In 1605, a major event took place in the world literary world: the first volume of Don Quixote, a novel by Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616), a Spanish “outstanding novelist”, was published.
After the novel was published, it became popular all over Europe.
In less than three weeks, three pirated copies were published in Spain, and the original edition was reprinted six times in a year.
In 1614, someone published a fake sequel, which wantonly distorted and vilified the image of the protagonist from the standpoint of the church and the nobility, and maliciously slandered and attacked Cervantes himself.
Filled with indignation, Cervantes hurried to write all night.
Finally, the second novel was published in 1615.
Don Quixote is the masterpiece of Cervantes.
The full name of the novel is Quixote de la Manche, a whimsical gentleman’s hall.
It mainly describes a thin and declining aristocrat.
Quixote, who is infatuated with ancient knight novels, dressed himself up like an ancient Knight with a broken armour and a horse, worshipped an ugly pig herding woman as a lady of beauty and immortals, and set out to travel around the country three times with a pudgy farmer Sancho Panza as an attendant, To create a story about the achievements of knights who help the weak and eliminate the strong.
In the process, Don Quixote made a lot of jokes, ran into a wall everywhere and was humiliated.
He was beaten seriously or sent home as a madman for many times.
Nearly 700 characters appear in the novel, depicting scenes from the palace to the wilderness, all over the country.
Don Quixote reveals all kinds of contradictions in the declining kingdom of Spain from the end of the 16th century to the beginning of the 17th century, condemns the debauchery and corruption of the aristocracy, shows the pain and struggle of the people, and touches on the problems of politics, economy, morality, culture and customs.
The novel portrays two typical characters in world literature: the ridiculous, respectable and pathetic Don Quixote and the realistic, timid, intelligent and fair farmer Sancho.
It organically combines realism and romanticism, with both plain life reality and funny and exaggerated fictional plots.
In terms of reflecting the depth and breadth of reality and shaping the typicality of the characters, Have stepped to a new level.
The novel has been highly praised by revolutionary mentors and famous writers such as Marx, Engels,, Schiller,, Scott, Byron, Heine and Bellinsky.
It has been translated and published more than 1000 times all over the world, and has become one of the world’s famous literary works widely known and loved by readers all over the world.
There is a saying that “art is higher than life and comes from life”.
This is the world famous work created by Cervantes.
It can even be said that Cervantes is Don Quixote.
Cervantes’ life experience is a typical Spanish adventure.
He was born in Spain in the 16th century, an exciting time.
With the support of the Spanish king, Columbus discovered the new world.
Marine adventure promoted the prosperity of colonialism, and the plundering of the Americas stimulated the development of domestic industry and commerce.
Capitalist production relations began to sprout in some cities.
More than 1000 Spanish ships sailed all over the world and became a powerful feudal empire dominating Europe.
Cervantes was born in a poor family.
His father was a wandering surgeon.
Because life was difficult, Cervantes and his seven brothers and sisters ran around with his father and did not settle in Madrid until 1566.
His wandering childhood left him with only a secondary education.
At the age of 23, he went to Italy and became a servant of cardinal Julio.
A year later, his character of not being satisfied with the status quo drove him to join the Spanish army in Italy, ready to fight the Turkish invaders.
He took part in the famous battle of Le Bando.
In this battle, the 24 warships of the combined fleet led by Spain seriously damaged the Turkish fleet.
Cervantes, who was ill and stuck to his post, suffered three injuries in the fierce battle, so that his left hand was amputated.
Since then, Cervantes has been known as “the one armed man of Le Bando”.
After four years of life and death military career, he took the recommendation letter from Christian Coalition commander Juan and Sicilian governor to the king of Spain on his way home.
Unfortunately, he encountered a Turkish pirate ship on the way and was taken captive to Algeria.
The slave Cervantes fled again and again, but ended in failure, but his courage and courage were trusted and loved by the prisoners, and even the Turks who enslaved them were convinced by his indomitable spirit.
In 1580, his relatives and friends finally raised money to redeem him.
At this time, he was 34 years old.
Cervantes, who returned home as a hero, did not get the attention of King Philip and worked hard for his life all day.
While writing books, he worked as a small clerk in the government.
He once worked as a quartermaster and tax collector, contacted rural life, and was sent to the Americas for business.
He was arrested and jailed more than once because he was unable to pay the taxes he should have collected, and some suffered reckless disasters.
Even part of his immortal Don Quixote was conceived and written in prison.
He died of poverty and illness in 1616.
Cervantes is very fond of literature.
When life is difficult, selling literature is the only way for him to support his wife and children.
He advertised one commodity after another in literary language.
He wrote a number of lyric poems and satirical poems that even he could not remember clearly, but most of them did not cause much response.
He also wrote thirty or forty plays at the invitation of the theater, but he did not achieve the expected success after the release.
In 1585, he published the first pastoral novel Galatia.
Although he was very satisfied, he did not attract the attention of the literary world.
Cervantes began writing Don Quixote in his fifties.
In 1605, the first book of Don Quixote was published and immediately became popular all over the country.
Although the novel failed to lift Cervantes out of poverty, it won him immortal honor.
In 1615, the Archbishop of Spain visited the French ambassador for the royal marriage.
Several attendants of the ambassador asked him about Cervantes.
The Archbishop said, “he is old, a soldier, a little squire, very poor.
” The entourage of the French ambassador was surprised: “why doesn’t Spain support such a talent with the money from the national treasury?” The Archbishop of Spain said, “if he is forced to write by poverty, then I hope God will not make him rich all his life.
Because he is poor, but he enriches all people.
” As the Archbishop said, Don Quixote created by Cervantes, who was poor all his life, has become the most precious wealth of people all over the world.
Since thisSince its birth, this masterpiece has been translated into almost all the languages in the world.
So far, its circulation in the west is second only to the Bible.
In April 1616, Cervantes completed his last novel “belsiles and sissimonda”.
Although he was suffering from severe edema at that time, he joked in his dedication: “my life has come to an end.
According to my pulse, I will finish its journey this Sunday at the latest, and my life will come to an end.
” As he expected, three days later, on April 23, the most knowledgeable thinker and the greatest novel artist in Spain and even the world died.
To this day, no one knows where his grave is.