the seriousness of the Dalit problem in different historical periods, different people have different names for Dalits.
In modern India, they are often called panchama or avarma.
In the manu code, they are called mlechha and chandala.
In 1935, the British called all kinds of Dalit castes schedualed caste.
In order to express his sympathy and love for the Dalits, Mahatma called the Dalits ha -, rijan, which means “the son of God”.
Ordinary Indians usually call Dalits Untouchables (uutouchablc), while Dalits often call themselves the oppressed class.
Dalits are the social strata in Indian society that are oppressed and discriminated against.
Dalits are people who are unwilling to hold religious ceremonies for Brahmans who claim to be pure.
Barbers, tailors and other craftsmen in society are unwilling to serve them.
If the high caste comes into contact with them carelessly, it will be considered to have been polluted, and some ceremony will be held to eliminate this kind of pollution.
Such people cannot use public facilities, such as roads, wells, ferries.
No access to Hindu temples.
Cannot be educated with children of other castes.
Not to associate with or intermarry with other castes.
They can only engage in occupations that are considered extremely low by people in society.
Therefore, Dalits are not only exploited and oppressed like other working people in society, but also in poverty.
Moreover, he was also regarded as a dirty person by others in society, brutally abandoned outside the society by high castes, deprived of some basic rights of being a man, and thus in a more tragic situation.
According to India’s population census in 1971, the number of Dalits was nearly 80 million, which was 14.
6% of India’s total population.
In fact, the number of Dalits far exceeds this figure.
Because: (1) the boundary between Dalits and another lower caste – impure sudra is not clear, and many registered as impure sudra are actually Dalits.
(2) Many Untouchables live in remote areas, deep mountains and forests, and they are often not counted.
(3) Many Dalits are reluctant to reveal their caste identity to census officials.
Therefore, some scholars estimate that the actual number of Dalits has reached 100 million, accounting for almost 20% of India’s population.
Untouchability has been preserved for thousands of years.
After India became a colony, the Dalit system in cities was weakened due to the impact of western culture.
But it is still popular in rural areas.
Especially because the British colonists tried to use the caste system and Dalit system to split the unity among Indian nationalities, they strengthened the inaccessibility system to a certain extent.
After India’s independence, the Dalit system was undoubtedly further restricted and weakened due to the advocacy of Indian bourgeois leaders and the economic and cultural development of Indian society.
However, the social and economic status of the Dalits, especially in rural areas.
There has been no fundamental change.
They are still severely exploited economically and subjected to inhuman treatment and persecution politically.
More than 90% of the Dalits in India live in rural areas, and 95% of the rural Dalits have no land.
Most of them are tenant farmers, farm workers and debt slaves of the landlords.
The landlords in India come from high castes and some middle castes.
Therefore, the relationship between Dalits and landlords is not only the relationship between Dalits and landowning castes, but also the relationship between farmers and landlords.
The situation of Dalits in rural India is very tragic.
The land is concentrated in the hands of landlords.
For example, in a county of Bihar, more than a dozen landlords cover more than 1000 acres, one landowner covers 5000 acres, and another landowner covers 10000 acres, while the Dalits have almost no land.
In 1971, the staff of Madhya Pradesh Dalit working committee investigated 8800 Dalit families in 179 villages in nine districts of the state.
The result was that 5800 of them had no land at all, and the remaining 1500 had only a little barren land.
In 1976, a survey of 3300 Dalits in 76 villages in Karnataka organized by the state government showed that 80% of the Dalits were landless farmers, and the rest were engaged in low-level occupations such as scavengers.
Dalits with little or no land have to be farm labourers for landlords.
According to statistics in 1965, there were 10.
4 million Dalits as farm labourers in the country, accounting for more than one third of the total of 30.
3 million farm labourers in the country.
Dalit farm labourers have low wages and are often unable to find work.
In Andhra Pradesh, “some farm labourers are employed for 20 days at a time, three times a year, with a total remuneration of 120 rupees, and there is no other income.
” In Madhya Pradesh, “most Dalit farmers are rarely employed for four or five months a year, and their wages are only between rupees 1-1.
25 a day.
” According to the price standard from 1977 to 78, those whose annual consumption per person is less than 780 rupees are defined as living below the poverty line.
By this standard, most Dalits live below the poverty line.
The income of Dalit farmers is mostly lower than that of non Dalit farmers.
According to a sample survey of 1000 rural families in four counties of Tamil Nadu in 1970 (800 Dalits and 200 non Dalits), the average income of each Dalit in that year was 227 rupees, while that of non Dalit families was 406 rupees.
” As the number of Dalits increases, the most urgent problem is that they can’t find a job in the city.
However, as the number of Dalits in the city increases, the most urgent problem is that they can’t find a job in the city.
In April 1980, Indian interior minister y.
makwana said: “52% of Dalits are agricultural workers, 28% of Dalits are marginal small farmers, and 66% of the country’s 20 million Dalit families live below the poverty line.
” Poverty forced Untouchables to borrow from landlords.
In 1954, the Indian government conducted a survey on the debt situation of untouchables across India.
The results showed that Untouchables were generally in debt.
In the rural areas of ten states, the number of indebted Untouchables accounted for more than 60% of the total number of untouchables, and the least state also accounted for more than 45%.
For more than 30 years since then, the debt situation of Dalits has not improved.
The heavy debt reduced a large number of Dalits to debt slaves without personal freedom.
In Madhya Pradesh: “Dalits have to borrow from landlords or shahukur.
When they can’t repay the debt that has increased significantly in a short time, they have to become lifelong slaves of money lenders.
When the slave record began, there will be a generationAnother generation goes on, and the debt increases year after year and will never be repaid.
” As early as 1950, the constitution of India expressly prohibited debt slaves and other acts of trafficking in people, but today, there are still millions of debt slaves in India, most of whom are Dalits.
Poverty has turned many Dalit girls into prostitutes.
According to Indian newspapers, 60-70% of prostitutes in brothels in the capital Delhi come from Dalits.
Dalits suffer from malnutrition, poor living conditions, lack of clean drinking water and lack of medical and health conditions, resulting in a large number of skin diseases and infectious diseases among them.
In de oghar County, 2000 Dalits are killed by anemia every year.
A leader of the Dalit organization in India described the situation of Dalits with grief and indignation: “the poor, especially the Dalits, are the victims of the growing polarization between the rich and the poor.
They can’t enjoy the necessities of life, housing, education and medical treatment.
Poor mothers abandon their babies into the river and can’t stand the starving father poisoning their sons.
” Dalits cannot even guarantee their basic human rights politically.
They may suffer all kinds of discrimination, abuse, persecution and killing at any time.
According to the statistics of Indian newspapers, the number of cases of persecution of Dalits in India has increased year by year, from 6186 in 1973 to 8860 in 1974.
There were 10871 cases in 1977 and more than 15000 cases in 1978 and 1979.
From 1977 to 1981, there were 65511 cases.
These five years are 2.
5 times the sum of the previous two decades.
Behind these statistics are bloody and heinous atrocities.
In Indian newspapers, the news of persecution of Dalits can be seen almost every day.
For example, in September 1979, the Dalits in pihara village, pizaradpur County, Madhya Pradesh gathered to demand the abolition of debt slavery.
After the meeting, a group of thugs attacked the Dalit area, burned down 26 shacks, killed one person and seriously injured seven people.
In August 1981, in a Dalit village in South akot County, Tamil Nadu state, more than 3000 Hindus in 11 surrounding villages ransacked the village because they protested against the insult of the girls of the neighboring village Vania caste.
135 Dalit thatched houses were burned, 35 Dalit houses were destroyed, and the property loss reached 600000 rupees.
Indian sociologist I. P. Desai made a detailed survey of the discrimination against Dalits in 69 villages in Gujarat in the early 1970s.
8 according to the survey, the inaccessibility of the village is quite serious.
Today, the illiteracy rate of Dalits is as high as 87%, much higher than the national illiteracy rate of 70%.
The unemployment rate of Dalits is also very high.
The policy of reserving work places for Dalits has only been implemented to a certain extent in some public enterprises and institutions, while the majority of private enterprises refuse to implement this policy, and they often even deliberately crowd Dalits.
“Many Dalit youths are increasingly dissatisfied.
They are often refused employment under various excuses in the recruitment examination.
Other castes in India always think they are born better than Dalits,” jagjivan ram complained Even Dalits who benefit from the government’s preferential treatment policy are very unhappy in their work and life.
The Dalits who get job opportunities are mostly engaged in low-income, hard and tired low-level jobs.
The following table reflects this situation.
In 1975, the proportion of Dalits engaged in various levels of work in federal government organs and public enterprises: some Dalit youth with higher education held some technical jobs in enterprises, but workers of high caste origin were often unwilling to obey his command.
Dalits are often used as scapegoats when accidents happen.
In this regard, jagjifan ram is deeply aware that during his tenure as Minister of railways, when there were accidents on the railway, public opinion always condemned him for appointing too many Dalits.
“When a railway accident happened, public opinion unanimously condemned officials and workers of Dalit origin.
In fact, after investigating the incident, it proved that Dalits were not responsible for the accident,” he said Those Dalits who enter all levels of power in India can be said to be the biggest beneficiaries of the Congress Party’s preferential treatment policy, but they can’t make any contribution to improving the situation of the whole Dalit.
India divides constituencies according to the areas where people live, and does not give Dalits the right to vote alone.
In the constituencies reserved for Dalits, there are not only Dalits, but also a large number of other castes.
Dalits can not be elected only by Dalit votes.
As jagjivan ram said, “this election method makes it impossible for candidates with 100% Dalit support to be elected in constituencies reserved for Dalits.
This is because in no constituency, Dalits’ votes can exceed 18-20% of the total votes.
” In addition, in order to be elected to Parliament in India, there must be sufficient campaign funds and a group of people to carry out activities.
These are beyond the reach of the Dalits and must rely on the support of their political party.
The Dalit civil affairs party is short of funds.
Therefore, most of the Dalits elected to Parliament come from some political parties controlled by other castes.
In this way, the Dalits of elected members must first represent the interests of their party, not the interests of the Dalits.
Dalit members of the Congress party are first required to be consistent with the party politically, otherwise they cannot be allowed to be candidates next time.
Dalit members have no rights in the party or in Parliament.
For example, a Dalit National Congress Party member in Andhra Pradesh was elected as a member of the people’s house in the 1977 general election.
He asked to be a secretary of the parliamentary caucus of the National Congress party, but was opposed by National Congress members of other castes.
In the 1980 general election, although the Dalits helped Ying Gandhi a lot, when someone proposed to her that at least one Dalit should be the head of the three southern states, she flatly refused.
Even jagjifan ram, who has long held senior positions in the Congress Party and the government, is just an ornament of the Congress party.
Dalit system is the core of caste system, and the elimination of Dalit system means the elimination of caste system.
The inaccessibility system that discriminates against Dalits has seriously hindered the unity between the Indian people.
The atrocities of persecuting Dalits from time to time have not only caused huge losses to the lives and property of Dalits, but also brought unrest to India and damaged social productivity.
As 100 million Dalits are extremely poor, their purchasing power is extremely low, which hinders the expansion of India’s domestic market and is unfavorable to the development of Indian industry and commerce.
Capitalist production is a kind of socialized production.
It advocates free competition and scientific management, which requires the flow of talents, while the Dalit system puts people’s family origin firstPeople with poor detective background can not give full play to their intelligence and wisdom, which hinders the development and progress of society.
After independence, the Indian Congress Party government implemented the Western parliamentary democracy, but under the interference of caste factors, it hindered the implementation of Indian democracy.
In a word, the untouchable problem is one of the most serious problems facing today’s n-degree government. 2. The government’s policy and effect of solving the Dalit problem.
Almost from the first day of the founding of the Congress party, the Congress party clearly announced that it would abolish the Dalit system.
This attitude of the Congress party is reflected in the remarks made by early leaders such as Lennard, gogodi, Mo Nehru and others on many occasions to denounce the Dalit system, that is, tirak, who is regarded as a more respected Indian tradition, also pointed out that the Dalit system is a tumor in the Indian social organism and must be eradicated at all costs.
Among the leaders of the Congress party, Mahatma Gandhi was the most concerned about the Dalit issue.
He worked hard to change the situation of the Dalits all his life, founded Dalit magazines, set up organizations to serve the Dalits, adopted Dalit daughters and personally went deep into the Dalits.
He affectionately called the Dalit harizhen (meaning the son of God).
At the Congress Party’s annual meeting in 1928, Mo Nehru, then president of the Congress party, mentioned the Congress Party’s solution to the Dalit problem in the report of the annual meeting: the only effective way to achieve this goal is to provide them with education and other welfare facilities and remove the obstacles on their development path.
After independence, the protective preferential treatment policy implemented by the Indian Congress government is the concretization of this policy.
After India’s independence, the desire of Congress party leaders to solve the Dalit problem is still relatively urgent.
As early as the beginning of independence, Prime Minister JA Nehru said: “you know, I put the root extinct surname system in the most important position, which is the main factor leading to the weakness of our country.
” The Dalit policy of the Indian Congress government is reflected in India’s constitution.
In the second chapter of basic rights in part III of the constitution, articles 14 to 17 deal with Dalits, which mainly has two aspects: on the one hand, it can be called the nature of protection, on the other hand, it can be called the nature of preferential treatment.
Therefore, the Dalit policy of the Congress party is called protective preferential treatment policy.
Article 17 of the Constitution clearly declares: “abolish the Dalit system and prohibit the implementation of the Dalit system in any way.
any deprivation of human capacity due to the Dalit system is a crime and shall be punished according to law.
” Paragraph 4 of Article 16 states: “it shall not prevent the Congress from formulating any provisions to reserve a number of positions for any backward class of citizens, if the state considers that such class is not fully represented in state affairs at present.
” In 1995, the Indian government issued the UN touchability offenceact, which stipulates that those who prevent Dalits from entering public places will be sentenced to six months’ imprisonment or a fine of 50 rupees.
If the circumstances are serious, they will be fined and imprisoned.
The government can revoke the business license of shops that do not provide services to Dalits.
The decree also stipulates that those who fail to correct after repeated education shall be punished more severely.
The Congress government tried to solve the Dalit problem with various preferential policies.
The measures are as follows: 1 Given that the vast majority of Dalits are illiterate, the government implements some measures to help Dalit children enter school and receive education.
The central and state governments allocate a certain amount of money every year to help solve the difficulties of Dalit students in accommodation, tuition, meals and so on.
In university enrollment, especially in some popular majors such as medical science and mechanical engineering, a certain proportion of places are reserved for Dalit students, and their enrollment score is slightly lower than that of students of other castes.
Due to these measures, the number of Dalit students has increased significantly in the past 40 years.
In 1944-45, the number of Dalit students enrolled was only 114, while in 1966-67, it reached 89907.
An intellectual class began to emerge among the Dalits, “By 1977, 10500 Untouchables had become engineers and doctors, and about 11 million Untouchables had been educated,” the Indian newspaper statesman reported.2. According to the Indian constitution, governments at all levels, from central to local, have left a certain proportion of their work to Dalits.
Today, about 400000 Dalits find jobs in government enterprises because of this policy.3. The government also allocates a certain amount of money every year to improve the living conditions of Dalits, such as digging wells for Dalits, building streets and training Dalit youth to master various skills of making a living.
This kind of money is allocated according to the five-year plan, and each five-year plan has a sharp increase momentum.
The Fifth Five-Year Plan is 400 times that of the first five-year plan.
In recent years, the number of such allocations has increased even more.
In the Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980-1985), the federal government allocated 5 billion rupees to Dalits, and states are also required to spend 7-8 billion rupees a year to improve the situation of Dalits.4. According to the Indian constitution, the government reserves a certain proportion of seats for Dalits in Indian political institutions at all levels.
In 1976, Dalits held 78 of the 525 seats in the people’s house and 538 of the 3997 seats in the state level Parliament.
In addition, there were about 3000 Dalits in the county and village authorities.
In addition to the above preferential treatment measures, the Congress Party government also opposed the Dalit system through various publicity activities.
For example, “Dalit week” and “Dalit day” are held in various states, and the government will organize Dalits to enter Hindu temples, hotels and other public places.
All kinds of books, leaflets, pamphlets and postcards against Dalit system are printed in English, Hindi and various local languages and widely distributed in public places.
Radio and television stations produce films on the theme of anti Dalit system.
The provision of housing, employment opportunities and bonuses are used to encourage male and female caste youth married to Dalits.
Some people propose to eliminate all legions named after castes in daily life.
In 980, the Madras municipal government also renamed the streets and public places in the city named by caste.
Some leaders f to 111 want to erase the prefix or suffix indicating caste identity in Indian names.
However, all these efforts of the government can not achieve the goal of eliminating Dalit system.
An Indian scholar summed up the results of the Dalit policy implemented by the Congress government in the past 40 years: “despite the enthusiastic efforts of these great men and the provisions of the constitution, the non-contact system still dominates in traditional customs, and the reserved work and seat system in the constitution only exist.