French sculpture in the 17th and 18th centuries.
France in the 17th century was called the “Sun King” in the era of Louis XIV.
France under his rule was a powerful country in Europe at that time.
During his reign, the monarchy also reached the peak of its power.
In the 17th century, French sculpture was mainly ordered by the court.
The grand and solemn style of classicism was welcomed by the court, so it occupied a dominant position.
At that time, many sculptures were used for architectural decoration or to decorate squares and gardens.
At that time, it was said that there were more statues in Louis XIV’s imperial court than residents in big cities.
Pierre Puge (1620-1694) was a famous sculptor who appeared in the middle of the 17th century.
He was born in a mason family and worked as an apprentice in his early years.
He studied in Italy and was influenced by Baroque art.
Puge’s artistic career began with studying painting and later transferred to sculpture.
After Puge returned to France in the 1940s, he mainly worked in Marseille and other places.
In his life, he mainly deals with official orders and has created a series of works for Versailles park.
For all that.
Puge’s works are different from college art and have a tendency of realism.
He once made isometric stone statue columns (1656-1657) for the Tulun city administration according to the sketch of the harbor wharf.
This work is remarkable for its vigorous momentum and expressiveness.
As one of Puge’s representative works, the marble carving “the Millon of Crotone” (1671-1682, now stored in the Louvre Museum in Paris) shows that millon, a powerful man in the 6th century, fought with a lion.
One corner of Millon’s clothes was caught by a tree trunk, and his body and right hand were bitten by a lion.
The expression on his face was extremely painful, and he was shouting in pain.
Millon’s upper body leaned forward, The blue tendons of both arms are protruding, expressing the sense of force of struggling forward.
This sculpture truly shows Hercules’ intense mental pain and physical suffering.
The whole work is full of unstoppable passion.
It has shocking power.
In this work, the sculptor praises the beauty of men’s human body.
Although Hercules has an extremely painful face, his body is strong and strong, full of a sense of strength, giving people a rich aesthetic feeling.
Puge’s works include the head of Medusa, Perseids and meteors (1683-1684), marble relief Alexander and Diogenes (1687-1692), etc.
Fran ç OIS gerardon (1628-1715) was a student of benini.
In his early years, he studied in moniye and agaye.
He worked mainly in Paris and Versailles and was a court artist.
He is also a representative of academic classicism and is deeply appreciated by King Louis XIV of France.
His works are solemn, quiet and elegant.
He is good at making commemorative decorative sculptures.
Although his works tend to be stylized, they are full of decorative interest.
His works are found in the palaces of Versailles, Vicente, tyre and Louvre (Apollo corridor).
His main works include marble sculptures in Versailles Park, Apollo in the bath (1666-1676), Apollo served by the gods (1672), fountain statue, pyramid (1672), bishop Richelieu’s tombstone, etc.
The bronze statue of Louis XIV on horseback (about 1699) erected on the square of wandom is the representative work of the late Eastern period of Jalal.
I also like this work very much.
Unfortunately, the statue was destroyed by the masses during the French Revolution in 1792.
Antoine coysevox (1640-1720) was also an academic classical sculptor.
His works are simpler than those of gerardon.
Coisseffer was born in Lyon and worked in Paris since 1657.
He became the court sculptor of Louis XIV.
He was the dean of the Royal Academy of painting and sculpture from 1702 to 1705.
He was an art educator.
The sculptors Cousteau brothers came from his door.
He is good at Memorial decorative sculpture and created many court garden sculptures and allegorical tombstone sculptures.
He created a huge decorative relief “Louis XIV of victory” for the war Hall of Versailles, which shows the majestic posture of Louis XIV as a military commander.
This work also reflects the grand and solemn characteristics of coissever in art.
Coesseffer’s works also include terracotta and marble carvings, the bust of lebulun (1676), and Linfu with shell (1683-1685, marble).
Virgin Venus (1686, marble), bust of Louis XIV (1689, bronze), etc.
Coisseffer is a prolific sculptor.
He left more than 200 sculptures on the shelf alone.
France began to replace Italy as the center of European art at the end of the 17th century, which lasted until the 20th century.
Since the 18th century, French art has played an important role in Europe.
During this period, French sculpture art has developed into Rococo art with strong decorative tendency.
Louis XV was a king who indulged in pleasure.
In the era of his rule, the artistic ideal changed from grandeur to pleasure.
Art began to be keen to meet people’s needs for elegant and delicate sensory enjoyment.
A large number of sculptures in the Rococo period are small sculptures used to decorate the environment.
They have delicate shapes and delicate techniques, with a painting like effect.
During this period, the appearance of buildings was no longer decorated with large sculptures.
The gables of buildings were often decorated with family badges and other symbolic sculptures, while there were usually small rooms for large sculptures in private mansions and villas.
At that time, sculptors often received more attention than painters.
Successful sculptors were usually academicians of the National Academy of fine arts.
At that time, there were many sculpture families, and their skills became more and more exquisite from generation to generation.
The sculpture activities in the Regent era and Louis XV era mainly focused on the activities of three sculpture families and their disciples.
In the first half of the 18th century, the Cousteau family and their disciple bouchardon had the greatest influence on sculpture art.
The kustein family began to specialize in sculpture from Francois Cousteau.
The two sons of Francois kustein, Nicolas coustau (1658-1733) and Guillaume coustau (1677-1746), were among the greatest sculptors of the time.
Nikolai studied arts with his father and uncle Oslo since childhood.
When he was young, he won the Rome award and was able to study in Italy.
After returning home, he mainly served in the French court.
His most famous sculptures include Melea cour, who kills pigs, and Louis XV, who plays chebido.
Nikolay’s brother Guillaume’s artistic experience is basically the same as that of his brother.
But he made more brilliant achievements than Nikolay.
His most outstanding works are two statues of horse trainers for Mary Park in Paris.
Marley’s horse (1740-1745) is one of them.
It was originally placed in a courtyard in the palace of Louis XIV.
Now it is erected on the avenue yeseri in Paris, France, and a sculpture with a similar theme is placed opposite it.
Guillaume’s work focuses on a fierce and wild horse, and the rider trying to tame the horse is almost exhausted.
The trainer’s face and muscles are finely depicted and full of power.
The fierce horse with two front legs soaring has a flying mane and a whistling neck.
The modeling momentum is strong and the modeling is real.
Guillaume has a son of the same name (1716-1777) and is also an excellent sculptor.
His more famous works are the tombstone of the prince.
In the mid-18th century, the famous sculptor edme bouchardan (1698-1762) benefited from the cultivation of the Cousteau family.
In 1722, bouchardon won the Rome award and had the opportunity to study in Italy, where he was nourished by classical art.
After returning to China in the 1940s, the sculpture “fountain of the four seasons” created by him reflects the profound influence of classical sculpture on him.
After completing this work, bouchardon spent 10 years decorating the “Heracles room” in Versailles Palace, which is a huge project.
It is also the most energy consuming work of bouchardon.
Bouchardon’s masterpiece in his later years was the horse riding statue of Louis XV, but the sculptor died before he finished it.
After him, the sculptor bicar finally completed it.
It is said that the sculpture was very wonderful, but it was completely destroyed during the French Revolution.
Bouchardon’s works have some characteristics of Rococo art, but at the same time, they have obvious classicism tendency, accurate modeling and simple style.
His art foreshadowed the coming of the era of French neoclassicism art.
Cupid, the God of love, made a bow with a thick wooden stick of heckles (1750, now stored in the Louvre Museum in Paris) is a 132 cm high marble carving made by bouchardon.
This sculpture vividly shows the beautiful posture and naughty look of the young Cupid with golden wings.
The carving technique is exquisite and the turning point of the surface is clear, resulting in a quiet and lively effect.
It has not only the elegance and tranquility of classical sculpture, but also the sweetness, delicacy and movement of Rococo style.
The ADAM family is also a sculpture family with great influence in French sculpture art.
Chekhob hisper (1670-1747) was a sculptor in Raleigh Hau, France.
His eldest son rabel hisper (1700-1759) studied sculpture with his father since childhood.
Later, he went to Italy to study.
After returning home, with the help of his brothers, he completed the famous decorative sculpture “the victory of aubuch and avdorida” in the courtyard of Versailles Palace, This work made him a very famous decorative sculptor at that time.
Nicolas hisper (1705-1778), the second son of chicob hisper, studied in Italy like his brother and completed many works in cooperation with his brother.
His most important work is the sculpture of the tomb of Princess cardoninu obanis of bolaton.
Francois hisper, the third son of chekhob hisper, is not as famous as his two brothers, but he is also an original sculptor.
He once created garden decorative carvings for the carefree palace.
The sculpture family as famous as the ADAM family and the slomi family.
Sebastian (1655-1726) was a famous sculptor at that time, and his three sons became outstanding sculptors respectively.
The third son Lule misil (1705-1764) made the most outstanding achievements.
Lule misil once lived in Rome, Italy for 20 years, and he was deeply influenced by Italian classical sculpture.
After returning to France, he created many mausoleum decorative carvings, and later completed a large number of carvings for St.
silbis Church in Paris.
His masterpiece is the tombstone of rabel Da kirsch.
The last master of sculpture in the Louis XV era was jearl Baptist Pigalle (1714-1785).
My father is a royal joiner.
When he studied sculpture in Paris, he was a student in lemuvana.
Later, he went to Italy to study.
After returning to China, pigar became an academician of the National Academy of fine arts, mainly engaged in creative activities in the castle of sioch and the ceramic workshop of sevre.
He once created portrait carvings for Madame pombardo, and was favored and sheltered by Madame pombardo.
Hermes with shoelaces (1744) is one of pigal’s most famous works.
This marble carving is 58 cm high, showing Hermes as a handsome and healthy young man.
His young body is very elastic, which really shows the tenderness of young skin.
The production of the tomb carving of Marshal monis do thakus (1753-1776) took pigar eight years.
There is another interruption in the middle.
This is also the most successful work of the sculptor.
It is now hidden in the Church of St.
Thomas in Strasbourg, France.
Monis do sacus is a French Marshal with outstanding military achievements.
In this sculpture, he majestically holds a baton and walks towards the sarcophagus opened by the God of death.
On his right are three animals, symbolizing the country he defeated – Leopard (UK), lion (Holland) and vulture (Austria).
On his left, the French military flag is held high.
Under the flag is a moral image – a little angel is stepping on Songming, symbolizing that the fire of Marshal’s life is about to be extinguished.
In front of the Marshal’s left, a woman symbolizing France is praying for him.
This group of sculptures has great momentum, complex composition and profound meaning.
The atmosphere of deep sadness about the death of the dead has been shown to be very successful.
The artistic style of Rococo carving in his late years also reflects the budding style of Rococo carving.
The second half of the 18th century.
The French sculpture industry is very active.
The sweet and elegant Rococo art coexists with the new neoclassical style.
Etierfile Maurice Falconet (1716-1791) was a sculptor who was praised by Diderot.
He was born in a carpenter family and liked wood carving in his early years.
His works have the style of early classicism and are well conceivedDramatic, he combines the rich and delicate perceptual features and vivid modeling charm of Rococo art with the elegance and simplicity of classicism.
In 1744, he made his debut as a plaster group sculpture “Milton of Croton”.
In the 1950s and 1960s, he created mythical statues with rococo artistic interest and beautiful shape.
Among them, the important works are Muse (1752, marble), bathing girl (1757, marble), water spring goddess (1757, plaster), etc.
In 1757, Falcone exhibited his first two Rococo style works “the terrible Cupid” and “Diana” in the salon.
In the two works, the characters have beautiful posture, charming movements, fine skin and delicate hands and feet, which are praised and loved by people.
These two sculptures also established his position in the French sculpture industry.
In the following ten years, he was favored by Madame pombadou, became the carving supervisor of Seville national pottery factory, and personally designed small and exquisite seffer porcelain carvings such as amor, seck lying on the arm of love and the bell of the three beauties.
The marble sculpture Bathing Woman (now collected in the Louvre Museum in Paris) is an excellent female body sculpture made by Falcone, which shows the scene of a naked bathing woman who has just put one foot into the water and is about to take a bath.
The Bathing Woman’s body, posture and face are as dignified and beautiful as Millon’s Venus, full of implicit youth beauty.
This piece not only has the perceptual and delicate expression of Rococo interest and the vivid charm of modeling, but also has the simplicity and simplicity of classical art, showing Falcone’s almost perfect skills.
The marble sculpture Amor (now stored in the Hermitage Museum in St.
Petersburg), with a height of 58 cm, is another famous work in the style of Falcone Rococo.
Amor is the little god of love in Greek mythology.
He is a little angel with golden wings.
In this sculpture, amor put his fingers on his lips and slightly lowered his head, but his eyes looked up.
His eyes were clear and affectionate, and his expression was lovely and moving.
Amor’s chubby body has delicate and vibrant skin.
This work gives people a happy and beautiful enjoyment. 1766. At the invitation of Russian queen Ekaterina, Falco spent nine years creating a large cast copper statue, the monument to Peter the great (1769-1778).
It is 5.
Falcone began to create in 1769 and completed a small manuscript.
It was enlarged in 1770, cast in 1775 and decorated in 1778.
Peter the great was modeled as a knight wearing a corolla and riding a horse on the top of high mountains.
The founder of the Russian state.
His face was solemn and calm, bold and dignified, and he waved his right hand as if to command nature to serve Russia.
Peter the Great’s horse focused on its two hind legs.
At the foot of the horse, a copper snake symbolizing the national enemy is stepped on, which is also used to commemorate Russia’s victory over Sweden in the Northern War.
The base of the monument is made of a complete Boulder, which is in the shape of water waves symbolizing the cliff.
The monument was unveiled in the political participation square of St.
Petersburg in 1782.
Standing on the Bank of the Neva River, it is one of the best monument carvings of the 18th century.
When Falcone returned to France in 1780, he was in his twilight years.
He had to give up creation and write books instead, ending his sculpture career.
The sculpture of augustm Pajou (1730-1809) not only maintained the style of Rococo art, but also created the style of neoclassicism.
He also studied in Italy for four or five years.
After returning home, he was placed in high position by Mrs.
Bartlett, Louis XV’s concubine.
He is good at small-scale character carving.
The characters he portrays are elegant and simple, and his skills are skilled.
He created excellent portrait sculptures such as Princess Mary antonetti, sculptor rumonou and bausier.
He also decorated the palace of Versailles.
The abandoned pushik, which he created in his later years, has the characteristics of Rococo elegance and neoclassical decoration.
Jean antoin Houdon (1741-1828) was a great sculptor in France in the second half of the 18th century.
At the age of 15, he studied in the fine art academy in Rome and won the fine character award in Italy.
After returning home, he has been a professor at the Paris Academy of fine arts.
His “morfoos” was widely praised when it was exhibited in the salon.
In 1776, udong created the marble carving “Diana” for courtyard decoration (now collected in gulbenqin collection in Lisbon, Portugal).
It portrays the image of a healthy and vigorous young woman with an arrow bag on her body, an arrow in her right hand, and looking for prey while walking.
This work is elegant and noble, and its style is very different from Falcone’s work of the same name 20 years ago.
Diana in Falcone focuses on the tenderness and slight shyness of women, while Diana in udong is solemn, simple and full of self-confidence.
Wudong’s sculpture achievements mainly lie in portrait sculpture.
After the 1970s, Wudong was mainly engaged in portrait creation.
His modeling ability has laid a solid foundation when he was in Italy.
He shows great talent in portraying the character of models.
Later generations said that Wudong was a master who gave the stone statue spirit and life.
Wudong created a number of vivid portraits for scientists, politicians, thinkers and artists in the French Enlightenment in the 18th century.
Among them are the bust of Moliere, the bust of Rousseau 3 (1778), the statue of Voltaire (1781), the statue of mirabo (1791), etc.
There are also some foreign ordered pieces, such as the bust of yuranklin (1778), the monument (1785-1791), etc.
These portrait sculptures have reached a very profound and meticulous level in focusing on the outstanding character of the characters.
Wudong is very good at depicting people’s eyes.
In this regard, he broke through the traditional norms and explored a variety of new skills.
He often dug out part of the iris of his eyes, left a piece of sculpture base material, dug a deeper hole in the pupil, and used light and shadow to create an illusion effect, as if his eyes were flashing.
Wudong used his wonderful “eye touch” to show Voltaire’s cleverness, simplicity and solemnity of Washington through people’s eyes.
In the terracotta sculpture “Louise bust in childhood” (1777, now stored in the Louvre Museum in Paris).