Section I establishment of Indian political system after the British colonialists transferred power, the newly established Indian government made unremitting efforts to maintain and consolidate the new political power, used and transformed the old national machine during the British rule of India, and gradually established a whole set of political system with Indian characteristics, including parliamentary democracy, civil service system Military leadership system, federal system and political party system. I. implement the Western parliamentary democratic political system.

India is the country with the earliest parliamentary democratic system among the eastern colonial countries.

In order to obstruct and divide the rising national liberation movement in India, the British bourgeoisie, which is famous for its craftiness and cunning and is good at making compromises at the right time, allowed some upper class figures of the bourgeoisie and the landlord class to participate in the political power, and transplanted the parliamentary democracy to India, the eastern territory.

Obviously, parliamentary democracy before independence was a tool of British colonial rule.

After India’s independence, the Indian bourgeoisie represented by Nehru completely accepted this existing state machine – parliamentary democracy, and constantly revised and improved it on this basis, making it a handy ruling tool of the Indian bourgeoisie.

The Indian constitution, which embodies the parliamentary democracy of India, was adopted in November 1949 and officially implemented in January 1950.

The constitution has more than 100000 words (Chinese translation), 395 articles and more than 1000 specific provisions.

Since the constitution came into force, it has been revised many times, and 46 times by 1986.

The Constitution stipulates the bourgeois parliamentary democratic state regime in the form of the fundamental law of the state, and politically determines the ruling position of the bourgeoisie in the state.

The Constitution declares that citizens have the right to equality (including non discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender and other differences, the abolition of Dalit system, etc.

), the right to freedom (freedom of speech, assembly, association, residence, migration, etc.

), the right to culture and education and the inviolability of private property.

The Constitution stipulates that all property, whether movable or immovable, including the investment of any company, commercial or industrial enterprise, shall not be occupied or purchased for public purposes.

Compensation must be given even when it is very necessary.

Although the Constitution also stipulates that the state can intervene in the economy for public welfare, it recognizes the economic system of free competition, and its purpose is undoubtedly to promote the development of capitalism.

Since the general election in 1952, India’s democratic system has not been shaken for the first time since the general election in 1952.

In 1977, the people’s party ousted the ruling Ying · from power through the election process.

In addition, at the state level, the non Congress party is constantly in power.

The most obvious example is that the Communist Party of India (Malaysia) has been in power for many times in West Bengal.

The Indian parliament is the highest legislative body of the Federation of India, divided into the federal house (upper house) and the people’s house (lower house).

The Bundestag represents all States and has about 240 members, who are elected by the State Councils and the regions directly under the central government respectively.

The term of office is six years, and 13 members are re elected every two years.

The people’s court is directly elected by voters and consists of about 540 members.

The term of office is five years, and all members are re elected at the expiration of the term.

According to the provisions of the Constitution and general practice, the main functions and powers of the Parliament are: Amending the Constitution and exercising legislative power within the scope of federal functions and powers.

Elect and impeach the president and vice president, and remove the judges, chief procurator and Auditor General of the Supreme Court and the high court.

Supervise the work of the government, and the Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister is collectively responsible to the people’s court.

Major government policies and measures must be approved by parliament.

Parliament can force the government to resign by means of budget and government bill or no confidence bill.

The Constitution stipulates that the president is the “head of state” of India and enjoys a very wide range of executive power.

But in fact, India’s highest executive organ is the Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister.

The 42nd constitutional amendment passed in 1977 clearly stipulates that “when exercising his powers, the president must act in accordance with the recommendations of the Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister.

” According to the constitution, the prime minister has the power to organize and lead the government.

All members of the Council of ministers are nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the president.

The prime minister has the right to ask the president to remove a minister at any time, or even completely restructure the government.

The Indian Council of Ministers rarely meets, and the actual supreme executive organ is the cabinet composed of the prime minister and cabinet ministers.

The general reason is that the leader of the parliamentary party group of the majority party in the people’s house is the leader.

India’s successive heads of government, from Nehru to Desai, from Ying Gandhi to La Gandhi, have won the election with the support of some large consortia.

The vast majority of cabinet members are also representatives of the bourgeoisie and landlords.

For example, among the 18 members of the seventh British Gandhi cabinet, 14 were industrial and commercial capitalists, rural capitalist landlords, rich peasants and others representing the interests of the bourgeoisie, accounting for 78%.

There is no doubt that the Indian government is just a bourgeois office. 2. Implement the political party system with the Congress party as the main body.

India is a country with many political parties, and its number can be the highest in the world.

According to the report of the Indian Election Commission, the total number of political parties in India was 192 at the first general election.

In addition, according to the estimation of Indian scholar S.N. sadasi, there were more than 200 political parties in India from 1947 to 1977.

This phenomenon of numerous political parties reflects the diversity of Indian society, economy, nationality, language, religion and local differences.

However, before the mid-1990s, the core force that dominated Indian politics and controlled the development of the political situation was the Congress party.

What we are talking about here is the situation before the eighth general election.

No political party can match it.

Since 1947, the Congress Party has been in power for more than two years (from March 1977 to January 1980).

In the eight general elections, except for the sixth general election (1977), they were dominant.

Many political parties in India can be roughly divided into two categories: one is a national political party, that is, the program and policy focus on the whole country, and its influence also spreads all over the country.

It has a certain number of seats in the Federal Parliament and is recognized by the national election commission.

Recognized national political parties in India include: Indian Congress Party (UK), Indian people’s Party (BJP), people’s Party (JP), Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India (Marxist), people’s Party of India (socialist), etc.

The other is regional political parties, that is, their programs and policies focus on a certain region, and their political influence is limited to individual states.

Such as Telugu village Party in Andhra Pradesh, TamiImportant position at level.

The highest number of Indian officers is brigadier general at brigade level, and there are only a few.

In order to change this situation, the Indian government has accelerated the process of Indian officers, that is, officers are gradually held by Indians.

In 1958, the staff of the navy was changed to Indians, and by 1961, the process of officer indosinization was basically completed.

In order to control the command power of the army, in 1948, the Indian government abolished the system that the commander-in-chief of the army administered the sea and air force, implemented the separation of the three armed forces, and the president was the supreme commander of the three armed forces.

The Military Commission of the cabinet presided over by the prime minister will exercise command over the army, and the real power is actually monopolized by the prime minister.

In order to prevent soldiers from interfering in government affairs, the Indian government has weakened the army’s certain autonomy in government decision-making by strengthening civilian management of the army.

The government stipulates that the Ministry of national defense is in the charge of civil servants, the chiefs of staff of the three armed forces are responsible to the Minister of national defense, and the finance of the army is under the direct supervision of the Ministry of finance.

In order to prevent soldiers from interfering in politics, the leaders of the Indian government also promptly changed the jobs of some prestigious senior generals who have close relations with large consortia of foreign forces.

The Indian government’s various strict preventive measures have restrained the development ambition and accumulated strength of senior officers.

In the past 40 years, the Indian army has never interfered in politics, and the political situation in India is relatively stable.

This shows that compared with some third world countries, India’s parliamentary democracy is more mature and stable.

After India’s independence, various armies of British India (in addition to the regular army, local army, Turkish state armed forces, etc.

) were integrated into the regular army (excluding the local armed police).

The number of Indian troops increased from 275000 during the partition of India and Pakistan to 1.

26 million in the early 1980s.

Defense expenditure increased from 1.

64 billion rupees in 1950-1951 to 125 billion rupees in 1986.

The military industry has become the second largest public industrial sector after the steel industry.

India has more than 50 arms factories, with more than 300000 people directly engaged in military production.

India can produce all its own light weapons and develop some sophisticated weapons.

Since the 1980s, the weapons and equipment of India’s three armed forces have been updated twice.

The Indian army has more than 2100 tanks, ranking third in the world.

Nearly 1000 combat aircraft, ranking fifth in the world.

There are more than 150 ships of various types, ranking eighth in the world.

It has two aircraft carriers (the only country in the industry that has an aircraft carrier).

A nuclear weapon test was conducted in 1974.

This shows that significant changes have taken place in the construction of the Indian army. V. before independence, the British colonists implemented the “divide and rule” policy in India, which turned India into a fragmented country, divided Indians into British India and 560 States, divided nationalities of different languages into one state, and divided nationalities of the same language into several states.

Therefore, the contradictions between places and between nations are extremely acute.

After India’s independence, its government adopted a series of reform measures in dealing with issues such as nationality, language and land state.

From 1948 to 1950, the Indian government merged the states through high price ransom and military coercion, and unified the grass-roots regime.

After 1956, the new provincial state system was implemented, which was basically divided into states by language.

By the mid-1980s, it had been divided into more than 20 states, which partially solved the contradictions between the central and local governments, nationalities and languages.

The state structure is federal.