Section I status of India in the world 1.

Ancient India is one of the four ancient civilizations in the world and one of the four cultural systems in the world. Mr. Ji Xianlin, a famous scholar in China, once merged human history and culture into four cultural systems, namely Persian, Arab Islamic cultural system, European cultural system, Chinese cultural system and Indian cultural system.

It belongs to the same type of Indian culture system.

The two have common characteristics.

First, it has a long history.

When the cultures of many other nations in the world were still in their infancy, their ancient culture had reached a fairly high level.

Secondly, their culture has continuity and stability.

Although India has been conquered and ruled by foreign nations for a long time in its history, with ups and downs and changes, its cultural tradition and cultural heritage are continuous and uninterrupted.

It has been maintained so far and has been shining brightly in the east of the world.

Ancient India made outstanding contributions to mankind in many aspects.

(1) one of the earliest birthplaces of world civilization.

According to various historical data, ancient India is one of the birthplaces of primitive mankind.

There were people in India about 2-3 million years ago.

Paleolithic and Neolithic sites have been found in central and southwestern India, some of which have a history of more than 500000 years.

In addition, according to textual research, as early as the middle of the 3000 BC to the early 2000 BC, the Indian civilization in the Indus River Basin and the Chinese civilization in the Yellow River Basin have been formed, which constitute the oldest and most important civilization achievements in the world.

The ancient civilizations of India and China were earlier than those of ancient Greece and Rome.

Indus River Basin civilization starts from the upper reaches of satroleji River in the north, Cambay Bay in the south, Arabian Sea in the West and the intersection of Ganges Jumna River in the East.

More than 100 Urban and rural sites have been found in this vast area, the most important of which are haraba and Mohan shudaru.

Their achievements are highlighted in urban architecture.

Their urban scale, architectural skills and careful design of sewer system “have reached a highly perfect state”.

These relics convincingly show that “there were huge, prosperous and populous cities” here, and the degree of this civilization “was not found anywhere else in the ancient world”.

India had such an architectural civilization 5000 years ago, which can be called a great miracle of mankind.

(2) the world’s treasure house of literature and art.

The most dazzling achievements of ancient Indian civilization belong to Literature and art, especially epic and plastic arts.

The two epics Mahabharata and Ramayana that appeared in India around AD are numerous literary and historical masterpieces, and their length is far longer than Homer’s epic.

Mahabharata is seven times the total length of Homer’s epic.

The book, with a number of 100000 ode and 400000 lines, is by far the longest epic in the world.

These two great epics have a great impact on Asian countries, especially in Southeast Asia.

It spread to Europe in the 19th century.

In 1986, France also put Mahabharata on the stage, which caused a sensation in Paris and European theaters. Mr. Zhang once spoke highly of them, calling them “magnificent and fragrant” and “wonderful”.

The famous folk literature works in medieval times are five volumes of books, Jiayan collection and Buddha’s book of life.

They have been translated into many languages and spread all over the world.

According to the statistics in 1914, the five volume book alone has been translated into 15 Indian languages, 15 blue continent languages, 2 African languages and 22 European languages, including more than a dozen versions in English, German and French.

The world famous works tianfangyetan, Decameron, fairy tales and China’s Taiping Guangji and the donkey of Guizhou all have the stories of five volumes. Mr. Lu Xun commented that the wealth of Tianzhu fables, such as Dalin deep spring and the literature and art of other countries, are often affected.

Indian drama is the most beautiful and highly praised.

In the European literary world, especially in Germany, it has been highly praised.

The great poets Hurd, and Schiller all spoke highly of it.

Goethe said, “in the name of the king, shakundara has everything in it.

” His “stage prelude” was inspired and influenced by the play “sand”.

The play was staged almost all over the world.

In terms of plastic arts and architecture, India has many eternal masterpieces.

Asoka stone carving, as a symbol of the national emblem of contemporary India, has won the highest praise from artists all over the world. 5. Dr. A. Smith commented: “it is difficult to find more exquisite works of art than this in animal sculpture in any country, even if it is a work of equal value.”. The art of Ajanta grottoes and kethara excavated around AD has reached a high artistic level, which has been amazed by artists from all over the world.

In particular, it is worth mentioning that the architecture and sculpture art of China and Southeast Asian countries are deeply influenced by it, and the imprint of Indian art can be seen everywhere.

The Taj Mahal, a masterpiece of the Mughal Dynasty in the 17th century, is known as “a great creation in the history of world architectural art” and “one of the seven wonders of the world”.

(3) India, the holy land of world religions, has the largest number of religions in the world.

There have been at least seven religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism and Sikhism) since the beginning, which is known as the “Museum of World Religions”.

India accounts for four of the world’s top ten religions: Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism.

Besides the late formation of Sikhism, the history of Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism can be said to have originated and formed earlier than other major religions in the world.

Brahmanism, the predecessor of Hinduism, was born in 2000 ~ 1500 BC.

Buddhism originated from the 6th century BC to the 5th century BC, and Jainism and Buddhism rose at the same time.

In contrast, Christianity and Judaism were born in the 1st ~ 2nd century, and Islam was born in the 7th century.

Only Zoroastrianism (Zoroastrianism) originated in the 7th to 6th centuries BC.

Buddhism, one of the three major religions in the world, has the greatest influence on the world.

It has become the main religion in the eastern world of Asia, Some people call it “Asian religion”.

According to the statistics of Encyclopedia Britannica Yearbook in 1980, there are 254 million Buddhists in the world.

According to the statistics of the world Buddhist Association in 1956, there are 550 million Buddhists in the world.

According to the statistics of lion roar magazine, there are 600 million Buddhists in the world.

Buddhism has been introduced into China since the first century BC.

Groups of Chinese monks have traveled mountains and rivers and gone through hardships to the “western sky” to learn Scriptures for thousands of yearsThousands of Buddhist classics were transported from India to China.

After it was introduced into China, it has been combined with China’s inherent traditional ideology and has constantly changed and developed into a religion with Chinese characteristics.

Its influence permeates all fields of superstructure, including philosophy, literature, language, music, sculpture, architecture, customs, habits and so on.

Even some famous thinkers in modern times, Liang Qichao, Tan Sitong and Zhang Taiyan used some theories in Buddhism as their ideological weapons for reform and revolutionary struggle.

Buddhism spread to Korea through China in the 4th century and then to Japan through Korea in the 6th century.

Buddhism has become the main religion of the two countries, “And” has shaped the civilizations of the two countries in the past 1500 years “From about the 1st to 5th centuries, Buddhism spread to all parts of Southeast Asia.

According to research, in the 1st century, Indian businessmen migrated to all parts of Southeast Asia by sea and land.

While doing business, they brought Indian religion, especially Buddhism, here, and gradually established Indian colonial strongholds and Indian religious Kingdoms in many areas, especially in Java, Cambodia, Vietnam and other places.

” Established an Indian or Hindu Dynasty, adopted ancient Sanskrit as the language of religion and court, and set Buddhism and Brahmanism as the state religion.

More than 1000 Brahmans from India stayed in the country (referring to Funan, now Vietnam – the author).

People believed in their teachings, married their daughters to them and recited their holy books day and night.

“Some Indian and Western scholars describe these southeast blue areas once controlled and influenced by Indians as vast” the Great Indian Empire is not necessarily appropriate, but it is an undeniable fact that these areas are deeply influenced by Indian religions, especially Buddhism and Hinduism.

Indian historians believe that India’s religion, culture, law and politics have shaped the life of primitive races in this vast region.

They gained a more noble moral spirit and ideological interest through Indian religion, art and literature.

(4) world transportation hub ancient India is the general name of today’s South Asian subcontinent, including today’s South Asian countries.

It is bounded by the Himalayas in the north, the Indian Ocean in the south, the Arabian Sea in the west, the bay of Bengal in the East, wide in the north and narrow in the south.

It is perpendicular to the center of the ocean.

Its strategic position is extremely important.

Before the invasion of modern Europe and the discovery of the new American continent, India had always been in a dominant position in the Indian Ocean, controlling most of the shipping in the Indian Ocean.

Historically, the economic, trade and cultural exchanges between the East and the West were largely transported by India.

It has become the main hub of the Silk Road and maritime transportation between the East and the West.

It is the country with the busiest and most active transportation among the four ancient civilizations.

The sea route passes through the ports of Bangladesh, Gujarat and South India, east to Southeast Asia and China, West to Persia, West Asia, Arabia, Egypt, East Africa and countries along the Mediterranean.

The land route passes through Khyber Pass, Bolang pass and karakuncang pass from the northwest to Central Asia, West Asia and China.

According to research, when the urban civilization in the Indus River Basin rose from 2000 to 3000 BC, India had frequent trade exchanges with the East and the West.

Mohan shudaru and Lothar are ports for foreign trade.

The former can lead to the Arab seaport, the south of Balochistan and the Polish mountain pass.

The latter is the oldest seaport in the world, with solid brick docks and canals leading to Cambay Bay and the Arabian Sea.

During the Peacock Dynasty in the 4th century BC, maritime trade further developed.

Broch on the west coast of India has trade with the Gulf region, West Asia and Egypt.

Tamaridi on the east coast has trade with Myanmar, Ceylon and China.

According to research, at this time, Chinese silk and other Chinese products were imported into India through the ancient roads of Sichuan, Yunnan, Myanmar and India or the maritime Silk Road.

From the 1st to the 4th century, with the development of commodity economy, India’s trade with the East and the West was further strengthened.

During the Fuduo Dynasty, the trade between India and the Byzantine Empire, Greece, Egypt and the Arab world was very prosperous.

From the 6th to 7th century AD, during the jieri Dynasty, tamaridi has become the hub of maritime trade in the eastern coast, Southeast Asia and China.

Varakun, a coastal port in the west, is well-known for its prosperous foreign trade.

“People who live in prosperity, have rich families and accumulate tens of billions of dollars have more than 100 rooms.

There are many strange goods in the distance.”. The transferred out commodities are mainly fine cotton, spices, indigo, jewelry, ivory, grain and oil, and the imported commodities are military horses, gold, copper and Chinese porcelain.

From the 13th to the 16th century, India’s commodity economy and foreign trade reached the peak.

Large caravans and fleets travel to and from major ports in India, such as Chittagong in Bangladesh, suzat in Gujarat, buvinci and Cambay.

They have close contacts with the Middle East, East Africa, Gulf region, Western Europe, Southeast Asia, China and Japan.

Different from the past, western countries, especially the Netherlands, Spain, Britain and France, began to communicate with India, and trade with China, Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia through India.

(5) when the world’s rich country mentions India, people often associate poverty and backwardness with it.

In fact, this is a great misunderstanding.

Poverty and backwardness only represent India in the modern colonial period.

In ancient history, India was famous for its rich country.

There are many reasons why India has been repeatedly invaded by foreigners in history, but its prosperity is inseparable.

All the invaders gave birth to three feet for their rich products.

The nomads in Central Asia took it as the main target of plundering and conquering in the south, and became the main place for the Western European powers to compete and compete in modern times.

In their mind, India is synonymous with wealth.

In the view of Westerners at that time, India was the whole Far East, China was located on the Indian mainland, and Japan was an island in the Indian Ocean.

When Columbus arrived in the American continent, he mistook these places for India, so he called the local residents “Indians” and the islands in the east of America “Indies”.

This great historical misunderstanding is enough to explain the unusual position of India in the eyes of the world at that time.

Indian cotton fabric has been well-known in the world in ancient times and is known as the hometown of the world’s cotton fabric.

In his travels, Marco Polo praised the exquisite quality and variety of Indian fine cotton.

Ma Huan, who had been to India with her voyages to the west, also praised the delicacy of his fine cotton cloth, fine Luosha and silk fabrics in his “view of the world”.

In the 14th century, Wang Dayuan, a Chinese navigator in the Yuan Dynasty, found that residents generally wore cotton fabrics produced in South India and cotton fabrics from Bangladesh in Somalia and Kenya in East Africa.

As a large number of high-quality cotton fabrics from India sell well in the European market, European businessmen are forced not to buy themDo not transport a large number of precious metals such as gold and silver to buy this “wonderful textile”.

In the long run, almost everyone in India has gold and silver ornaments.

“Even those who are almost naked in the lowest level usually wear a pair of gold earrings.

It is also common to wear gold ornaments around their necks and rings on their fingers and toes.

Women and children often wear heavy gold and silver arms and anklets, and gold and silver statues can be seen in common families.

” Before the British invasion, “India’s economic development has also been in the forefront of the world”.

The scale of Delhi, Agra, Lahore, Surat, Ahmedabad and other cities in India can be compared with the largest cities in the world at that time.

In 1660, French traveler pernier visited Bangladesh.

“What I have learned from my two trips to Bangladesh leads me to believe that it is richer than Egypt,” he commented “Bangladesh is the most familiar of all the kingdoms of the Mughal Empire in France,” wrote a former w.

ranzeb official in his memoir.

“The wealth shipped from there to Europe is proof of its abundance.

We dare say that it is no weaker than Egypt in any way, and its silk, cotton, granulated sugar and n-blue are even better than Egypt.

” Not only does it surpass Egypt in some aspects, but its industrial development is not inferior to that of western countries.

A British report admitted: “when there were still uncivilized tribes in Western Europe, the birthplace of the modern industrial system, India was already famous for the wealth of its rulers and the advanced craftsmanship of its craftsmen.

Even later, when Western businessmen and adventurers first appeared in India, the country’s industrial development was no less than that of the more advanced European countries.” 2. In modern times, due to the invasion of colonial powers, especially the occupation and crazy plunder of British colonialism, this ancient civilized country has changed from a rich country and an advanced country to a poor country and a backward country.

It has spent two centuries in humiliation in the world.

However, even so, India still has a position and role that can not be ignored in the world.

(1) the brightest jewel on the crown of the queen of England in modern times, Britain was known as the “empire of the never setting sun”.

In its heyday, colonies spread over five continents, covering a total area of 3350 square kilometers, which is more than 130 times that of its native land.

The total population of the colony is 500 million, which is 25 times that of its own country.

Among these many colonies, only India has the largest population and area.

Its area is 15 times that of the British islands and 20 times that of Great Britain.

According to the 1941 national survey, India’s population is 389 million, accounting for 34 of the total population of the British Empire, 45 of the overseas population of the British Empire, and nearly 910 of the population of its colonies.

According to statistics, India’s population under British rule accounts for more than half of the world’s total colonial population, more than double that of France, Japan, the Netherlands, the United States, Belgium, Italy, Portugal and other countries.

It is the largest and oldest of the colonies, so “it is the most complete expression of the role and results of colonialism”.

India has always been regarded as the hub of the British Empire and a huge pearl on the head of the queen of England.

Kosson, a former governor of Indian colonial government, wrote in 1894: “It is a great undertaking to conquer and rule India, which makes Britain respected by the public opinion all over the world.

Therefore, the prestige and wealth it obtains from the status of Asia are the cornerstone of the British Empire.

There, in the middle of the ancient Asian continent, it occupies the throne that will always rule the East.

Its power expands on land and sea.

‘it holds a three pointed fork like God.

it wears a three pointed fork like King Crown.

” Kosson later added that India is the hub of Britain.

If the Empire loses other dominions, it can survive, but if it loses India, the Empire will be at its end.

Since the praxi war in 1757, the influx of Indian wealth into Britain has greatly accelerated a large number of technological innovation and provided strong material conditions for technological innovation.

Without India’s sudden increase in wealth, the British Industrial Revolution would be unlikely.

“Since the beginning of the world, perhaps no investment has produced such profits as those obtained from the plunder of India, because Britain has been obsessed with itself for 50 years.

From 1694 to the battle of praxi, the development was relatively slow.

From 1760 to 1815, the development was extremely rapid and shocking.

” After Britain entered the imperialist stage, India, as the cornerstone of the British colonial system, naturally became an important place for British capital export, and almost monopolized the world market by relying on India.

British capital is permeated with the blood and sweat of the Indian people from head to toe.

India is the source of modern British capital.

The history of British prosperity is a bloody history of aggression, plunder and exploitation of India.

India is also the main base and springboard for Britain to expand and dominate the world.

With India as its strategic command center, it continues to expand its empire around the vast Indian Ocean.

India has provided Britain with inexhaustible financial and military resources for countless overseas wars and expeditions.

In 1879 alone, the war between Britain and Afghanistan exhausted £ 20 million of India’s Treasury, which was almost more than India could afford.

Destructed opium from China during the two Opium War, and Britain was based on India, and it gained more than 74 thousand boxes per year in 1854~1859 years, and gained huge profits.

On the other hand, Yi recruited soldiers from India to fight in China and serve as cannon fodder for invading China.

In the so-called “victorious army” organized by the British colonists, most of them are Indian soldiers.

According to statistics, there are 1490 people, while the British only have 907 people.

In addition, based in northern and northwestern India, Britain coveted the territory of mainland China in an attempt to annex Tibet.