the development of Indian language has experienced a long process.
It is closely related to the invasion, mixing, assimilation and decomposition of races and nationalities, and has the same complexity.
As a multilingual country, India has 179 languages and 544 dialects according to the statistics made by the famous British linguist George Abrahan Gleason in his book an overview of Indian languages in 1928.
In the 1961 census, 1652 languages in India were registered as their mother tongue.
It includes not only national and regional official languages, but also a large number of dialects and local languages, including languages of various castes and tribes, as well as foreign languages, including languages used by hundreds of millions of people, as well as languages used by only thousands or even hundreds of people.
These languages have many similarities or similarities with each other in terms of basic elements such as pronunciation, vocabulary, grammatical structure and writing style.
In the census, due to the lack of a strict and scientific definition of language, too much emphasis on the subjective intention of the respondents, and the lack of induction and systematization of various languages, there are too many kinds of languages, without a clue, emphasizing their independence and ignoring the internal relationship between each other.
In fact, according to scientific classification, we can sort out the historical, ethnic and religious context of Indian language.
Nehru said as early as 1936: “the saying that there are hundreds of languages in India is a special e favorite topic of our critics, and they often know little about any language.
In fact, India is extremely careful in language, and many dialects have been developed only due to the lack of universal education.
” Later, he emphasized this view again in his book the discovery of India.
He said: “It is said that there are five hundred or more languages in India, which are only the words that are invented by linguists.
The registered residence investigators used it as an independent language to register every change in dialect, and each dialect in the mountains of the border area between Bangladesh and Burma.
” As for the classification of Indian languages, the Encyclopedia Britannica believes that in a broad sense, they can be divided into four language families, namely, darovitan language family, Indian Iranian language family (Aryan language family), South Asian language family and Sino Tibetan language family.
According to the 1961 census data, kruyev, a South Asian linguist of the Soviet Union, divided the twenty-four basic languages of India with a population of more than one million into three categories: South Asian language family, darovitea language family and Indo European language family.
He didn’t discuss the Sino Tibetan language family in detail because he lived in the northeast and belonged to the Sino Tibetan language family with a small number of Nationalities (tribes).
The South Asian language family was originally the language system used by the peoples who settled in the South and southeast of Asia in prehistoric times.
In ancient India, the South Asian language family was once popular in a large area.
It is one of the oldest languages in India.
After the Aryans entered, the original South Asian languages were mixed with them, and most of them changed to Aryan.
The South Asian language family gradually declined in India, and only some tribes retained the basic elements of this language family.
In addition, according to research, many place names in India come from the South Asian language family.
The Monda language family of South Asian language family (also known as KOL language family) is mainly popular in eastern and central parts of India.
The people who speak this language include KOL, Monda, bir, Santar, kolku, Kariya, Kho, bumiji, Birol and kolwa.
The Savara and gadaba languages are spoken in parts of Orissa and Bihar.
The mon Khmer language group is popular in some tribes in the northeast, such as Kasi, jaintia and so on.
At present, there are more than 8 million people using various languages of the South Asian language family, accounting for 1.
3% of the total population of India.
The darovitan language family is also one of the oldest major languages in the Indian subcontinent.
According to research, it is related to the Caucasian language and Sumerian language.
It once coexisted with the South Asian language family and is widely used in the central, Western and northern regions.
Later, the Dravidian people were conquered by the Aryans and lived in the south, and the area where the Dravidian language was spoken was reduced.
This pattern continued until modern times.
At present, the main coverage of the darovitan language family is Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra in southern India, accounting for about 22% of the total area of India.
The main languages belonging to this language family are Tamil, Malayalam, kanada and Telugu.
In addition, Gongde, which is commonly used in parts of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, olang (KURUK), Kui (Kande) and parji koranil, which are commonly used in some parts of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal, also belong to the darovitan language family.
It is estimated that about 25% of India’s total population uses Dharma PIDA.
Indo European language family (or Indian Iranian language family and Indian Aryan language family) is a language system brought about by Aryans entering India.
Aryans not only brought new ethnic elements, but also pushed European languages to the East and formed a new language family.
Around 2000 BC, the Aryans occupied most of India.
The original darapitam and indigenous people either gradually integrated with it, or were forced to move south, or retreated to deep mountains and dense forests.
Aryans have gradually become the main residents of the vast area north of the Deccan Plateau.
Various Indo European languages have developed rapidly and gradually become the main communication tool in this area.
At present, Indian languages belonging to Indo European language family include Sanskrit, Hindi, yugala, Marathi, Urdu, Gujarat, Bihar, Oriya, Rajasthan, Punjabi, Assam, togra, Kashmir, pahar, Sindh, Konkani, Nepali, etc.
The areas covered by these languages include Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam and Kashmir, accounting for about 75% of the total area of India.
Only Urdu and Konkani are spoken in some parts of the southern states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
It is estimated that about 72% of India’s population uses various languages of Indo European Indian language family.
The Sino Tibetan language family is distributed in the northeastAnd the language system of many ethnic groups (tribes) in the north.
According to research, these ethnic groups (tribes) entered today’s India in the mid-10th century BC, and also brought their language and culture.
They are mainly distributed in areas bordering Myanmar, China and Bangladesh, including Naga, Mizoram, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Assam and Himachal Pradesh, as well as other Himalayan foothills.
Its language is divided into Thai language family and Tibetan Burmese language family.
The dialects include Kuki chin language, Naga Bodo language, mikir language, apor Miri language, aka language, dafra language, Manipur language (Matai language), niwar language, Lepcha language, etc.
Mizo, Naga, Kuki, Garo, apor, Miri, Mismi, kachari, METI, etc.
all belong to this language family.
These ethnic groups (tribes) are economically backward and have a small number, totaling about 6 million, less than 1% of India’s total population.
In view of the complex variety and large number of Indian languages, and no one has developed into a national common language, the Indian government has determined Hindi as the national language and recognized another 14 languages as the official languages of the States concerned.
The 14 languages are Assam, Bengali, Gujarat, kanada, Kashmir, Malayalam, maladi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and Sanskrit.
The following is a brief introduction to the above 15 main languages one by one: (1) Hindi.
It is a branch of Indo European Indian language family.
It belongs to Hindustan (Hindustan) together with Urdu.
Hindi is based on the Western dialect kripoli, and there are other dialects such as kanouji, Bengali, brajibasa and awadi.
The characters are written in Tiancheng script from left to right.
Hindi is deeply influenced by Sanskrit, and its vocabulary mostly comes from Sanskrit, but most of the inflectional changes of Sanskrit disappear, and the function of postpositive word expression case.
Nouns are only feminine and masculine, not neutral.
Only the present tense and future tense declarative forms retain the change rules, and the other structures are based on word segmentation.
Hindi is spoken in central and northwest India, with a population of more than 162 million (1971), accounting for 29.
67% of the total population, ranking first, of which 50% is in Uttar Pradesh, 17% in Madhya Pradesh, 16% in Bihar and 9% in Punjab.
It is the Eastern Branch of Indo European Indian language family, which is popular in West Bengal and Bengal.
Bengali evolved from Capricorn and became perfect in the 15th-16th century.
Compared with other Indian languages, Bengali is closer to Sanskrit.
Its characters adopt the national letters of Sanskrit Tiancheng variant, and many words are directly derived from Sanskrit.
The language is pleasant to the ear, and the grammar is complex and tortuous.
Nouns and pronouns have 4-6 cases, indicating rational and irrational people or things.
The singular verb is only used for what the speaker is familiar with or despises, while the third person is used for irrational things.
In India, 44.
79 million people use this language (1971), accounting for 8.
17% of the total population, ranking second, of which 87% live in West Bengal and 6% in Assam.
Bengali is the official language of West Bengal.
It belongs to the darovitan language family.
According to the research, it is a mixture of Prakrit words brought by Buddhism and Puna to South India and Tamil, but it is deeply influenced by Sanskrit, and more than 80% of the words come from Sanskrit.
Telugu language was formed in the 5th to 7th century, and literary works were published in the 11th century.
This language is closely related to kanada language.
The two languages are similar and adopt Tiancheng style.
There are several regional and social dialects (Brahman dialect, non Brahman dialect, Dalit dialect, etc.
), including classical Chinese and spoken Chinese.
Telugu has a group of curly consonants with pleasant pronunciation.
It is known as Oriental Italian.
Suffixes are used to represent grammatical categories such as person, tense, number and case.
Telugu is the third largest language in India, with a population of 44.
75 million, accounting for 8.
17% of the total population, including 82% in Andhra Pradesh, 9% in Tamil Nadu and 5% in Karnataka.
It is the official language of Andhra Pradesh.
It belongs to the Indo European Indian language family.
It is said that it is an independent language gradually formed after the Sanskrit of praglit.
It is also influenced by darovitea.
It takes the language of Puna as the standard language, including kankani, birbi and other dialects.
The age of its formation remains to be studied.
Some say it was in the 7th to 8th century and some say it was in the 9th to 11th century, but there is no doubt that its literature developed in the 12th century.
Like Hindi, most of the changes of “case” in Marathi disappear, and the indirect “case” form of postposition is used to replace the original inflection function.
In writing, Tiancheng script is used for printing, and Tiancheng script, cursive script and modi script are also used for handwriting.
Marathi is one of the larger languages in India, with a population of about 42.
25 million (1971), accounting for 7.
71% of the country’s total population, ranking fourth, of which 91% live in Maharashtra state, which is the official language of the state.
It belongs to the Tamil KURUK language family of the darovitan language family.
Its name may be derived from the damira tribe in prehistoric times.
It is the oldest language in the darovitan language family and one of the oldest languages in the world.
Its literary works have a history of 2300 years.
There are regional dialects and social dialects, classical Chinese and oral Chinese.
Its letters originated from the ancient Indian Borneo.
Modern Tamil uses two languages: the Granta letter and the vatilutu letter (in a circle).
The pronunciation is also very unique.
Like other Dharma PIDA languages, there is a group of curling consonants.
Grammatically, suffixes are used to represent the categories of person, tense, number and case.
Tamil language is the official language of Tamil Nadu and one of the main languages of India.
Its population is about 37.
69 million (1971), accounting for 6.
88% of the total population in China, ranking the fifth, of which 93% are concentrated in Tamil Nadu.
Many people in other Indian states and Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Myanmar and other countries also speak Tamil language.
It belongs to the Indo European Indian language family and is called Hindustan (Hindustan) together with Hindi.
Documents have appeared in the 11th century.
The characters are mostly Arabic letters, written from right to left.
Many words come from Arabic and Persian.
Noun onlyThe nominative case and the indirect case are two cases, which are formed by adding the POS word after the variable case suffix to the indirect case.
Urdu is the national language of Pakistan.
In India, there are 28.
61 million people who speak this language (1971), accounting for about 5.
22% of the country’s total population.
They live scattered, mainly in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
It belongs to the Indo European Indian language family, which evolved from the gorjal language.
The most o literary works appeared in the 12th century and were written in cursive Sanskrit Tiancheng script.
In practical Gujarati, Sanskrit has less common vocabulary, while in elegant literary works, Sanskrit vocabulary accounts for up to 40%.
The grammar is complex and varied.
Nouns have three kinds of “sex” (masculine, feminine and neutral), two kinds of “number” and three “cases” (nominative case, indirect case and agent orientation case).
The population using this language is about 25.
88 million (1971), accounting for 4.
72% of the total population, of which 93% live in Gujarat, and the rest live in Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
It is the official language of Gujarat.
It belongs to the darovicha language family.
It is generally believed that it evolved from the vulgar Tamil language popular in the coastal areas of western South India and absorbed a large number of words such as Tamil, Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic, Portuguese, Dutch and English.
In the 5th century, this language has taken shape.
Its characters have appeared in the 9th century and its literary works have appeared in the 13th century.
There are many regional dialects and social dialects, as well as literary language and spoken language.
Like other Dravidian languages, there is a set of curly consonants.
Grammatically, the change of suffix indicates different tenses, persons, numbers and cases.
The written letters were originally round, but later their shape changed under the influence of Sanskrit.
There are more letters than Sanskrit Tiancheng script, and some letters are not available in other languages.
Malayalam is the official language of Kerala, with a population of about 21.
94 million (1971), accounting for 4% of the total population, of which 94% are concentrated in the state.
This language was originally the youngest and smallest of the four main languages of the darovitan family, but it has shown a more dynamic and rapid development trend in recent times.
It is a branch of the darapida language family.
The earliest literature can be traced back to the 5th century A.D. literary works appeared in the 9th to 10th centuries and developed rapidly from the 12th to 14th centuries.
Kanada has many regional dialects, as well as formal and informal languages, literary languages and oral languages.
Different castes, such as Brahmans, non Brahmans and Dalits, also have their own dialects.
The letters of kanada language are similar to those of Granada, and the grammatical structure is similar to that of Tamil language.
The change of suffix indicates tense, person, number and case, and some consonants have curly tongue sounds.
Kanada is the official language of Karnataka, with a population of about 217100 (1971), accounting for 3.
96% of the total population, of which 88% live in the state.
It is the Eastern Branch of the Indo European Indian language family.
It first appeared in the 14th century.
It is directly derived and evolved from the Prakrit language of Arda Capricorn.
It is closely related to Assam and Bengali.
Its grammar, sentence structure and vocabulary are quite similar to Bengali.
At the same time, it is influenced by Telugu and Marathi.
The writing form adopts a Tiancheng variant similar to Bengali, but the letters are round like Telugu.
Oriya grammar divides people and things into two categories: rational and irrational.
As in Bengali, the plural form of verbs is used to show respect for rational people.
In 1986, 92% of the state’s population spoke Oriya, the official language, accounting for 62.
2% of the state’s total population.
It belongs to the Indo European Indian language family.
It is developed from the ancient xiaorsaini language.
Its vocabulary is very similar to the Western Hindi language.
Different from other languages, there are fewer loanwords from Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, etc.
Punjabi is lively and expressive.
In India, Punjabi is written in two forms: one is the rahenda letter derived from the Tiancheng script.
The other is the golumuchi letter created by the Sikh founder angde in the middle of the 16th century, which is called Shicheng.
Punjabi in Pakistan is written in Arabic letters.
This language has been suppressed for a long time and did not develop until modern times.
Punjabi works only appeared since the 19th century.
India has 16.
45 million speakers of this language (1971), accounting for about 3% of the total population, of which 80% are in Punjab, 9% in Jammu and Kashmir and 4% in Rajasthan.
Punjabi is the official language of Punjab.
It belongs to the Eastern Branch of Indo European Indian language family.
The earliest literary works appeared before the 15th century.
Similar to Bengali, its characters also use Bengali letters.
At the same time, it is closely related to Bihar, Oriya and maladi, but it is also influenced by Tibetan Burmese dialect in pronunciation, vocabulary and structure.
The grammatical changes are complex and tortuous, and different plural forms of nouns and pronouns are used to express honorifics and non honorifics.
There are 8.
96 million people using this language (1971), accounting for 1.
63% of the country’s total population, of which 99% are concentrated in Assam, accounting for about 40% of the state’s population.
It is the state’s official language.
It belongs to the dard language family of Indo European language family.
Kashmiri works appeared in the 13th century.
Originated from dard, it absorbs a large number of Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Pashto and Punjabi words.
The writing forms include Persian letters, Salada letters and Sanskrit Tiancheng letters.
There are 2.
44 million residents in India who use this language (1971), accounting for 0.
44% of the total population, of which 99% live in Jammu and Kashmir, which is actually controlled by India.
The main dialects are kishtwal, boguri and lambani.
(14) believe in German.
It is a branch of Indo European Indian language family and one of the official languages officially recognized by the Indian government.
It is widely used in the kachi swamp and katiawa Peninsula in the West.
Its standard dialect is wijoli.
It is closely related to lahanda language, and many words come from Arabic and Persian.
There are various writing forms, including Sanskrit Heavenly City letters, Arabic letters and Punjabi letters.
The population of India using Sindhi is about 1.
68 million (1971), accounting for about 0.
31% of the total population, of which 43% live in Gujarat and 24% in MahalIn Rastra, 16% is in Rajasthan and 13% in Madhya Pradesh.
It belongs to the Indo European Indian language family and is the oldest language in India.
Vedic Sanskrit appeared as early as the 18th century BC.
In the 5th century BC, Sanskrit grammar was standardized.
From then on to the 10th century, classical Sanskrit flourished as the literary language of Hindus.
It has rich literature and has a great influence on Indian language and literature.
At present, a few people still use Sanskrit for literary and artistic creation, academic exchanges and religious celebrations.
Sanskrit has complicated inflectional changes, including three kinds of “sex” (masculine, feminine and neutral), three kinds of “numbers” (singular, even and plural) and eight “cases” (nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, possessive, possessive and vocative verbs, with changes in tense, mood, voice, number and person).
The writing form was originally Brahmi letters, which evolved into Tiancheng letters in the 7th century.
There are 33 vowels and 46 consonants in total. 2. As early as 1918, the issue of national language was investigated in connection with the national liberation movement.
He pointed out that “if we do not give Hindi the status of national language and the appropriate status of provincial languages in people’s life, all discussions about swaraji will be futile.
” This is the starting point for the leaders of the Indian nationalist movement to solve the language problem, and it is also the basic policy basis for dealing with the language problem stated by the Congress Party many times.
After India’s independence, the Parliament had a heated debate on the national language and the closely related status of English and the legal rights of local languages.
The main reasons for supporting Hindi as the national language are: the largest number of people use this language.
Before India’s independence, the Congress Party had long promoted Hindi as the national language, and Hindi and other languages absorb many components of Sanskrit.
Those who oppose Hindi as the national language believe that Hindi is only a regional language, and its literary achievements and prestige are not as good as Tamil, Telugu, kanada and Bengali.
Specifying Hindi as the national language will make the people who speak this language dominate other nationalities in the country’s political and economic life.
The Indian constitution, which came into force on January 26, 1950, stipulates that Hindi is the official language, and English will be allowed to continue to be used for all official purposes within 15 years.
At the same time, it lists 14 other languages (including Sindh added after 1966) as the official languages of the States concerned.
The Constitution also stipulates that five and ten years after its implementation, the president will appoint a committee composed of representatives of various language groups to make recommendations on gradually increasing the official use of Hindi and limiting English and other languages that can be used for official purposes.
At the same time, a special committee will be elected in parliament to investigate the above suggestions and submit a report to the president for decision-making reference.
The Constitution also stipulates that any minority citizens have the right to retain their unique language, writing font and culture.
On the surface, these provisions of the constitution reflect the realistic spirit and cautious attitude of the leaders of the ruling party, and are a compromise to local ethnic and linguistic groups.
But its real purpose is obvious, which is to eventually replace all other languages with Hindi.
Throughout the 1950s, with the support of the central government, various institutions and organizations committed to publicizing and popularizing Hindi, such as the Association for publicizing and popularizing Hindi, the Hindi scientific and Technical Terminology Committee and the Hindi philology Association, were successively established.
Various activities aimed at promoting Hindi, such as holding a national “Hindi day” and holding Hindi book exhibitions, The production and distribution of Hindi films have been strengthened, and the broadcasting of Hindi has been increased in a planned way.
From April to may 1963, the Indian Parliament discussed the issue of language again and passed a bill to determine Hindi as the official language, but it also stipulated that English could continue to be used for official purposes and Parliamentary Affairs after 1965.
The bill has provoked strong protests in non Hindi speaking areas, first and foremost in the southern Dharma speaking states. C.n. Annadurai, leader of the Tamil party, the Alliance for the advancement of Dravida, said the bill caused “the greatest disappointment and sadness” in all non Hindi speaking states.
He announced that “the whole southern region will rise up” and opposed the “forced implementation” of Hindi.
In June 1963, the Dravida Progressive Alliance decided to launch a mass campaign against the official language bill in Madras (now Tamil Nadu).
Anadurai and other leaders were arrested.
The tense situation lasted for more than a year.
On January 26, 1965, Hindi officially became the national language, large-scale mass riots occurred, and strikes and violent demonstrations spread all over the corner.
Then large-scale mass movements took place in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Mysore (now Karnataka) and West Bengal.
In just over 20 days, more than 150 people were shot and killed by the police, hundreds were injured, 35000 people were arrested and five others set themselves on fire.
It is estimated that tens of millions of rupees of public and private property were destroyed.
At the same time, the debate on the status of Mandarin and other languages has intensified within the government and in Parliament.
Parliamentarians and officials from non Hindi speaking nations publicly condemned “Indian imperialism” and grand nationalism for trying to use language as a tool to control and enslave other nations.
The South Indian states, where the language movement is the most extensive and intense, are particularly resolute.
Some people even suggested that if the federal government is stubborn on the issue of national language, South India will announce its separation from the central government and establish an independent state.
It can be seen that the issue of Indian language is by no means just a question of what kind of communication tools to use.
It has involved the stability and unity of the country.
Therefore, the Indian government has adopted the policy of steadily promoting Hindi.
The official language Act promulgated in 1967 finally confirmed the “three language scheme” with Hindi as the national language, local language and English coexisting for a long time.
However, in fact, despite the efforts made by the Indian government to promote Hindi, the role of local languages has not been weakened.
In particular, the use of English seems to be expanding.