Sculpture in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Europe in the 17th century experienced a large-scale religious reform movement, which greatly hit the rule of the Holy See.

under these circumstances.

Facing the decline, the attitude of the Roman Church towards art changed, and they became the protectors of art together with the Roman nobility.

Pope Sixtus V made a fundamental transformation of the Roman city, built a large number of new churches, and installed fountains in many places.

Sixtus V’s plan was magnificent.

He convened many famous European architects, sculptors and painters to Rome.

In this situation, sculpture art has made great progress, and Baroque sculpture also sprouts.

G, l, Bernini (1598-1680) is an artist who made special contributions to Italian Baroque sculpture and architecture.

Benini’s sculpture absorbs many painting skills and emphasizes passion and movement.

He is good at expressing the feelings of characters in dramatic plots.

Pursue passionate and beautiful modeling posture.

He boasted of combining Michelangelo’s modeling style with Titian’s painting style in his art.

He is good at using the dynamic effect caused by the strong alternating light on the convex and concave surfaces, and is good at using luxurious materials and props, plus decorative background.

Increase the appeal of sculpture.

Benini’s creation also has many contradictory factors.

In some of his elaborate portrait carvings, he pays attention to delicate psychological depiction and has a realistic creative tendency.

He worships the distinct, magnificent and simple forms of classical art.

But in his own works, he tried his best to pursue the beauty of emotion appreciated by others.

His works have shocking expressiveness and show a high degree of skill in formal processing.

He was good at combining bold and vivid rhythm with realistic attitude, and established the norms of Baroque style.

It can be said that benini was the master of Italian sculpture in the 17th century.

His sculpture style affected the whole of Italy and European countries.

Benini has never stopped his drama creation all his life.

He personally designed the stage set and showed a special spirit of invention and creation in creating complex facilities, ensuring unprecedented dramatic effects.

Benini’s father was a sculptor, and benini was a precocious genius.

He made a child’s head at the age of 8 and a bust for Archbishop sadoni at the age of 17.

In 1619, he wrote David (some people think it was written in 1623).

Benini’s David is not a young hero, but an ordinary man.

Benini chose the scene where David picked up the catapult and hit Goliath.

The stone on the string in his hand was about to shoot out, and his whole body was full of angry power.

Standing in front of this sculpture, people can’t help feeling that they want to avoid the stone that David is about to shoot.

This sculpture shows benini’s great interest in representing the whirlwind movement and fury of the human body.

Movement is the soul of Baroque.

Benini’s sculptures are always in fierce motion.

The marble seemed to lose weight in his hand.

Puluton’s plunder of Persephone (1621-1622) is benini’s early masterpiece.

This sculpture, 243.

8 cm high, is based on Greek mythology.

It describes the situation that the king of the underworld robbed a girl for a fierce struggle after the underworld.

Pluto crazily picked up Persephone, and the girl struggled and cried sadly.

The sculptures are full of horror, pain and sadness.

Violent looting and struggling to form a strong contrast, full of touching drama.

The sculptor’s idea is unrestrained, and the momentum of the two characters is full of external tension, which strengthens the momentum of the work.

The group sculpture Apollo and Daphne (1622-1625, now collected in the polgai Art Museum in Rome) is one of benini’s most famous works.

This marble carving is 243cm high and shows the story of Apollo courting Daphne, the daughter of the river god, in Roman mythology.

Apollo was about to catch up with Daphne.

In a moment, the frightened girl asked her father for help, and the river God turned her into a laurel tree.

Benini used dramatic techniques to subtly depict the sadness and suppression of Daphne’s instantaneous transformation into a tree.

The attraction of this sculpture is that benini uses his outstanding skills to show the magical scene of Daphne’s beautiful body turning into a laurel tree.

In the composition of the sculpture, the arms of the two people are extended into a diagonal line to form the momentum of running and coordinate with the movements of their feet.

The beautiful curves of their bodies are also fully expressed through the dynamics of their posture.

The bodies of Apollo and Daphne are light, beautiful, delicate and smooth.

After the completion of benini’s work, it caused a sensation in Rome.

People praised it not only for its classicism and elegance, but also for its sense of movement and passion of Baroque art.

In 1623, the new Pope Urban VIII ascended the throne.

As soon as he ascended the throne, the Pope asked benini to build a mausoleum for him.

Benini spent a lot of effort on building the sculptures in the mausoleum, but the result was not very successful, because he was too elaborate on the image of the Pope.

Although he was richly dressed, he lacked vitality.

Between 1623 and 1633, benini also made a bronze canopy for St.

Peter’s Cathedral.

The 28 meter high canopy is composed of four decorative spiral columns supporting a gorgeous roof.

There is a scroll pattern on the top and a ball with a cross.

It is used to symbolize the supremacy of the church and rule everything.

There are also statues of angels on the four corners.

They protect the canopy, and the image is very vivid.

The altar of Santa Claus marks the peak of benini’s sculpture art.

Teresa was a nun in Spain in the 16th century.

She fell ill from childhood.

There are many wonderful hallucinations when you get sick.

See miracles.

Later, she went into seclusion and recorded her hallucinations in the form of notes.

In the 17th century, the church used Teresa’s illusion to promote religious mysticism.

And made Teresa a saint and called her Saint Teresa.

Benini’s statue shows St.

Teresa in an illusion: an angel sent by God shoots a golden arrow into Teresa’s chest.

The golden arrow seems to penetrate Teresa’s heart and make her feel painful and sweet.

The saint created by benini slept half reclining on a cloud, and the naughty little angel shot at the sleeping saint with an arrow.

Temosha’s head leaned back feebly.

She was in a coma.

Her eyes were slightly closed, and her half open mouth seemed to be moaning.

Her image made herPunishment (1603), conception without dirt (1630), etc.

A, Cano (1601-1667), a student of montanes, was a famous sculptor in Granada in the south, as well as a painter and architect.

Kano’s style is close to his teacher.

He once participated in the construction of Granada church.

The statue of the Virgin (1660) for the church is his masterpiece handed down from generation to generation.

Canodon’s representative works include the statue of the Apostle Paul (1658-1660) and the bust of Adam and Eve (1658-1660).

Wood carvings of the altar of the Church of Notre Dame in lebruch, etc.

Bi MENA (1628-1688), a famous sculptor in Granada in the second half of the 17th century, was a student of Kano.

However, MENA’s style is different from Cano’s.

his characters are concise and general, without cumbersome details, classical and full of serious power.

But his later works gradually added the color of religious asceticism.

Mena’s representative works include St.

Francis (1663), the virgin of Malaga (1664) and the virgin of mourning (1676).

At the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century, the humanistic thought of Spain gradually faded, and the religious color became increasingly strong.

The altar carving and shelf carving in the church competed to attract the audience with ingenuity and renovation.

The artistry was not strong, and the carving art gradually began to decline.

Jose de Mora (1642-1724) is the successor of Cano.

His colored wood carving martyr Peter shows the image of Peter suffering with red blood on his head in a naturalistic way.

In Spain in the 18th century, a group of sculptors active in Madrid were more representative.

Sculptors at the Madrid Academy of fine arts and the court were not interested in traditional Spanish forms of sculpture, but were willing to accept Italian classicism and Baroque sculpture art and French Rococo sculpture style.

At that time, almost every famous sculptor studied in Italy and carefully studied the classical sculpture and Baroque sculpture art there.

Therefore, Spanish sculpture in this period produced an active new situation on the basis of actively absorbing new foreign artistic influence, breaking the absolute dominance of traditional wood carving.

Francesco caceron (1707-1783) is one of the representatives of Spanish sculpture in the 18th century.

He has a deep understanding of French classical sculpture and pursues a dramatic effect in his works.

His wood carving the last supper has many characters.

Each character is life size, and Christ and his disciples sit at a real table.

The works of Hu bascuvier Myra (1707-1784) also show the profound influence of French sculpture on him.

His “leibuqiao fountain sculpture” was a famous sculpture in Madrid at that time.

In addition, the sculptor Manuel albales (1727-1797) and the sculptor Francesca couteres (1727-1782) created two of the best sculptures in Madrid – Apollo fountain sculpture and sibelis fountain sculpture, both of which have obvious characteristics of classical art.

The above three fountain sculptures are representative works of Spanish sculpture in the 18th century.