Esoteric Hebrew in the language system used by all ethnic groups in the world, the Hebrew language used by the Hebrews belongs to an older, more mysterious and esoteric one.
Engraved with “here is the bone of the Jewish king Josiah, don’t open it!” Hebrew stele (relic of the Second Temple period).
Hebrew was created by Hebrews with reference to Phoenician Pinyin.
The Hebrew alphabet may have originated more than 3500 years ago.
It is a major part of the Canaanite alphabet, but it has its own characteristics.
First, in the ancient Hebrew alphabet, there were only 22 consonants and no vowels.
Three consonants are usually used to form the root of verbs.
When composing a text, the reader can only add vowels to read out the sound according to his understanding of the meaning of the sentence.
Later, someone tried to insert four consonant letters that can represent vowels into vocabulary to indicate their pronunciation, but it was not widely accepted.
It was not until the 6th century that vowels were marked with dots and dashes under, above or in the middle of consonants.
Since ancient times, there are four representative Hebrew letter writing forms.
From top to bottom: Ancient Hebrew letters used at the end of the 10th century BC.
The square Hebrew alphabet written on the Dead Sea scrolls in the second half of the 2nd century BC.
The round Hebrew alphabet that appeared in the 15th century.
Modern square Hebrew alphabet.
The Hebrew inscription Yahuda engraved on the wall of an 11th century Hebrew synagogue.
Secondly, Hebrew letters have been used to represent fixed values, that is, the first 10 letters represent 1 to 10, the 11th to 19th letters represent 9 integers such as 20, 30, 40.
100, and the 20th to 22nd letters represent 200, 300 and 400 respectively.
Whether letters represent a word or a number can only be understood according to the meaning of the sentence.
What is more difficult to understand is that the numerical value of Hebrew words is often used to derive the hidden and mysterious meaning of words.
In addition, Jewish mysticism endows each Hebrew letter with a unique moral.
Therefore, in the eyes of many people, the Hebrew letter has a special mysterious color.
In addition, Hebrew is written from right to left, which is the opposite of the habit of other words from left to right.
Consonants are not connected, and letters are not divided into uppercase and lowercase.
Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish general nouns from proper nouns such as person names and place names, which also brings great inconvenience to beginners.
The special phenomenon that Hebrew has no vowels has brought some difficulties to people’s understanding of the Bible and other religious classics written in Hebrew instruments, which affects people’s understanding of the original meaning of the text.
When people annotate or interpret Hebrew classics such as the Bible and Talmud, there is an independent and special Hebrew linguistic research.
After the destruction of the kingdom of Judah by New Babylon in 586 BC, the scattered Jews had to learn the local language in order to adapt to the language environment of their new residence.
Hebrew gradually became a language close to “death”.
It was only used as a written language in religious occasions such as chanting and Prayer, rather than a viable oral language.
Hebrew education the Hebrew nation has paid attention to education since ancient times.
In the eyes of the Hebrews, scholars are greater than kings.
When there was “the prisoner of Babylon” in the important Hebrew classic Talmud, Ezra, a Hebrew scribe, insisted on studying the law.
Such a sentence: “learning is the highest good.
” It emphasizes the importance of learning in Hebrew ethics education.
Hebrews’ love of learning is related to their religious beliefs.
In Judaism, the doctrine and the law itself place great emphasis on the covenant and communication between man and “God”.
They believe that if they are not familiar with the doctrine and study the law, they will lose the pillar of spiritual belief.
Therefore, it is the responsibility and obligation of every Hebrew to seriously study the Bible and receive religious education from an early age.
After the establishment of the Hebrew kingdom in the 11th century BC, schools for training “sons of prophets” appeared in the capital Jerusalem.
This kind of school relies on people’s donations to raise funds.
Students build school buildings by themselves, using group teaching and voluntary learning.
Priests and prophets became the first teachers.
They taught students about law, prayer and liturgy.
After the fall of the kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BC, the synagogue became an important place for people to study, and there were full-time teachers to teach law, history, literature, Hebrew and other knowledge.
In order to maintain the unity of the national spirit, the faith and piety of the Lord supreme God, the knowledge and observance of the law of Moses, the reflection and reverence of Hebrew history and great men, the observance and avoidance of “necessities” and “Taboos” in secular life, and the introduction and popularization of production skills and animal and plant knowledge are the basic contents of Jewish education.
In the family, children first receive the mother’s basic moral education.
Proverbs 1:8 says, “my son, listen to your father’s instruction and do not forsake your mother’s law.
” When the boy was a little older, his father began to teach him knowledge and some professional skills about national legends, religious beliefs and ancestral admonitions.
The Hebrew tradition of attaching importance to learning and education is an important guarantee for the full development of Jewish culture.
As a textbook, the Old Testament is an essential starting point to explore Hebrew education.
What is the relationship between the Old Testament and Hebrew education? Before the formation of written teaching materials, legends, characters, historical events, folk songs and ballads that were orally circulated in communities and families became the main content of education for each nation in ancient times.
For the Hebrew people, the Old Testament is a dead Haiwen book.
The dead sea instrument was found in a cave near hilbakulan and contains the Hebrew Holy Scripture.
The manuscript is not significantly different from the current version, but it is the earliest extant biblical document dating from the 2nd century BC.
It is not only a religious classic, but also a masterpiece of education.
The Old Testament is the legend of the Hebrew nation about the origin of the world and mankind and the formation and development of the nation, including the stories of the prophets and their thoughts on the important historical figures and events of the Hebrew nation, as well as the collection of poetry, wisdom books and drama stories.
Before the official collection became the Old Testament, these contents were first circulated orally, then there were some sporadic records, and finally in A.D. 1It was formed into Canon in the ~ 2nd century.
In the process of oral spread for more than 1000 years, the Old Testament has actually become a comprehensive textbook for the Hebrew nation on its history and culture, religious beliefs, ideas, ethics and living customs.
Although it is spread orally and does not take the form of textbooks, its all encompassing content and easy to understand description have in fact become the best textbooks for Hebrews to receive education since childhood.
The content of the Old Testament is extremely rich and can be called an encyclopedia of Hebrew culture.
The Old Testament also explores philosophical issues such as the origin of the world and the origin of mankind, the covenant between man and God, and the relationship between man and the world.
The rich poems, proverbs and wisdom stories in the Old Testament are the treasure house of Hebrew literature.
They express the rich and profound feelings and thoughts of the Hebrews and stimulate the wonderful and profound imagination and wisdom of the Hebrews.
Hebrews grew up in the atmosphere created by the Old Testament.
Even in modern times, Hebrew textbooks at all levels of education still need excerpts from the chapters of the Old Testament, just as textbooks at all levels of education in China still have excerpts from four books and five classics.
In the Old Testament, there is a special chapter “proverbs”, which tells the Hebrew proverbs and proverbs about self-cultivation, keeping a family, dealing with the world, dealing with affairs, dealing with people and self-cultivation in the tone of elders instructing their children.
It runs through the main line of advocating wisdom and Homo sapiens, “so that young people have knowledge and strategy, so that wise people can hear it, increase knowledge, and enable smart people to get wisdom”.
But to gain wisdom and knowledge, we must believe in God, because “the fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge”.
The fear of God, the performance of the law, the acquisition of wisdom and the learning of knowledge are mutually infiltrated and interdependent, and they are combined into an ideal state pursued by Judaism.
The educational function of the synagogue according to the analysis of relevant data, the earliest Hebrew school appeared in the reign of Solomon in the Hebrew kingdom.
When the Kingdom established its capital in Jerusalem, it not only built the palace, but also built the first temple.
The holy city became the political and religious center of the Hebrew nation, driving the development of various industries such as commerce and technology.
In order to cultivate urgently needed talents in religion and skills, the school of “sons of prophets” was set up.
Although the specific form of its existence cannot be determined, from the situation at that time, it is likely to be attached to the temple.
In this way, it can not only collect funds and taxes through the religious activities of the temple, but also use priests and prophets as teachers to give full play to their strengths.
They teach the students the rituals of law, prayer, reflection, meditation and sacrifice, as well as the mysteries of entering the realm of God.
Such schools later appeared in some cities outside Jerusalem to meet the needs of priests and prophets for religious activities everywhere.
When the southern state of Judah died at the iron hoof of New Babylon, the Hebrews faced the risk of interruption of tradition and national assimilation.
Fortunately, the Hebrews as prisoners did not forget the Hebrew Law and the Hebrew temple.
They created the Hebrew synagogue to replace the destroyed temple, and sorted out the five books of Moses to replace the Lost Ark of the covenant.
This was the organization form of religious activities.
In the ancient history of Judaea, it is mentioned that the synagogues in tabareth, Caesarea, dor and other places played an important role in Hebrew life around the 3rd century BC.
“Talmud” clearly states that there are 394 synagogues in the Palestinian area.
Young scholars who graduated from the schools of the temple or synagogue in Jerusalem became priests or prophets after working in local synagogues for a period of time, and taught Hebrew and Hebrew Law in the primary schools attached to these synagogues.
In the 4th century BC, under the impact of Greek culture, many Hebrews used Aramaic and even Greek and were unfamiliar with Hebrew, which brought language obstacles to learning and explaining Hebrew law.
Therefore, those who train to read and explain the law must first learn Hebrew.
Priests who explain the law in Aramaic or Greek can learn Hebrew in institutions that later develop into colleges (similar courses) and participate in the study of Hebrew law.
These institutions are usually located in halls.
In this way, the synagogue is not only the research base of Hebrew law, but also a place to learn Hebrew.
The Hebrews carried out education in the synagogue.
With the continuous improvement of Hellenization, encouraging learning Hebrew cannot compete with the popular trend of Greek.
Many Hebrews study and explain Hebrew Law in synagogues in Greek.
It is said that 72 Jewish scholars worked together to translate the Hebrew Bible into Greek, that is, the seventy sons of Greek translation, which not only met the requirements of Jews familiar with the Greek language, but also compared and integrated the concepts in Judaism with those in Greek thought, which enabled Hebrews with a high degree of Hellenization to understand and learn the laws and traditions of their ancestors.
Although it is difficult to say how many synagogues used the Greek translation of the seventy sons at that time, it is certain that the synagogue became the center of public prayer and learning of the Hebrew people.
People read, listened to and studied the Old Testament in the synagogue, which is still the main place of Hebrew education.
In the first century AD, Palestine had a network of educational institutions from primary to senior levels.
Primary education is a primary school, which can be located in or outside the hall.
It mainly teaches children the basic ability of reading and literacy.
Young people enter intermediate specialized schools to study Jewish religious literature, while young people enter high-level institutions similar to colleges.
They are often located in synagogues or presided over by priests and scholars in synagogues.
Young students study and study the law under their guidance.
In the higher education institutions run by the synagogue, a considerable number of pious Hebrews are gathered.
They abide by the Jewish faith and tradition and are called hasidians.
Later, as a sect of Judaism, the Pharisees tried their best to maintain the tradition of Hebrew law.
Because of their rich knowledge, knowledge and wisdom, their status in the synagogue continues to improve, and there is a trend to replace the hereditary priestly class.
They advocate a rational way of life and strive to inspire and guide students to live appropriately.
Some people have summarized the educational function of the synagogue: “the synagogue is a place of learning, a Jewish school, which provides education for Hebrew children and adults.
or it can be said that if the synagogue cannot be used as a formal school, it canIt is said to be the predecessor and pillar of the school.
” In modern times, the religious and educational functions of the hall have been maintained and developed, but its content and form are constantly changing.
At the same time, the cultural and even political functions of the hall are also gradually rising.
In the eyes of Hebrews, “prophet” refers to those who are appointed by God, listen to God’s revelation and convey God’s will to the people, including their ancestors Abraham, Moses and Aaron, the first chief priest.
The works centered on these prophets and describing “the revelation of God from heaven” are called prophetic books.
Important prophetic books include Josiah, judges, Samuel, kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and the twelve little prophets in one volume, which collect the words and deeds of the prophets from the 8th to 5th centuries BC.
Although each volume of prophets occupies a very important position in the Hebrew classics, and its content is mainly political comments on social problems, the expression form of the text is mainly poetry and prose, interspersed with a large number of narrative techniques such as allegorical stories and visions, which has become a unique wonderful flower in the literary Garden of the ancient world.
The prophet sent.
The painting was painted in the 15th century.
Micah is one of the 12 little prophets.
He lived in the second half of the 8th century BC and left the book of Micah.
The blending of poetic style and prose style is a major feature of Prophet writing.
In narrative and description, prose is generally used to advise people to punish evil and promote good through beautiful words and small stories with strong literary color.
When prose narration is difficult to make heart melody, and it is necessary to express the passion in their hearts, the prophets use the form of poetry to lead high pitched songs.
In the Bible Jeremiah, it is first described in prose that the prophet Jeremiah was besieged and cursed by the priests and the people of the upper class, and even severely beaten and imprisoned because he was upright and dared to tell the truth.
At this time, the soothing prose could not vent Jeremiah’s uncontrollable resentment, so it led to the following passionate poem: Lord, I announce your message, but I always attract ridicule and contempt.
But if I say, “I will no longer mention the Lord or preach in his name.
” I felt like there was a burning fire in my heart, which scorched my bone marrow and made me unable to help myself.
In the prophets, sometimes through a moral story, or a vision, the twists and turns to hint at their own ideological intention.
Hebrew literature many achievements of Hebrew literature are concentrated in the Old Testament.
From the perspective of literature, the Old Testament can be divided into myth, legend, epic, historical biography, novel, drama, religious poetry, lyric poetry, wisdom literature, prophet literature, Enlightenment Literature and other different types.
The Old Testament Literature has profound historical and traditional factors.
In the archaeological excavation and survey of the two river basins since modern times, a considerable number of place names and historical relics can be related to the contents described in the Old Testament.
People were surprised to find that God said in the Old Testament, “be numerous and fill the earth.
” There are many “historical projections” consistent with the Hebrew national history.
The Old Testament is famous for its historical truth.
It records in detail the natural system under the rule of the family father for more than 800 years, that is, the family system.
It shows the ancient Hebrew people’s historical track, religious beliefs, living customs, thoughts and emotions, intelligence, the joy of victory and the sorrow of failure in many forms such as narration, lyricism, teaching and description.
These flesh and blood plump vivid contents are missing in general historical works.
The Old Testament perfectly combines literature with religion.
In the history of the development of world civilization, the Hebrew nation is the only nation that takes its own literary and historical classics as the canon of religious belief.
The legends and myths of the Hebrew people about the creation of heaven and earth, the birth of mankind and the emergence of all things are directly related to the God in their religious belief.
The worship and piety of God have been consistent since then and continue to this day.
In history, like the Hebrew nation, there are not many people who believe in the same God from ancient times to the present.
In this sense, the Old Testament is indeed a great work that fuses ancient myths, legends, epics, novels, poetry and other literary classics with religious canons.
The ancestors of the Bible were induced to feel that the Old Testament highly combined spiritual connotation with ideological depth.
The Hebrew nation is a nation that attaches importance to religious belief, law, morality and wise thinking.
The generation of heaven and earth, the birth of mankind and the origin of all things involved in Genesis are important propositions in philosophy.
However, the Hebrew nation speaks eloquently in poetic language and story telling, without logical reasoning or abstract empty theory, but it also attracts people to such a spiritual realm to think about these metaphysical problems in the world.
In the oldest books, the Hebrew nation shows a rare piety, that is, the piety to the Supreme God.
“Poetic ethics starts from piety, which is arranged by God to create all ethnic groups, because among all ethnic groups, piety is the mother of all ethical, economic and civil virtues.
” Therefore, it is not difficult for us to understand so many legal provisions in the Old Testament, from the famous “Ten Commandments” to Moses’ three concluding speeches on the law in Deuteronomy.
These laws are so rich that the Hebrews call the first five chapters of the Old Testament the “five volumes of the law”.
Hebrew people have a special love for wisdom.
They often use aphorisms, proverbs, allegories and fables to summarize the experience, rules and norms in various fields of life, instruct people’s words and deeds and inspire people’s wisdom.
In the sense of spiritual depth and breadth, the Old Testament is a history of Hebrew thought and spiritual civilization written in literary language.
Hebrew music also records a lot about music in the Old Testament, a Hebrew Scripture, which provides us with valuable materials of ancient Hebrew music.
Hebrew music is very practical and religious.
Hebrew religious occasions are often accompanied by music, and special musicians are mostly held by Levites.
Even during Babylonian captivity, music was indispensable for religious activities in the early synagogues, and the musicians needed were still trained and selected among the Levites.
Soldiers who played or were forced to play music in Babylonian military bands.
Babylonian courtThe history of rise and fall, from the conquest of Canaan, through the era of scholars, Kingdom and division, to the destruction of Hebrew countries and the destruction of the temple.
These works record the words and achievements of Hebrew kings, prophets and heroes, so they are also called “history books”.
The third part is the “holy book” or “holy collection”, which is composed of 11 volumes, such as Psalms, proverbs, job, song of songs, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Ecclesiastes and Esther.
In the whole Hebrew Bible, this part was written at the latest, and was not finalized until about 90 A.D. They reflect the wisdom, ethics and living customs of the ancient Hebrew people.
From the perspective of literature, including the poems written by Jews from ancient times to the beginning of A.D. Fiction and intellectual literature.
Apocalyptic literature is the most dazzling and charming part of the Bible, and it is also an important part of the treasure house of world literature.
The Hebrew Bible has been translated into more than 1000 languages, which has had a great impact on the development of world civilization and the historical process.
It is a great contribution made by the Hebrew nation to all mankind.
Talmud the Hebrew Talmud appeared much later than the Bible.
Talmud is known as the “bridge between God and man”, which shows its importance.
It can be said that Talmud is another wonderful book contributed by the Hebrew to the world.
Talmud is a masterpiece that records the conversation, discussion and debate of many Hebrew sages over hundreds of years.
Its content is mainly the interpretation and commentary of “TolA”, so it is also called “Hebrew code”.
Talmud is another major classic in Judaism, second only to the Bible.
In the eyes of some devout Jews, Talmud is even more important than the Bible, which is called oral “torah”.
From the 1st century AD, people began to record and sort out the oral research, interpretation and discussion of Torah by Hebrew rabbis.
This work was not completed until the 5th century AD.
The most important compilation work was conducted by Judas Naxi Rabbi at the end of the 2nd century.
After these contents were recorded, they were sorted and classified, and finally formed Talmud.
It is not only a religious code, but also contains all aspects of Hebrew life, including religion, philosophy, medicine, history, literature, traditional customs, family and social relations.
It is like a large encyclopedia, which not only reflects the thought and life of Hebrews, but also has an extremely profound impact on later Hebrews.
Orthodox Jews believe that although Talmud is an oral law, its content is still the revelation of God.
Their explanation is that while God gave Moses the written “torah” on Mount Sinai, he also taught a large number of unwritten commandments.
These dictated admonitions go far beyond the written Torah and cover all aspects of Hebrew life.
Although these admonitions are not recorded in words, they all take “TolA” as the core.
Therefore, it is the duty of Jewish rabbis to search for these dictated laws between the lines of the written “TolA”.
Therefore, in the following hundreds of years, after the lifelong efforts of nearly 2000 scholars, through their research, interpretation, thinking, exploration, discussion and debate, this sacred Talmud was finally formed.
Therefore, it is said that Talmud is a masterpiece written by 2000 scholars in 1000 years! Talmud embodies the wisdom of the Hebrew people, because “torah” is granted by God and is sacred, unchallengeable and unchangeable.
However, Talmud is written by people.
It is the product of human reason and wisdom.
It is not a code with absolute authority, but an eclectic record of various interpretations of “TolA”, which can encourage and inspire people to judge and think.
In any case, Talmud is indeed a masterpiece that condenses the ethical and moral concepts, living standards, thinking mode and wisdom of the Hebrew nation.
It is the spiritual source of the Hebrew people for generations.