptian sculptures, the Pharaoh has never been so bold as to show such a suffering.
A precedent for an image full of pessimism.
Falao shenusseSome other portraits of elte III, such as another incomplete head and a solemn sitting portrait, have this complex emotional expression and distinctive personality characteristics.
In this period, there were also a large number of block carvings smaller than the size of a real person for worship.
This kind of carving shrinks the human body into square and cylindrical stones, and the carefully carved head and feet are exposed, while the other parts of the body are referred to by the contour lines carved on the stones or covered with aprons.
This kind of stone is usually engraved with hieroglyphs.
This carving existed until after the new kingdom.
The image of Hotep belongs to this kind of work.
In this sculpture, hetep’s body is curled up with his knees together, his arms folded on his knees, his head sticking out of the stone, and the rear half of his body is wrapped in the stone.
Hieroglyphs are engraved in the middle and left and right of the two legs of the Zhou statue, with the inscription “minister hetep”.
In the mausoleum carvings of the Middle Kingdom, the statues of slaves and attendants were full of life, and many excellent works appeared.
At this time, the body proportion of the figure statue is longer than that in the ancient kingdom, making the figure appear lighter.
It is a wood carving of a girl carrying tribute in the Louvre Museum in Paris.
It is 104 cm high.
She holds the bucket container on her head in her left hand and the spotted chicken in her right hand.
It seems that she is moving forward slowly.
She is wearing tight clothes, with gorgeous colors and beautiful posture.
Small wood carvings were popular in mausoleum carvings during this period, some of which were exquisite, realistic and interesting.
Among them, 80 40 cm high wooden statues of soldiers in formation found in the tomb of a general in asiute are the most famous.
In the Middle Kingdom, there was also a concave plane carving: the carved object was lower than the surface of the stone slab.
The representative work of this relief is the relief of Queen Cavitt’s sarcophagus.
New Kingdom sculpture (1570-1090 BC) the New Kingdom period includes the 13th to 20th dynasties.
The mausoleum carvings in the New Kingdom period reflect the gorgeous development trend of carvings in this era.
The pharaohs of this era still maintain the characteristics of idealization without losing authenticity, preciseness without losing elegance.
At the same time, pay more attention to the delicacy of carving and polish the carving height to make the figure look softer.
It is also an important feature of sculpture in this era to engrave the details of characters’ costumes to obtain a sense of rhythm and decorative beauty.
In the New Kingdom period, there appeared a king who advocated religious reform – Akhenaten.
He forced a new sun god religion – Akhenaten religion, and Akhenaten also reformed in art.
The art of his reign broke the constant modeling formula of Egypt for thousands of years and adopted new expression methods.
The art of this period is called amarnai art.
Akhenaten’s new art lasted only more than 20 years, but it made Egyptian art glow with new brilliance and had a far-reaching impact on the history of Egyptian art.
The statue of Amenhotep IV (now stored in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo) is a sandstone sculpture with a height of 4 meters.
It was made about 1360 BC.
It was placed in the temple of akhunath at akhunath.
It portrays the image of Akhenaten.
This sculpture has an asymmetrical face and a morbid figure.
The statue has a slender trunk and a fat and bulging abdomen.
Holding wat boards and chains symbolizing kingship in both hands shows the majesty of the king.
This sculpture is one of the representative works of amarnai’s carving art.
“The head of Queen Nefertiti” (now stored in the National Museum in Berlin, Germany), 48 cm high, carved in limestone.
Made around 1360 BC, it shows a reserved and beautiful queen.
The Queen’s head is very heavy, but the statue has no base.
The placement of the head is supported by a slender long neck.
Such a bold treatment is the only example in Egyptian sculpture.
The queen has the unique charm of Oriental women.
Her facial features are soft, and the structural changes of her face are rich and delicate.
The statue is painted in bright colors.
The light red skin sets off the thick black eyebrows and bright red lips.
The eyes are inlaid, black and white.
It looks extremely vivid and beautiful.
The Queen’s high crown and gorgeous bra made her look more noble.
This work represents the highest level of sculpture art in the amarnai period.
There are many sculptures in amarnai that show the life of the Pharaoh ekhnatun’s family.
In these works, the images of Pharaoh and his family have not been beautified, and there are themes such as Pharaoh’s intimacy with his wife or wolfing down food that are not in traditional sculpture.
These carvings exude a strong flavor of life, so they are very vivid and touching.
Many plaster models and sculptures were found in the excavated carving workshop of the amarnai court.
These works are obviously created with reference to models.
They show the common characteristics of lifelike and vivid.
In this carving workshop, we also found molds from human faces and unfinished works made from these molds.
Amarnai art has only existed for 20 years and was submerged by the wave of restoration of tradition.
After Ramses II of the 19th Dynasty conquered Nubia, several huge Amun Grottoes temples were built.
In the grotto Temple dug on the cliff of ibsampur on the Bank of the Nile, there are four giant cliff statues 20 meters high, one of which has been destroyed.
They all represent the pharaoh Ramses himself.
These statues belong to commemorative sculpture, but the face is portrait sculpture, which has the characteristics of realism.
The statue faces the East and sits against the mountain.
Protruding among thousands of rocks, it stands above the highest water level of the Nile River.
The Nile just turns in front of the statue.
Ships sailing in the river can see the huge statue of Pharaoh from the front from a long distance, which makes people passing by feel the great power of Pharaoh.
Between the legs and beside the giant statue of Pharaoh, there are standing statues of the Pharaoh family, including the statue of the queen.
At the foot of the Colossus is the entrance of the temple, above which is carved the standing image of the sun god.
Inside the temple, there are 8 Osiris statue columns with a height of 5.
5 meters in the hall.
On the walls of the hall are reliefs praising Ramses’ War achievements.
The temple of Siti I in Abydos holds the best relief in Egypt, which is known as “the most gorgeous palace specimen in Egypt”.
Reliefs are all over the walls and columns of the temple buildings, with bright colors.
The characters in the reliefs protrude above the background, with a strong sense of three-dimensional.
Many huge buildings were built in the New Kingdom era, and reliefs and various large statues as architectural decoration also increasedThe ancient Greek mythological world of posture is the main theme of Greek sculpture.
The customs of the times and people’s daily life, such as athletes’ competition, the fighting of warriors, women taking care of children and mourners in front of tombstones, are also the main contents of Greek sculpture.
Greek art usually uses mythical battle scenes to hint at wars in history.
The portrait carving of famous figures first appeared in the 5th century BC.
Until the Hellenistic era, such statues were mainly displayed in public places rather than in private houses.
Greek carving materials are mainly limestone, marble, bronze, clay, wood, gold and ivory, and sometimes iron.
Among a large number of sculptures made of various materials, only stone sculptures survived, bronze sculptures were mostly melted and cast, and iron sculptures were mostly destroyed due to corrosion.
The development of Greek sculpture art has lasted for more than 1000 years, which can be divided into three stages: ancient style period, classical period and Hellenistic period.
The archaic age of Greek sculpture is about 660-480 BC.
Greece is rich in marble.
The Greeks used marble for sculpture very early.
Greece produced large stone carvings in the 7th century BC.
The modeling of characters in large stone carvings in early Greece clearly draws on the achievements of Egyptian and Mesopotamian art.
Egyptian sculpture had a greater impact on the original Greek sculpture.
Some typical figure gestures in Egyptian sculpture appear repeatedly in Greek sculpture.
The positive standing statues of young men, known as kuros in ancient Greece, follow the positive law of Egyptian modeling.
The shoulders of the characters are wide and the left foot is slightly forward.
The arms are close to the sides of the body, the elbows are slightly bent, and the hands are clenched or placed flat against the body.
However, Egyptian stone statues generally have supporting stone pillars behind them.
Most statues are surrounded by waist cloth, while Greek young men are completely naked.
The contemporary Greek young woman statue is called Corey.
A piece of KOLE (about 650 BC) from the Louvre museum is now in collection.
Its feet are close together and stand upright, with thick braids hanging from its head.
The upper body is naked, the lower body is wearing a long skirt, and a wide band is tied around the waist.
This image is also obviously influenced by Egyptian sculpture.
Although Greek sculptors initially imitated Egyptian art, they soon began to pursue the natural and real way to express the image of mankind, and showed outstanding talent in this regard.
By the middle of the archaic era (580-535 BC), Greek sculptors had made unremitting efforts for a long time.
Finally, there has been significant progress in the skills of expressing the human body and its dynamics.
The representative works of sculpture in this period are several youth statues found in Serra, tenaya, volomendra, Milo and Rhode Island.
These statues are carved with square stones, and the figures are more rich in physical texture.
The details are completely round carving, which changes the previous method of using plane line carving and round carving to shape the volume.
The head of the youth statue has a decorative fluctuating lock of hair, which is eye-catching.
The standing image of the Berlin girl found in Attica is fuller.
Although the shape and clothing belong to the pattern style, they are more rich in depth.
Although the style of a female standing statue of Samos without head is Oriental, its image is full of the unique elegance of Greek art.
The body of the standing statue is still straight, but the changes of its clothing patterns are subtle.
It not only strongly shows the ups and downs of the body, but also makes the whole sculpture full of rhythm.
In the second half of the sixth century BC, that is, the late archaic era (540-480 BC), Greek artists were finally able to create images in line with the laws of human anatomy more skillfully and freely.
At this time, the posture of the sculpture characters gradually got rid of the rigid upright mode and became natural and flexible.
Greek sculptors also combined the pursuit of decorative effect with the pursuit of natural reality to create a dignified and elegant style.
At the end of this period, the figures’ statues began to have a sense of movement.
The frontal symmetrical structure of Oriental sculptures, which lasted for thousands of years, was broken, although some statues still retained the frontal style.
However, the two sides of the body are no longer symmetrical, the head and the upper part of the body rotate slightly, and the two legs show the posture of carrying heavy objects.
The statue of crossos (ca.
525 BC) the standing statues of young men unearthed in Attica and other places have an increased volume of the chest compared with the early statues, and the back is no longer flat and undulating.
The statue of a girl found in the Acropolis of Athens is representative, which comes down in one continuous line with the statue of a woman in Berlin.
The posture is quiet, the facial expression is vivid, and the changes of clothing are particularly subtle.
Although it is rich in decoration, it makes people feel that the whole statue is very elegant and exquisite with the changes of characters’ movements and body ups and downs.
Architectural carvings developed during this period.
The triangular Gables above the East and west walls of the temple are usually decorated with a group of high relief or round carvings.
At the end of this period, the broken wind wall sculpture of the temple of AFIA in egna was very representative.
What remains today is not the original work, but tolwaldson’s restoration.
Both broken wind walls may have been rebuilt, but the graphics between them have always maintained a subtle connection.
Athena stands in the center of the broken wind wall.
On both sides of Athena are the scenes of the battle between the Greeks and the Trojans.
The two sides of the battle form symmetrical figures on both sides of Athena.
The posture of the fighter echoes the actions of the tilter and the wounded lying down.
The best preserved is hagris.
He is located near the corner of the broken wind wall in the East.
He is squatting and shooting arrows.
His image is powerful and strengthens the harmony of composition.
Another form of architectural sculpture is ribbon relief, which is decorated on the inner wall of the colonnade of the Greek temple, or on the outer wall.
The relief ribbons of silvernos treasure house in Delphi are relief ribbons connected to both sides under the outer gable.
It was made in the late 6th century BC.
It shows the battle between the Greek gods and giants.
The characters, lions and chariots in this relief are quite real.
Moreover, this relief breaks the limitation of plane, and enriches the expressiveness of relief by expressing the deep space through relief of different heights and levels.
The sculpture of eina temple is the sculpture at the end of the ancient wind era.
The temple was built around 490 bc to worship Athena.
There are a group of carvings on the East and West gables of the temple, and most of the two groups of carvings have been destroyed.
The existing Hercules and wounded soldiers in Munich are carved on the eastern gable.
These human statues have reached a high realistic level and can accurately express the dynamics and emotions of the human body.
But it still retains the ancient style of expressionSome features of wind carving, such as the ancient smile on the soldier’s face.
The characteristics of antiquity can still be seen in the detailed depiction of the human body.
It shows the characteristics of the transition period from ancient style to classical style.
In the classical period, Greece won the long-lasting Greek Polish war in 480 BC.
Athens also established its leading position among the Greek city states, and Greece entered a period of unprecedented prosperity.
In the early classical era (about 480-450 BC), after more than a century of exploration, Greek artists were able to skillfully use the comprehensive knowledge of human body structure and showed perfect and harmonious skills in sculpture.
The action, expression, clothing and composition of figures and statues were closer to natural and real people.
But the sculptures from their hands also have a quiet character beyond the true character of nature.
The bronze waiters (ca.
470 BC) unearthed in Delphi and the statues of Apollo and Zeus on the broken wind wall of the temple of Zeus in Olympia can be regarded as the representative works of sculpture in this period.
In the past, the balance obtained by the statue relying on symmetry has now been replaced by the style of natural posture.
The sculptor boldly carries the weight of the whole body with one leg, and the spine on the median line is twisted to one side.
The shoulders, hips and knees are not on the same horizontal plane, but are rhythmically inclined up and down, and the eyes and mouth no longer maintain a strict level, The details of the statue are handled in accordance with the principles of nature and change.
The statues of hamodios and Aristotle Keaton are the earliest sports sculptures.
These two people are the heroes who assassinated the tyrant sipacas.
Athens built statues for them to commemorate them.
The original work was originally placed in the Athens market.
The original work has been lost, and what remains is a replica of Rome.
The statue’s left arm is raised above the head, and the composition is extraordinary.
For the first time, it truly and reliably shows strong body movements in the shaping of the character’s body.
According to historical records, the most famous sculptors of this period were kalames, Pythagoras and millon.
Millon was an outstanding sculptor in the early classical period.
His main activity period was in the middle of the 5th century BC.
Millon’s outstanding contribution was that he finally got rid of the ancient style of Greek sculpture and established the classical style.
His works mainly include various gods and figures.
In addition, he is also good at making animal sculpture.
However, none of his original works have been preserved.
Now we can only see a few Roman copies of his works.
His most famous work is discus thrower, in addition to Athena and mathea, which he wrote for the Acropolis of Athens.
Some of Millon’s other works can be found in written records.
According to Lucian’s detailed description of Millon’s famous work discus thrower, we can identify several imitations from Roman imitations.
This work shows the discus thrower.
During the movement, millon chose a turning moment: the athlete swings his arms sharply and rotates his body quickly in order to throw.
His body movement has reached the limit.
In the next moment, he will throw discus.
Millon’s grasp of this moment summarizes the whole process of the action of throwing discus, shows the most typical posture of athletes, and most strongly shows the fitness and strength of athletes’ muscles.
The discus thrower’s arms are open, like a full bow, which strengthens the audience’s association that the discus is about to be thrown quickly.
The discus and the two circles of the athlete’s head echo left and right, and the right leg supporting the body is like an axis to keep the sharply arched body balanced.
Such a conceptual design shows Millon’s artistic ingenuity.
This is a very difficult action.
Millon can achieve such a perfect degree in conception and modeling, which shows his extreme familiarity with the knowledge of human body structure and superb sculpture skills.
The sculpture of the temple of Olympia is an architectural decoration sculpture in the early classical period.
The temple was built in 460 BC.
There are a group of decorative statues on the East and West gables.
The reign of Pericles was the most prosperous period in Greece.
With the support of Pericles, Athens began a series of great construction activities, and new temples were built on the ruins of the war.
The Acropolis of Athens was renovated, and the construction of the magnificent Parthenon (447-432 BC) and the Mountain Gate (437 BC) were also carried out during this period.
There are heifeistan (450-440 BC) overlooking the ancient market and the Mistry Hall of aleucis.
In this unprecedented creative activity, the enthusiasm of artists has been greatly stimulated.
A good sculptor is born out of luck.
For a time, he is as bright as the stars, and Phidias is one of the greatest sculptors.
Phidias was appointed by Pericles as the chief designer and supervisor of the Parthenon.
He was born between 490 and 485 BC.
It is said that he once worshipped agradas with millon as his teacher.
The figures in his sculpture are quiet and noble, with solemn and elegant expressions.
Sculpture techniques are exquisite and exquisite, reaching the point of perfection.
Phidias is a giant in idealized modeling.
According to ancient documents, Phidias personally made several statues of Athena.
The huge Athena standing on the Acropolis is his early masterpiece.
The statue of Athena of Lemnos and the statue of Athena of the Parthenon are his later works.
The statue of Athena of Lemnos, large and cast in bronze.
The original work has been lost, and its style can be seen from the existing imitations.
The statue of Athena in the Parthenon is a huge wooden statue, 36 feet high.
The skin of the statue is partially wrapped with ivory, the eyes are made of colored gemstones, the armor and clothes are made of gold, and a large number of dazzling colors are painted on the shield and armor.
The serpent’s shield is made of the golden lion’s light, and the serpent’s shield is also made of a half stone.
The huge statue was placed at the bottom of the temple.
When people entered the temple, the solemn beauty of Athena conquered everyone.
The representative work of Phidias is the statue of Zeus, which is 10 meters high.
The inside of the statue is a wooden structure, the body is made of ivory pieces, and the clothes are made of gold leaves.
This special technique is called “Krisher Levantin”.
This work fully embodies the magnificent conception and perfect expression of Phidias, but the original work no longer exists, and the imitation of Rome does not convey the spirit of the original work.
The works of Phidias were called the most beautiful by ancient scholars, but those incomparable statues have long been destroyed.
Only the base of his bronze Athena survived.
Several marble of different sizes handed down from Athena in the Parthenon to the presentJust came down in the clouds.
The arms of the goddess and her face have been destroyed, but her beautiful posture is vividly displayed through the gauze clothes as thin as cicada wings.
The goddess’s breast is plump and tall, her body curve is beautiful and full of vitality, and her skin is round and elastic.
This sculpture shows the superb sculptural skills of pionneos.
Belikratos was a great sculptor in this era as famous as Phidias.
He once created the Hera statue of the temple of agos Hera, which is made of gold and ivory.
The original work no longer exists.
We can only vaguely see its style from Roman coins.
He is better at making statues of soldiers and athletes.
The bronze statue of the Dutch warrior is his masterpiece.
Pliny, an ancient Greek historian, once called his works a recognized model for artists and a necessary code for the introduction of art in official books.
This work no longer exists.
A statue found in the ancient Roman city of Pompeii is recognized as a copy of this work.
This marble replica is 212 cm high and is now in the National Museum of Naples, Italy.
It portrays the image of a well-balanced and muscular young hero.
His head is to the right, his body’s center of gravity is on his right leg, his left leg moves backward, his toes touch the ground, one holding a spear and the other drooping.
Although the imitation is a little stiff, the balance in motion achieved by the original can still be felt from it.
The perfect unity of Greek sculpture in composition and the harmonious and smooth movement have reached an amazing height.
The statue is seven times the length of the head, and this proportion is considered to be the most standard body shape of classical sculpture.
It is said that belicletos once wrote a book about the proportion of the human body and made a bronze statue of the law to illustrate his theory.
According to Pliny’s records, Phidias, belicletos, clesilas, Keaton and flamond gathered to make a statue of amaron for the temple of Artemis in Ephesus.
In the creation, they had a competition, and belicletos won the first place.
Phidias came in second, crissilas third, Keaton fourth and flamond fifth.
According to the first three different styles.
The artists also made some imitations.
The sculpture art of the fourth century BC inherited the art of the fifth century BC.
The characters have solemn expressions, dignified gestures, simple clothes and complicated folds.
Sculptures from the fourth and fifth centuries BC are often indistinguishable.
Athens and Sparta fought the Peloponnesian War for leadership.
All Greek city states suffered heavy economic losses.
The suffering caused by the war has disintegrated people’s original religious ideas.
They become addicted to personal interests and no longer worship and admire those ideas that abandon individuality.
This has had a great impact on sculpture art.
Art is more humane, and its gentle and elegant characteristics are reflected in sculpture.
The facial expression of the characters is empty, the eyes are affectionate, the posture is beautiful, and the folds of clothes are thick.
The sculpture of this period gestates the beginning of a new stage.
In the sculpture works, the solemn, noble, balanced and harmonious idealized modeling has gradually been forgotten, while the works rich in the creator’s individual emotional color and individual style have gradually become the mainstream.
After this period.
Three sculptors rose.
They were the Athenian pericentres, skpas of Barros and lisipus of Sicyon.
390-330 BC) was an Athenian.
He is famous for his beautiful and lyrical style and makes statues of various gods and secular figures.
Among them, the marble sculpture Aphrodite of nidos (350 BC, the only surviving copy of Rome is stored in the Vatican Museum) is the most famous.
This statue was made for the temple of nidos in Asia Minor.
It is deeply loved by the local people.
It was erected on a square of nidos for people to enjoy.
This work may be the earliest naked goddess statue in Greece.
It shows that the goddess took off her robe and put it on the vase, ready to go to the sea to bathe.
The goddess’s right leg is bent forward and is gently walking.
It is graceful and graceful.
Her bare skin is smooth and elastic, which is more beautiful and moving against the background of vases and clothing patterns.
After that, Aphrodite was often portrayed as a naked image, which also shows the great influence of this work.
In 1877, the marble statue Hermes was found in the temple of Hera in Olympia.
It is likely to be the only original work of baraxiteles.
This work shows Hermes resting against a tree on his way, teasing Dionysus, the inventor of young wine, with a bunch of grapes.
And several other works of brax sitris are lizard Slayer.
“Aphrodite of Al” and “satyrus at rest” are only copies of Rome.
The male image created by blakesitelles has the characteristics of sweetness and beauty and lacks the spirit of vigor and determination, which is not only influenced by the artist’s personal characteristics, but also caused by the tendency of aesthetic fashion to hedonism at that time.
5copas was a great sculptor in the middle and early 4th century BC.
He was born all over Greece, but he was rich in marble.
He created many works in his life, but most of them have not been handed down.
Skopas is not only a famous sculptor, but also an architect.
According to historical records, skpas participated in the construction or carving of three important memorial buildings in the first half and middle of the 4th century BC: the temple of Athena ariah in tiquia, the temple of Artemis in Ephesus and the mausoleum of mosolium in harikanasos.
Among them, the temple of Athena ariah has been completely destroyed, leaving only the heads of several statues, which are considered to be fragments of the gable carvings made by Skopas.
The mausoleum of mosolium in harikanasos in southwest Asia Minor was built in 350 BC.
At that time, it was called a world miracle because of its grand scale.
The whole mausoleum was destroyed in the 15th century.
Only part of the wall relief ribbons are well preserved.
It now houses the British Museum.
These wall relief ribbons show the war between Greece and the Amazon, It was Scripps.
The figures in these reliefs.
The horses had a strong momentum, and the fighting atmosphere was rendered extremely fierce.
That kind of rough violence was very rare in the badenon period.
Skpas’s works also include the existing medler of the Dresden Museum in Germany and the Vatican《Melo agulos, etc.
The marble sculptures “the injured daughter of Niobe” and “Niobe and her youngest daughter” found in Rome in 1583 are considered to be reproductions of the original works of skpas.
These two works are now collected in the Terme Museum in Rome, Italy.
These two sculptures show the myth that queen theobe was punished for offending the goddess, and many of her children were shot to death one by one.
“The injured daughter of Niobe” shows that Niobe’s daughter is hit by an arrow in the back.
Her body tilts back and is half kneeling.
She is in pain.
Her dress slips down and is about to fall down.
In front of this work, people can not help but feel strong pain and compassion.
“Niobe and her youngest daughter” shows that Niobe throws an extremely painful and desperate glance into the sky at the moment when her last young daughter is about to be shot.
She lifts her dress and tries to protect her last daughter, while the little girl who falls down in her arms falls off her clothes to the ground and is frightened and dare not move at all.
Both works create a strong dramatic effect and leave a shocking impression through a high degree of realism.
Lysippos was the last outstanding sculptor and Athenian in the second half of the 4th century BC.
He created a new human body proportion relationship based on the standard proportion of the human body proposed by belicletos in the 5th century BC, which is 7 times the length of the head: the head is 18 times the proportion of the whole body.
This proportion makes the sculpture characters look both dignified and sporty.
Richipus is a prolific artist.
It is said that he created more than 1500 sculptures in his life, most of which are bronze sculptures.
Unfortunately, none of these works have survived, and imitations are very rare.
Several marble statues of naked men found in Rome, Italy, are believed to be copies of ricipus’s works.
Among them, the most famous one is the 205 cm high marble carving “athlete who scrapes sweat” (now stored in the Terme Museum in Rome, Italy).
The namesake of ricipus was originally carved in bronze.
The athlete who scrapes sweat stains portrays a tall and strong athlete.
After fierce competition, he is scraping the sweat stains on his body with a scraper, and his head turns to the right.
His eyes were deep and his face looked tired.
In this sculpture, we can see the new proportional relationship of human body advocated by lisipus, which makes the stature of the sculpture characters appear more majestic and tall.
In addition, the success of this sculpture lies in its full display of the elasticity and extremely stretching dynamics of the character’s muscles.
The movement of extending hands forward increases the depth of the work in the space, which makes the work full of new ideas in the treatment of space.
Lisipus’s important works include the giant statue of Zeus up to 20 meters, Hermes at rest, Heracles and the lion, and cavalry statues showing 25 horsemen.
He has also created portraits of the king of Seleucia and several statues of Alexander the great, which have also been preserved in Roman copies.
Most of the sculptures designated as lisipus’s works are unreliable, but from these few works, we can still see that he is a creative artist.
He created a new human body proportion system, shape shaping, realism and magnificent conception, which made his influence last for centuries.
Portrait carving rose in the 5th century BC.
In the 4th century BC, sculptors became more infatuated with this theme, and many sculpture works appeared in this era.
The famous one is the mausoleum of Harry nasos, the statue of mosolium.
The marble carving is 3 meters high and was made by sculptor skopus in about 350 BC.
Mosoleum is a king of Asia Minor.
The mausoleum built for him by skpas is about 50 meters high, which is very spectacular.
The statues of Dien solium and his wife stand high on the top of the tower of the mausoleum.
They stand on the chariot and look up to the world.
The statue of mosolium truly portrays the image of the king, and the elegant long hair and beard add a rough and heroic demeanor to it.
His solemn and deep eyes revealed his calm and thoughtful character.
This sculpture is now in the British Museum in London, England.
Hellenistic period (330-100 BC) in 336 BC, King Philip of Macedonia defeated Athens and gained control of Greece.
After Philip, his son Alexander conquered Asia Minor and Mesopotamia through continuous wars.
It expanded its territory to the east of Egypt and Persia.
It also spread Greek culture and art to the East, and brought fundamental changes to Greek art at the same time.
In the era of Alexander Empire, the center of Hellenistic art was in Western Asia Minor and some islands in the Aegean Sea, as well as Egypt, Alexandria and Tunisia in North Africa.
The sculptures in this period shed the expression of idealistic classical beauty and increasingly tended to be realistic.
Sculptors draw themes from rich and colorful real life, human pain, passion and laughter.
Children and old people, deformed and disabled people, foreigners, angry, desperate and drunk people, these fields that sculptors were reluctant to set foot in in the past, have now become the content that sculptors are keen to express in detail.
Sculptors in the Hellenistic period often had to travel long distances, travel everywhere with letters of appointment in the vast Hellenistic area, and turn to other places after the work was completed.
This can be confirmed by the documentary records left by ancient scholars and inscriptions.
Therefore, we can see very similar styles in different regions.
The realistic development tendency of sculpture art is widely spread in Hellenistic areas, but in the vast areas affected by Hellenistic art, the styles of various places are not completely consistent.
For example, one is called “sfumat.
” The style is characterized by elegant character modeling and quiet expression.
This style seems to be closely related to Alexander because such works are mostly found in areas where he is active.
The other is the sculpture art style expressed in the sculptures sacrificed by the pagama kingdom.
The internal feelings of the characters are finely portrayed, and the contrast between all aspects of the sculpture is significant.
In the group images of multiple characters, the characters are closely related to each other, and they often twist their bodies violently in strong movement.
This style is called pagama style.
In Greece, the traditional style has a deep foundation, from the themeTo the character’s posture.
The composition of sculpture and so on all retain more elements of classical and traditional sculpture, but some painting tendencies also quietly infiltrate into sculpture at this time.
Many carvings survived in the Hellenistic period, but it is difficult to make a detailed research conclusion on their age, creators and style characteristics.
The statue of “Tik”, or the city of Antioch called “personification”, was made by eticades and preserved Roman imitations.
It was made after 300 BC, when the city of Antioch was established.
Tik sits high on the rock and makes the posture of the statue quiet and lasting through the folding of his clothes, the depiction of his head, trunk, limbs and other aspects.
On the foot of the statue is a small youth swimming statue, which is an anthropomorphic image of the Orent river.
It belongs to the “Aphrodite in the bath” of dedarsas in bidinia mentioned by Pliny in the mid-3rd century BC, and the “squatting Aphrodite” (now stored in Copenhagen, Denmark) in Roman sculpture is considered to be its copy.
The lower part of the torso and legs of the statue face each other in a horizontal direction and twist the waist.
The head is also clearly to the right.
The shape of this sculpture turns naturally and is delicate to the muscle changes caused by body movement, which reflect the characteristics of art in the Hellenistic period.
The goddess of victory (now stored in the Louvre Museum in Paris) on the island of zamores is the original marble found on the island of zamores in 1863.
It was made about 190 BC.
It is speculated that the goddess originally stood on the cliff and faced the sea.
Her right hand was holding a horn and playing the music of victory, and her left hand was holding the symbol of victory – the cross decoration on the enemy ship.
Now the head and body of this sculpture are gone.
Only the body and wings of the goddess have been preserved, but they are also made of more than 100 pieces.
The original height of the statue is 328 cm, and the preserved part is 245 cm high.
The goddess stood upright with her head held high in the bow.
Her body was plump and vigorous.
The wind blew her clothes to the rear.
The flying patterns were like the wind.
The statue of Poseidon, found on the island of Milo and now hidden in Athens, represents the style of Late Hellenistic art.
At first glance, the statue appears stable, but it will soon be found that there is a strong contrast between the exposed part of the statue’s body and the fold of clothing.
It conveys a sense of agitation.
Aphrodite (now housed in the Louvre Museum in Paris) was discovered on the island of Milo in 1820.
Through the inscriptions left on the pedestal, it is inferred that its creation date is about the late 2nd century BC, that is, the end of the Hellenistic era.
The left arm of this sculpture has been lost, and only half of the upper arm remains in the right arm.
The goddess’s upper body is naked, her lower body is wrapped in a dress, her left leg is slightly raised, the weight of her body is placed on her right leg, the head and upper body are slightly twisted to the right, while the face turns to the front left, and the whole body naturally forms an S-shape.
This subtle body movement is compared with multiple clothing lines to produce a flowing rhythm.
The goddess’s plump body, solemn and elegant posture have attracted countless viewers.
It is also regarded as a model of beauty.
Some incomplete imitations were also found in the statues of gods of beauty in the Hellenistic period.
Through these nude statues of gods of beauty, it can be seen that at that time, people no longer regarded these works of art as idols, but as aesthetic objects.
Sculptors in the Hellenistic period replaced the calm and quiet character of classical Greek sculpture with a vibrant and almost dramatic character.
This transformation is most evident in the composition of the sculpture, especially in those sculptures that emphasize fighting and suffering.
Such works are most prominent in pagama sculpture in the Hellenistic era.
The dying Gauls in the kabitolini Museum and the Gauls who committed suicide after killing his wife in the telm museum are copies of several groups of sacrificial bronze statues after King Atalos I of pagama defeated the Gauls.
Some marble statues about the height of a real person are stored in several museums, including Gauls, amarons, Persians, etc.
they may all be bronze statues copied by Atalos I for the Acropolis in 200 BC.
Decorated on the altars of Zeus and Athena in pagama, the spirited streamed floating pot for fighting between gods and giants was built by Amen II in memory of his father’s victory over Gaul.
The high floating carving belt is 230 cm high and 120 meters long.
It is inlaid with 115 marble slabs.
It is carved with tens of thousands of characters, birds and animals, showing the magnificent battle between God and man.
This huge high floating carving belt has reached a new peak of realism in terms of shape, composition and emotional expression.
Now it is collected in the National Museum in Berlin, Germany.
Sculptors’ pursuit of individuality made the portrait works of this period outstanding.
In the statue of demesne the orator, the orator is shown standing with his hands folded.
The Greek original of this work may have been created by poliuactos of Athens in 280 BC.
The seated figure of Epicurus is a re combination of the head and torso found separately.
The seated statue of cristianus was made shortly after the philosopher’s death (206 BC), and a replica of the statue exists.
These portraits reflect the continuous development of realism in that era.
The last great work of the Hellenistic period is laocon (now collected in the Vatican Museum in Rome, Italy).
This marble sculpture is 184cm high.
It was made by Greek Rhode Island sculptors agsandros, polidoros and atanoodoros from 175 BC to 150 BC.
In 1506, when the Italians were excavating the site of the bathhouse of tiduns, they found seven fragments of this group sculpture, and later found another one, in the early 20th century.
The group sculpture was restored.
Laocoon shows a scene in the Greek poem Iliad: Laocoon, the priest of Troy, was punished by the gods in order to save the people of Troy.
The work shows the tragic moment when laocon and his two sons are entangled by a giant snake and are on the verge of death.
On the steps of the altar, two giant snakes wrapped around his chest and abdomen, opened their mouths and bit his waist, and tightly entangled his two sons.
Raokon’s body dodged back sharply, and his hands held the giant snake tightly.
He was fighting for life and death.
His muscles bulged because of tension, and his abdomen was deeply depressed and contracted, as if he were fightingIn memory of our ancestors.
This can be seen in Pompeii murals.
The bronze bust brutu, the bronze full body portrait orator and the bronze bust Caesar are important representative works of portrait sculpture in the period of the Republic.
The bronze bust Caesar is a work of the 1st century BC.
Caesar was the commander of ancient Rome, the first dictator of Rome, and one of the most influential figures in ancient Roman history.
This bust shows the powerful figure in a simple way.
His frown and aggressive eyes were full of dignity.
Compared with later imperial portraits, this sculpture seems to have more authenticity and less beautification.
It reflects the focus of Roman portrait sculpture on realism.
Realistic description of the shape of the model, rather than the idealized characteristics of the model.
In early Rome, almost every family had its own gods and statues.
For example, lalus is the God of family ancestors, Perthes is the God of storehouse protection, Vesta is the God of fire, and so on.
In addition, every city also has its own patron saint.
For example, Jupiter is the patron saint of Rome, and Minogue is the highest goddess and the patron saint of women.
The Roman statue sculptures in the Republic period were also very rich.
The practical Romans often Romanized the Greek gods, endowed them with strong military color, and the expression methods were relatively simple.
For example, the Roman goddess of wisdom carries spears and armor and wears Roman robes.
Wear a helmet.
Sculpture of the Roman Empire sculpture of the Roman Empire was mainly used to celebrate the imperial power and the great martial arts of the Empire.
There are many portraits and sculptures of Roman emperors.
In the Autobiography of Augustus, Augustus mentioned that in Rome alone, he created more than 80 silver sculptures in various shapes.
The most important sculptures in the imperial era, the Arc de Triomphe and the relief on the memorial column, are all works that extol the power of royalty and Empire.
During the reign of Augustus, an official style of sculpture was advocated.
The marble full-length statue of Augustus in the Vatican of Rome, 204 cm high, was made from 20 BC to 19 BC.
This statue portrays Augustus, the first emperor of Rome, as a young commander with great stature and heroic temperament.
Augustus wore armor with ornate patterns, and his breastplate was embossed with figures, which implied that Rome ruled the world.
Augustus held a scepter in his left hand and waved his right arm towards the air.
His left leg took a step forward and seemed to answer the cheering crowd.
On his right leg, Cupid, the little god of love in Greek mythology, pulled his cape, implying that the invincible commander was deeply loved by the little god of love.
Cupid’s youth and playfulness set off Augustus’s greatness and majesty.
In fact, Augustus himself was short.
Far from the mighty and vigorous posture of the statue, the sculptor obviously used idealized expression techniques to create the heroic temperament of Augustus, and in shaping the face of the statue, the sculptor pursued the resemblance of David himself.
The statue’s broad forehead, thin cheeks, deep set eyes and narrow tip of lower jaw are all characteristics of Augustus himself.
In addition, in this sculpture, Roman sculptors showed their superb stone carving skills and their ability to control materials.
The body of Augustus in the statue, with a certain color and hardness of armor, soft underwear and dense pleats around the waist cloak, has a very distinctive texture.
“Horse riding statue of marco’orillo” (AD 170-180), bronze sculpture, height 424 cm.
Marco ollillo was the Roman emperor in the 2nd century AD.
In this statue, he wears a Greek beard and raises his right hand, as if to pay tribute to the thousands of horses waiting for his review.
The statue of Wright was moved to Rome in 1538.
The statue of karakala (211-217 A.D.) is carved in marble, 28 cm high.
Karakara is a tyrant.
This sculpture shows karakarakara’s fierce, cruel and cold character with a high degree of realism.
This work is now in the collection of the concelli Art Museum in Rome.
During the imperial period, the Roman emperor worshipped martial arts and soldiers, continued to invade and expand abroad, and finally established a great empire spanning three continents.
In order to publicize their “heroic historical sites”, they asked sculptors to make a large number of epic commemorative reliefs to decorate royal buildings.
Contemporary slave owners lived in extreme luxury, and there were also a large number of decorative reliefs in their houses.
Among these commemorative reliefs, there are three most outstanding representative works.
“Relief of ALA bahis”, “triumph of Titus” and “relief of Trajan Jigong column”.
The relief of ALA bahis, painted in 13 A.D., is the side decoration of the altar of peace established to commemorate the victory of Augustus in his expedition to Gaul and Spain.
Titus Arc de Triomphe is a masterpiece of architectural art in the Roman era, and the relief of the Arc de Triomphe is also a masterpiece of Roman relief art.
The Arc de Triomphe shows the emperor Titus driving his chariot to attack and the triumphal return of Titus.
The relief of his triumphant return vividly depicts the unprecedented victory of Titus, as the crown prince, after defeating the Jews in Jerusalem, burning down the temple there and looting the so-called “seven candlesticks” of the so-called holy and treasure in the holy world in AD 71.
Turajen Jigong column is built to commemorate the great achievements of emperor turajen and stands in the center of turajen square.
The reliefs on the outer wall of the Jigong column hovered upward, winding a total of 23 circles, up to 200 meters.
The width of the lower part of the ribbon relief is 89 cm, and the wider it goes up, and the top reaches 125 cm.
This design can correct the parallax when looking up from the bottom.
This relief records Emperor Trajan’s two battles with the Dacians in Central Europe in 101 and 105 A.D. At the bottom of the relief is a bust symbolizing the Danube River.
He rises from the waves as if he is watching off the Roman army, and beside him are ships carrying supplies.
In addition, there are different scenarios such as the religious ceremony before the Roman army set out, the training of soldiers before the war, and the boarding, camping, fighting and triumph of the Roman army.
There are nearly 2500 characters on the whole picture, and Emperor Trajan appeared more than 200 times on different occasions and in different postures.
The relief gives a realistic and detailed description of the costumes, weapons and local customs of both sides.
There are two existing monuments in Rome.
In addition to the Trajan monument, there is also Marco oLelius Memorial column, which completely imitates the dunrajan Memorial column, but it is not as wonderful as the tulrajan Memorial column.
In the era of Hadrian the great, earth burial gradually became popular, and sarcophagus appeared.
The sarcophagus was decorated with complex reliefs and plant patterns.
Different from the traditional stylized palm and anisodamine leaves in Greece, the decorative reliefs in Rome expressed leaves, flowers and fruits in a realistic way, becoming a new carving form.
After the 2nd century, the sarcophagus were carved with patterns, and its subject matter became richer and richer.
In the 3rd century, sarcophagus carving almost became the main embodiment of the carving trend.
Sculptures of early dynasties early dynasties in India include the Peacock Dynasty (332-185 BC), the Sunda Dynasty (185-76 BC), and the early andaro Dynasty (1st century-124 BC).
The early Dynasty was in the initial stage of Buddhist art, and the artistic style still lingered in the stage of antiquity.
In the second half of the 6th century BC, the Achaemenid Dynasty, the Persian Empire that dominated West Asia and North Africa, conquered the Indus River Basin and ruled northwest India for about two centuries.
The kings of Achaemenid built magnificent palaces in their four capitals, Susa, iqbatana, Babylon and boslis, which concentrated Ancient Iran.
A masterpiece of architectural sculpture in Assyria, Babylon and Egypt.
The Peacock Dynasty was established at the end of the 4th century BC.
It is the first unified empire in Indian history.
Its territory includes the Indus River and Ganges River Basin, and extends to the hometown of Achaemenid Dynasty in the north.
The successor of the Achaemenid Dynasty in Persia is the Seleucid Dynasty.
The Peacock Dynasty is closely related to the Seleucid Dynasty.
From there, he contacted and absorbed the influence of Greek sculpture art.
It can be said that the palace architecture and decorative carving of the Peacock Dynasty were greatly influenced by the Achaemenid Dynasty.
Asoka, the third king of the Peacock Dynasty, converted to Buddhism and established the basic style of Buddhist architecture.
At the same time, he created the complex of Buddhist architecture and carving art – Asoka stone column capital.
In order to commemorate the victory of conquering all parts of India and carry forward the Buddha Dharma, King Asoka established more than 30 single stone Memorial columns all over India.
These columns are 10 meters high and the diameter tends to be slightly smaller at the top.
The stigma is carved with an independent and complete stone.
Below it is a bell shaped bracket similar to an inverted lotus, with a square or circular top plate in the middle, and the side of the top plate is decorated with relief patterns.
Above is one or more round sculptures of animals such as lions, bulls or elephants.
The capitals of Ashoka stone columns are mostly made of Chunar sandstone, and the stone surface is highly polished, which is the most remarkable feature of the carving art of the Peacock Dynasty.
It is said that Asoka once recruited Persian and Greek technicians to help Indian masons carve stone column capitals in the Royal workshop, so that the carving techniques of Persia and Greece can be integrated with the local traditions of India.
The salanath lion capitals (now stored in the salanath Museum) is the representative work of Ashoka’s stone column capitals.
It was made in the middle of the 3rd century BC and is 2.
08 meters high.
The body of this stone pillar is now broken, but the stigma is well preserved.
At the top of the stigma are four squatting male round lions.
The back to back neck ridges are connected, facing the four directions, and the forelimbs stand upright on the drum shaped four shaped roof.
The four male lions have distinct contours and symmetrical proportions.
The hyenas on the head, neck and chest are carved into dense flame shapes.
The moustache on the lion’s upper lip is carved into three parallel and symmetrical upward curved arcs, and the eyes are inverted triangles, These modeling features absorbed the stylized carving techniques of the Achaemenid Dynasty in Persia.
The male lion’s face is powerful and calm.
The sculptor’s depiction of the lion’s roaring mouth and exposed teeth is realistic.
The muscles of the lion’s legs are tight and the feet are strong, which is permeated with the unique sense of life of Indian sculpture.
The relief ribbon on the round roof carved four animals: Lion, elephant, rumen cow and horse.
Each two animals were separated by a Dharma wheel.
Below the top plate is a bell shaped inverted lotus column, with clear lines of petals and sepals.
The light brown Chunar sandstone used in the stigma has a highly polished surface, which is very smooth and round, making the whole work look rough and delicate.
The salanath lion capital has dual symbols.
The Falun is the symbol of the Buddha or the Buddha himself.
At the same time, the wheel treasure is the symbol of the “wheel Saint King” who conquers the world.
This capital combines the heroic spirit of Assyrian style and the decorative style of Persian style, forming a novel Indian national style.
After the founding of the Republic of India in 1950, the salanath lion stigma was selected as the design of Guowei.
There are few figure statues unearthed in the Peacock Dynasty.
The figure statues found are basically in the ancient style of upright front.
The woman holding a medicine fork was painted in the 3rd century BC.
It is 1.
63 meters high and is now stored in the Patna Museum.
This round carved medicine fork is a representative work carved by figures of the Peacock Dynasty.
Medicine fork is the spirit of mountains, forests and waters believed by Indian people.
Medicine fork is the spirit of men and medicine fork woman is the spirit of women.
Medicine fork is regarded as the giver and guardian of wealth, and medicine fork woman is regarded as the source of natural fertility.
The medicine fork woman is semi naked, holding a long dust brush in her right hand behind her shoulder.
Her hair is thick behind her head, and a huge top bead is decorated on her forehead.
Her face was dignified and simple, with an antique smile.
The medicine fork woman’s breasts are round and exaggerated, with slender waist and plump hips.
The curve rhythm of the whole body is soft.
Full of flesh.
The yellowish brown sandstone used in the carving was highly polished, giving the statue a soft luster.
The plump female body shown in this sculpture reflects the unique aesthetic interest of Indians under the influence of the concept of reproductive worship.
This medicine fork woman is also the original prototype of Indian female sculpture.
A series of medicine fork women expressing female beauty in later Indian sculpture seem to have evolved from here.
In 185 BC, the Sunda Dynasty replaced the Peacock Dynasty and established rule.
Several important monuments in early Buddhism were built in the Sunda era.
Balhut @ Dubo and Sanchi pagoda are two representatives of early Buddhist architecture in India.
Bargut Dubo is famous for its fence reliefs.
It is speculated that the mausoleum fence was built by the people of each dynasty in about 150 BC, which not only reflects the aesthetic consciousness of the court, but also reflects the artistic characteristics of each dynasty.
The theme of balhute fence relief is mainly selected from Bunsen Sutra and Buddhist stories.
Among them, there are 32 stories of bunsang Sutra and 16 stories of Buddha.
The sculptors of these reliefs are very good at representing animals and treesLin’s scene, all kinds of animals they shape are endowed with cordial human characteristics.
Balhute relief is a shallow relief based on line carving, which has no expression of depth of field.
The image also lacks three-dimensional sense.
The figures are rough and childish, similar to folk wood carving and clay sculpture.
However, although the images in relief are simple and simple, they are almost wearing all kinds of gorgeous decorations, and the environment and props are exquisitely carved, reflecting the decorative characteristics of Indian art.
Many medicine forks and female medicine forks are carved on the surface of the corner column connecting the tower gate of balhute @ Dubo with the fence and some columns of the fence.
(please keep the link for Reprint: Lishi.
Net, thank you!) Their bodies are rough and stiff, but they have an ancient natural interest.
These statues reflect that the stone carving technology of the court of the Peacock Dynasty has flowed into the people, and the simple taste of folk wood carving and clay sculpture has also been integrated into the stone carving art.
The andaro Dynasty rose in the 1st century BC.
The tower carving of the Sanqi tower built in the Andalo Dynasty gathered the essence of the Buddhist sculptures at that time.
The gate of sangqi tower is made of sand and stone.
It is about 10 meters high and is composed of three beams with micro arches in the middle and two square side columns by tenon method.
The beams, side columns and capitals are covered with relief panels and semi-circular or circular components.
The ivory carving of the tower gate was made by the Buddhists, so the ivory carving of the tower gate was made by the Buddhists.
On the four pylons of the Sanchi pagoda are carvings imitating the Achaemenid Dynasty of Persia – Griffin headed monsters, winged lions and bulls, which are juxtaposed with the unique elephants carrying Dharma wheels, horses carrying medicine forks and women holding fruit trees.
The bell shaped column decoration is common in the Persian palace.
Honeysuckle patterns and zigzag ribbons are also mixed with the popular lotus scroll patterns in India, wild goose and peacock decorative patterns.
The relief of the gate of the Sanchi tower also belongs to the antique style, but it has developed compared with the relief of the balhute fence.
Relief is no longer shallow relief, but high relief.
The composition adopts the continuous composition of one picture and several scenes and the dense and compact filling composition.
The shadow of the figures in the sculpture is cast on the background behind them, which makes the relief figures stand out from the dark background under the bright sunshine.
Although the figures in these reliefs are still immature, the proportions of various parts of the human body have become more harmonious and the dynamic changes are more diverse.
The sand and stone round carving bracket at the corner between the column on the north side of the east gate of sangqi tower and the end of the third crossbeam was painted in the early 1st century.
It is considered to be one of the most beautiful women in the whole Indian sculpture.
The medicine fork woman hangs obliquely outside the whole building structure, and her body and limbs are in harmony with the building structure.
The tree god medicine fork woman’s head tilts to the right, her chest twists to the left, her breasts are tall and round, very sexy, her hips protrude to the right, and her whole body is in a rhythmic S-shaped curve.
This three bend form with the body bent into S shape was gradually developed into the stylized style of female body in Indian sculpture.
The three bend S-shaped curve just highlights the beauty of the female body in the trunk, which meets the requirements of the unique aesthetic interest of Indians.
According to the inertia of people’s visual psychology, the structure of S-shaped curve has the trend of restoring to a straight line.
Therefore, this three bend female body is full of elasticity extending to the horizontal direction and tension from inside to outside, so as to fully show women’s internal life impulse.
This kind of modeling is just in line with the essence and characteristics of the tree god medicine fork woman as an elf of reproductive worship.
Indian medieval sculpture the central content of Indian medieval sculpture art (about the 7th-13th century) is Hindu sculpture.
Hinduism rose around the 5th century and replaced Buddhism as the most influential religion in India in the middle ages.
Hindu sculpture is full of Baroque dynamic expression and the unique red tape decoration and strange imagination of Indian art, with a strong mysterious color.
The inside and outside of the Hindu temple are covered with decorative carvings representing the gods of men and women.
These gods are usually multifaceted and multi armed, with grotesque images, soft outline lines, meat sensibility and strange interest.
Hindu temple carving is divided into three genres based on the region: the southern carving is slender and elegant, and the group carving scene is full of drama.
It has a strong sense of movement.
Its representative works are giant rock relief goddess of Ganges and bronze sculpture Shiva the king of dance.
The sculpture in the middle is vigorous and thick, with extraordinary shape.
Its representative works are the masterpiece of the eternal changes of the universe in the Elephant Island grottoes, the three faces of Shiva, and the dancing Shiva in the kailhasa temple in the erola grottoes.
The north is represented by the carvings of kajurahu temple.
The style is characterized by the pursuit of gorgeous and red tape and the emphasis on women’s sensual charm.
The huge sandstone stone carving “three faces of Shiva” in the center of the south wall of the main hall of xiangdao Grottoes is 5.
On the right side of the statue is a beautiful and quiet female image, which is used to symbolize the reproductive and creative side of Shiva.
On the left side of the statue is a male image, which is scary, violent, ferocious, decorated with a skull and holding a cobra.
Its expression is furious and terrible, symbolizing the destruction and creation of Shiva The destructive side.
The middle side of the statue is similar to the Gupta Buddha.
It is clear, detached and meditative.
It focuses on the elegance of women and the fortitude of men, and harmoniously connects the opposite sides of the universe.
The three sided statue of Shiva in xiangdao Grottoes is an immortal masterpiece carved by Hinduism.
It integrates beauty, sublimity and ferocity, reaching a high degree of aesthetic harmony.
Kajurahu Temple carving is the most prominent model of Hindu temple carving in the mature period.
Deliberately pursue red tape and luxurious decoration.
The body movements of various characters are highly distorted, exaggerated and deformed, which is very sexy.
There are high relief panels on the outer wall of the temple.
The images of women and lovers depicting the most attractive various postures in the sculpture of this temple.
Their bodies are extremely distorted, exaggerating the traditional three song form to the extreme.
They all flirt and use various enchanting and charming gestures to show their burning love.
The sculpture masterpiece of kajurahu temple is love letter, which depicts a plump young woman who would rather stand in the shade and concentrate on writing a letter.
Her body is twisted into a deformed three bend style, highlighting its plump and graceful female human body beauty.
Under the influence of Hinduism, the quiet Buddha statues in the Gupta era received the influence of the jumping of Hindu gods and the modeling style of multi-faceted and multi arm, and gradually became more and more educated.
In Hinduism, many images of divine concubines entered BuddhismFor the gods and Bodhisattvas of the Ministry of heaven.
These archetypes come from the image of Bodhisattva in Hinduism, which is characterized by the twisting of limbs, many sides and arms.
Buddhism after the 8th century, that is, esoteric carving, is also characterized by cumbersome decoration and grotesque shape.
Statues of Baoguan Buddha, multi sided and multi armed Guanyin or female Bodhisattva.
Completely replaced the Gupta style Buddhist statues.
Such esoteric statues have had a great impact on esoteric art in China, Japan and other countries.