Italian Church Architecture Italian Renaissance architecture can be divided into: in the 15th century, the early Renaissance represented by Florence architecture, and the representative works are Florence cathedral.
At the end of the 15th century and the first half of the 16th century, Roman architecture represented the peak of the Renaissance, and the representative work was St.
Peter’s Cathedral in Rome.
The late Renaissance in the middle and late 16th century.
The most important building in the Renaissance is still the church.
Alberti pointed out: “in the whole scope of architectural art, there is nothing worthy of our more thinking, attention and wisdom except the layout and decoration of temples.
because, needless to say, the temple with exquisite construction and beautiful decoration is the most magnificent and noble building that a city can have.
it is the place where gods live.
” People may be surprised that the Renaissance found people and still built churches.
In fact, in the west, religion, as human spiritual belief, has always occupied a very important position, while for cities, churches are the center and intersection.
In Florence City, Florence cathedral occupies such a central position.
Florence Cathedral, also known as the Catholic Church of pure Santa Maria.
The cathedral was built as a monument to the Republic after the guild seized power from the nobility at the end of the 13th century.
The designer is arnolfodi combio.
Construction began in 1296, but Arnolfo died in 1302, leading to the shutdown of the church.
In 1334, Francesco talenti and others modified the design and continued to build.
The dome is expected to be built, but the technology of span and height is difficult to build this dome.
Brunelleschi began to think about the roof of the cathedral very early, and he also realized that anyone who can solve this problem will gain immortal reputation.
In 1420, Brunelleschi was ordered to build the dome after inspecting the Pantheon and other memorial buildings in Rome.
In 1434, the magnificent dome of Florence was revealed on the horizon.
William Fleming said: “The inauguration of the newly built Florence cathedral brought together an unprecedented number of senior church clergy, diplomats and politicians, followed by famous artists, poets and musicians.
Pope Eugene IV, wearing a triple crown and a white robe, was among seven cardinals in bright red robes and at least 37 bishops and archbishops in purple vests Accompanied by the, they swaggered through the streets full of flags.
There are also city officials and guild leaders and their guard of honor in the queue.
” The Pope’s choir sang a hymn created by musician Du Fei.
The first sentence of the lyrics was: “roses, the gift of the Pope”.
In the lyrics, the cathedral is said to be “the most spacious Temple”, and brunelleski’s dome is praised as “great art” and “miracle of art”.
The end of the lyrics expresses the Florentine people’s plea for the Virgin Mary: virgin! The honor of a virgin, your loyal Florentines plead with you.
Will get your generous favor.
During the reign of Archbishop Julius II and Leo X in the Renaissance, the cultural capital was transferred from Florence to Rome.
As Medici fled Florence in 1494, a large number of artists, including Michelangelo, Rafael and Bramante, came to Rome.
Their talents were mainly reflected in the design and construction of St.
Peter’s Cathedral. St. Peter’s Basilica is the most representative building of the High Renaissance.
“It seems to be the projection of the orbit of celestial bodies on buildings on the ground.
It is the extreme of religious architecture and the highest symbol of architectural philosophy”.
The original basilica here was built on the site of the original Nero amphitheater in 330 A.D. This is the place where St.
Peter died, so it is called St.
The foundation of the church was laid in 1506 and was not finally completed until 1626, a century later.
Bramante’s plan is to make a Greek cross on a square and an auditorium along the sides of the four small crosses, on which a tower is built.
Bramante used the experience of ancient Rome to create huge corner columns and arches.
Bramante died in 1514 and was designed by Rafael.
Later, Peruzzi, sangalo and Michelangelo continued to design.
In 1564, Michelangelo died when the project reached the drum seat of the dome, which was finally completed by G.
Delaport and D.
Fontana in 1590.
The dome is 137.
7 meters above the ground, making it the tallest building in Rome.
From 1655 to 1667, Bernini built the entrance square of the church.
In the eyes of ordinary people, the scale of churches should be large, and most famous churches in the world are cathedrals, such as Florence cathedral and St.
But sometimes there are exceptions.
The chapel also plays an important role in the history of world architecture.
One of them is Percy chapel.
Pazzichapel was built in 1420 and designed by Brunelleschi.
It inherits the architecture of ancient Rome.
The upper curve directly imitates the Roman sarcophagus and adopts Corinthian column.
The facade gets rid of the mystery and infinity of Gothic tradition and replaces it with geometric form.
A triangular dome in the middle covers a rectangular hall with a barrel vault.
The lively and concise design makes the Parsi chapel a very influential architectural model in the Renaissance.
Sandra suatoni said that the chapel is more majestic, showing the power of lines, and the shape and spatial structure of the whole building reach the peak of perfect harmony.
Both inside and outside, the building has a fresh and elegant style and warm style, which has had an impact on the church design of Alberti, Bramante and Michelangelo.
Women, while professional painters, poets and musicians are invited to entertain them with high pay.
The Renaissance is different from the middle ages.
Spiritually, people turned from the afterlife to the present world, from the spiritual source of Hebrew doctrine to sincerely accept the gifts provided by the classical earthly life of Greece and Rome.
This is especially true in the construction of mansions and villas.
Among them, the most famous are luchela residence, farnis residence and Vicenza round hall villa.
Palazzo Rucellai is a three story building, it’s just foremen, a group of excellent foremen.
” “In the middle ages, there were no so-called architects in modern times.
” “During the Renaissance, the architect was no longer a construction worker, but an artist.
” Susan Langer said that architects created its image: a tangible human environment, which represents the functional style of a specific rhythm that constitutes a culture.
This style is the alternation of deep sleep and awakening, adventure and safety, encouragement and comfort, restraint and laissez faire.
It is the speed of development and the life process of calm or ups and downs.
It is a simple form in childhood and a complex form full of moral realm.
It marks the alternation of the sacred and unpredictable tone of social order.
If we say that “man is created according to the image and will of God” in the middle ages, humanists reintroduced the maxim of the ancient Greek philosopher Protagoras in the Renaissance.
“Man is the measure of all things”.
The Greeks believed that the aesthetic male and female bodies, limbs and the whole have the above beautiful proportional relationship.
Coloma Vitruvius believes that the perfect human body proportion should be that the width of both hands is equal to the height, forming a square, and both hands and feet can stand on the circumference centered on the navel.
Because square and circle are perfect shapes, the human body is perfect.
Renaissance master Leonardo da Vinci described Vitruvius’s idea in his notebook.
In this sense, the original cosmic figure of “round sky and place” is also the figure of human body, which is the real essence of the humanistic spirit embodied in the Renaissance.
The Renaissance is a classical Renaissance.
In the field of architecture, the revival of classical architecture is mainly due to Poggio, a secretary of the Holy See.
He recorded some archaeological facts, such as the marble columns still standing in his time, which he called the silent temple.
In 1414, he found the ten books of architecture by Vitruvius, an architectural historian in the 1st century A.D., in the St.
Gail Library in Switzerland.
It was published in Latin in 1486, which had a great influence in the architectural field, making the architects in the Renaissance no longer a craftsman, but a scholar and artist with both theory and practice.
In other words, only in the Renaissance did the word architect have a clear and universal definition.
Among the Renaissance architects, the most famous are Michelangelo, Raphael, Brunelleschi, Alberti and Bramante.
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475 ~ 1564) was a famous sculptor, but he carried out a series of architectural designs in his later years, which reflected another aspect of his genius as a great artist.
He designed the altar and dome of St.
Peter’s Cathedral and served as the director.
The cabitolia square complex has always been known as the most perfect pattern in Rome.
These buildings are magnificent, but not exaggerated.
They are classic works of the Italian Renaissance.
He not only created mannerism, but also had an impact on Baroque architecture.
In addition, the Medici residence in Florence and the lorenzia library are also Michelangelo’s representative works.
Palazzo Medici was built from 1444 to 1460.
Medici, known as the “great cause” (or “luxury”), was the ruler of Florence, especially advocating culture.
At his court, Michelangelo studied his family’s collection of ancient art.
While Michelangelo was planning to build the Medici residence for the new Pope Clement VII, a revolution broke out in Florence.
Michelangelo participated in the uprising.
Later, the uprising failed and became a prisoner.
However, Michelangelo was still ordered by the Pope to complete his Medici residence.
The Medici residence consists of a colonnaded inner courtyard, a side courtyard and a backyard, with a rectangular plane.
Daylighting is from the facade and the inner courtyard.
The stone masonry methods of the three layers are different, with density and rich layers.
The free combination of large and small pilasters in the residence has a sense of stability and solemnity.
The Laurentian library, like the Medici residence, is also an indoor building with a vestibule of 9.
5 × Its pilaster is embedded into the wall and supported on the scroll.
A marble ladder is set in the middle.
This ladder, which was used as an early architectural art component, is designed very successfully.
The shape is rich in change, gorgeous and decorative.
In the middle ages, the staircase was enclosed in a dark corner, and its decorative effect was gradually recognized after the Renaissance.
It was presided over by Vasari after Michelangelo’s death.
(Raphael Santi, 1483 ~ 1520) is one of the three saints in the heyday of the Renaissance.
The genius who died young is not only a great painter, but also an outstanding architect.
He is not as majestic and strong as Michelangelo.
The buildings he designs, like his paintings, have a gentle and elegant style, with small volume fluctuation.
He likes to use thin-walled columns, plastering on the outer wall, and mostly decorated with slender gray sculptures, emphasizing horizontal division.
He succeeded Bramante as the engineering director of St.
In addition, he has designed mansions, villas and other buildings.
One of the most famous is the pandolfini residence.
The palazza pandolfini, located in the suburb of Florence, was founded in 1520 (the year Raphael died).
This building is composed of a two-story building of the main courtyard and a one story building of the outer courtyard.
On the facade along the street, the two floors end with a large cornice.
The eaves and parapet of the first floor are the continuation of the layered line corners and the wall under the window of the two floors.
The primary and secondary of the two parts are clear and well connected.
There is no column on the wall, the window frame is exquisite, and heavy stones are used around the corner and gate.
It has the stylist style of using indoor niches for exterior wall decoration, giving people a sense of elegance and modesty.
The master of architecture of bruncephosky in early Italy is 1376.
The goldsmith born artist has also dabbled in sculpture, arts and crafts, perspective, mathematics, mechanics and other fields.
He went to Rome and inspected the ruins of ancient Roman architecture.
In 1420, brunelleski undertook the design of the dome of Florence cathedral.
His research on architectural structure became the driving force of Florence Renaissance architecture.
oneAt the corner of Ji street.
In 604 ad, the king of East Saxon built St.
Paul’s church on the top of Ludgate in London.
After several reconstruction.
The new St.
Paul’s Cathedral designed by Christopher Ryan was started in 1675 and completed in 1710.
The plane of the church is a Latin cross, with a longitudinal axis of 156.
9 meters and a horizontal axis of 69.
Above the crossing stands a high drum base composed of two layers of circular colonnades, on which is a huge dome with a diameter of 34 meters and 111 meters from the ground.
Madeleine Mainstone and Roland Mainstone said that the most successful work of St.
Paul’s Cathedral was the left and right doors of the crossed cross, on which the dome rose like a perfect crown.
Generally speaking, St.
Paul’s Cathedral can be classified as Renaissance architecture, but it also has the style of Baroque architecture.
English gardens are deeply influenced by Italy.
For example, Tudor garden is “a symbol of the transition period from the Middle Ages to the British Renaissance”.
The British Renaissance reached its climax in the 17th century, as did gardens, which were mainly influenced by France.
Sir Christopher Wren, Britain’s most famous Royal architect, studied architecture in France.
Le nortre, a famous French landscape architect, was invited to Britain to design Greenwich Park for Charles II.
The British horticulturist and designer London cooperated with French landscape designer wise to complete Hampton Court Garden (Hampton, 1699), Longleat Garden (1685-1690) and Chatsworth Garden (1680-1690).
French classicism architectural classicism is the trend of court architecture in the period of French absolute monarchy.
Holden, Vincent F.
Hope pointed out that neoclassicism in the 17th century was a conscious effort to restore the atmosphere of the classical world.
One of the main features of the Renaissance is the restoration of Greek and Roman civilization.
This enthusiasm is in the ascendant.
Thus deepening people’s understanding of ancient Greek works and opening up a rich treasure house of literature and philosophy.
They said that for scholars in the 17th century, through the development of humanism in the Renaissance, the world was full of vitality and hope.
On the other hand, it must be pointed out that what impresses neoclassicists is the rational order of Hellenism.
In their view, compared with the Pericles era in Athens and the Elizabethan era in Britain, the corresponding era of France is the 17th century, which is known to the French as the “great century”.
They believed that Louis XIV’s 72 year rule marked the heyday of the golden age.
After masarin’s death in 1661, Louis XIV proclaimed himself prime minister.
He believes that he is the representative of God on earth, which is not exaggerated, because he claims that “I am the country”.
Like Richelieu before him, he is an ardent protector of admirers of art and glory.
Patrick newkins pointed out that the prime minister Richelieu, who has been handed down from generation to generation in France, established absolute authority until Louis XIV (1643 ~ 1715) claimed to be the Sun King and said arrogantly: “this is my will”.
All these changes affect the art of architecture.
That is to say, Louis XIV wanted to build the palace by his own “will”.
French classical architecture is mainly reflected in palace architecture.
Christian Norberg Schultz pointed out that the study of palaces must include some general problems, which are related to the problems discussed in churches, including spatial organization, modeling synthesis, and the relationship between architecture and environment.
However, in terms of function, palace architecture is much more complex than church architecture, and the general intention is often expressed in a less direct way.
For example, a true spatial integration is rarely possible because a unit needs to serve different purposes.
Compared with the church, the needs to be met by the palace include more diverse and variable factors, which makes the problem of functional adaptability of essential importance.
Here, the palace has a very important function, which is the need of etiquette.
Germain Bazin said, “just as there are various liturgies, the fashion of court etiquette has its own advantages.
” Werner Sambat believed that “from the end of the 16th century to the next two centuries, France has become an unparalleled model in all matters related to court life.
” The founder of the French court was Francis I.
By Louis XIV, the court was large-scale, that is, during Louis XIV, the court etiquette became a luxury etiquette and reached its peak, so they would not easily satisfy palaces such as Chateau de Fontainbleau.
The Louvre and Versailles will be built on a larger scale.
The palaisdu Louvre is located in the center of Paris on the right bank of the Seine River.
It was originally an old palace of the king.
From 1190 to 1204, King Philip II of France built it to strengthen defense and store royal archives and treasures.
In 1546, Francis I ordered the architect P.
Lescot (1510 ~ 1570) to transform the original Gothic “mouth” building into the form of Renaissance residence building.
The plane is a closed quadrangle with corner building, 53.
4 meters square.
The “Grand Gallery” was built in 1606, connecting the Louvre with the durelli palace in the West.
It is 267 meters long from north to South and 165 meters wide from east to west.
It is divided into three courtyards horizontally.
The central courtyard is 113 meters long and 89 meters wide.
The left and right are slightly narrower, with an oval large conference hall in the center.
Both vertical and horizontal axes are relatively clear.
In 1663, the French architect Louis ie vau designed the scheme of the Louvre.
Jean Baptiste Colbert, the king’s powerful minister, submitted the scheme to Italian architects for comments and was rejected, including the famous Baroque architect Bernini.
In 1665, the French court invited Bernini to Paris to design the Baroque Louvre, but it was resisted by the French due to national psychology.
Because “the whole cause of the construction of the Louvre is almost a major event of national significance”.
Finally, Colby formed a committee and let L.
lewo cooperate with Charles, ie brun and Claude PerraultThe famous East colonnade has a total length of 183 meters and a height of 29 meters.
The three-dimensional plane adopts the method of horizontal three sections and vertical three sections, but the two ends and the center adopt the Arc de Triomphe structure.
The building has a commemorative effect.
Samson pointed out that the Louvre is an unparalleled masterpiece in terms of the long facade controlled by the classical column.
It is not only not monotonous, but also full of intelligence, elegance and aesthetic logic.
He added that the sculpture of the Louvre is cool and exquisite.
It is a unique decoration in France, and it has extraordinary vitality.
On a bright spring morning, it looks as if it is the most novel and refreshing thing you have ever seen in your life.
In 1793, the Louvre was transformed into a national art museum.
In 1982, architect I.M. Pei built a large and three small glass pyramid shaped modern building as the entrance to make it more dazzling.
Versailles is 23 kilometers southwest of Paris.
It turned out that there was a hunting manor and courtyard of King Louis XIII, which opened to the East.
It was an early Renaissance building in the first half of the 17th century.
In 1682, Louis XIV decided to rebuild a large palace based on the hunting farm to show the authority of the king.
The famous building is in the charge of French architect L.
In 1668, it was expanded in the south, North and west of the old residence, and its north and South wings were extended to form a royal courtyard, retaining the original Sanheyuan.
In 1678, havdouin Mansart, a master of classical architecture, served as the main architect of Versailles.
He built a 19 Bay hall with 11 bays in the center of the West facade and 4 bays from both ends.
The hall is 73 meters long, 13 meters high and 10 meters wide.
It is the main hall of Versailles.
It holds major ceremonies and has churches and theatres.
A large garden was built to the west of the palace.
Its central axis is 3 kilometers long from east to west, with a horizontal axis and a large range.
The fence is 45 kilometers long.
After the court and the entire central government moved to Versailles in 1682, Yu a.
monsha was responsible for designing the two wings extending south and North.
After completion, the palace of Versailles is very spectacular and very coordinated with the scale of the garden.
William Fleming said that the layout of the gardens and avenues of Versailles was consistent with this extremely expanded concept of space.
The deep view leads people’s line of sight to the horizon and reminds people of the space beyond the horizon.
The unity of huge buildings and gardens brought the whole Baroque society into nature and made them part of a new and measurable universe.
Christian Norberg Schultz said that Versailles was not just a palace in fact.
Louis XIII’s hunting departure from the palace became a complete “ideal city”, which seemed to expand infinitely.
The palace of Versailles was finally completed during Louis XV.
Its grand style and open structure had a great impact on European palace architecture.
Spanish classical architecture in a sense, the palace of Versailles in France is the result of competing with the palace of Escurial in Spain.
Germain Bazin said that the palaces of escuriar and Versailles were competing for glory and dignity.
In the desolate Guadarrama, Philip II built himself a huge stone palace without decoration, so that the secular appearance cannot invade the solemn intimacy between God and his earthly representative, the canonized king of divine power.
In other words, this building can be said to be a perfect combination of the city of God and the city of secular life.
Escorial was built in the wilderness 48 kilometers northwest of the capital Madrid from 1559 to 1584.
William Fleming said that the building was built by Philip II for his father’s will to “build a mausoleum for Charles V” and his own oath to “build a monastery for the Spanish martyr St.
Lawrence who died in the war against France”.
According to Philip’s request.
This architectural complex must reflect the idea of “majestic but not proud, spectacular but not floating”.
This large-scale building was designed by Juan bautistade Toledo and Juande Herrera.
It includes churches, tombs, seminaries and official residences.
There are 16 large and small courtyards, 86 stairs and 89 pools.
Eskuriar palace is 204.
3 meters long from north to South and 161.
6 meters wide from east to west.
It is divided into six main parts.
It is located in the Royal courtyard at the main entrance in the West.
To the East is a Greek cruciform church with a dome in the center, which is arranged in imitation of the typical “saint of saints” in the temple of Solomon.
There are towers at the four corners, and there are royal tombs under the ground.
Italian architect veneola once participated in the design.
To the south of the compound is the monastery.
To the north of the compound is the Theological Seminary and University.
The south of the church is a green courtyard.
North of the church is the government office.
It not only shows the simplicity and tidiness of the Renaissance, but also retains the tradition of Spanish Gothic.
Russian classical architecture in the second half of the 18th century, Russian urban construction was active.
Since Peter the Great came to power, Russia has gradually moved towards absolute monarchy, and its architecture also tends to classical style.
In 1552, the Russians defeated the Mongols, so they built the huaxili bolarene Church (1555 ~ 1560).
Designed by bamal and bosnik.
It is located on Moscow’s Red Square, opposite the Kremlin.
It is composed of nine pier churches in traditional Russian style.
A pier in the center is the main body, crowned with a “tent roof”, 46 meters high, forming a vertical axis, commanding the eight small piers around.
The eight small piers are arranged in a square, and all hold high onion shaped or helmet shaped domes.
The outline of the dome is very full, and the form of the surface is different.
There is also a small dome on the top of the central tent.
The Kremlin is made up of many buildings.
At the end of the 15th century, the Church of the ascension of the Virgin was built in the Kremlin.
The plane adopts the Greek cross, and the five domes have high drum seats.
This church is the ceremonial hall for the coronation of princes.
At the same time, the Duoleng palace built by Italian architects was also built.
The Duoleng palace is a place for ceremonies and banquets.
In the 16th century, the famous building in the Kremlin was the bell tower of Ivan Reid (1508 ~ 1600), which was more than 80 meters high.
It was an earlier large stone multi-storey building.
In the 18th century, the Kremlin was rebuilt.
It can be said to be a monument to the Russian enlightenment.
It was proposed by the architect barenov (1767 ~ 1775)It is suggested to build a 600 meter long four storey palace along the Moscow River in the Kremlin, and wrap the original large and small buildings in the yard.
The new palace is displayed on the river bank and can be seen almost all over the city.
The main entrance of the palace is in the East.
In front of it is an oblong square, where three main urban roads intersect.
The oblong square is scheduled for mass gatherings, with a merit column in the middle and a high grandstand in front of the palace.
For this design, barenov engraved a bronze monument, engraved with: for the glory of modernity, for the eternal commemoration of the future, for the decoration of the capital, for the joy and satisfaction of my people.
The winter palace was built from 1754 to 1762, burned in 1837 and restored from 1838 to 1839.
For the Tsar’s palace.
Designed by Italian B.B. Rastrelli (1746 ~ 1771).
The winter palace is located on the Neva River in Petersburg.
Its facade structure is complex, and Baroque techniques are used for leaning on columns, breaking eaves and decoration.
Generally speaking, the winter palace is a typical baroque building, with a rectangular plane, about 280 meters long, 140 meters wide and 22 meters high.
It has a total construction area of 46000 square meters, covers an area of 90000 square meters and has nearly 1000 houses.
The winter palace has two facades, one facing the Neva River, the other facing the Admiralty building and the Palace Square.
The outer wall is surrounded by two rows of circular mixed leaning columns and three arched windows on the upper, middle and lower floors.
All the halls in the palace have their own characteristics.
The winter palace is related to historical events in Russia and became the Hermitage museum after the October Revolution.
In the cultural history of Baroque architecture, the 17th century is generally called the Baroque era.
This term originally came from the syllogism of medieval logic.
It was transplanted to the architectural style of Italy at the end of the 16th century.
In the 17th century, it reached the peak in France, and then it was extended to the art of the whole Europe.
Baroque architecture is an architectural and decorative style developed on the basis of Italian Renaissance architecture from the 17th to 18th century.
Germain Bazin pointed out that the word Baroque, whether from Spanish Barrueco or Portuguese barroco – which means “round pearl” in gemology, is synonymous with unrestrained and poor taste for neoclassical critics.
He pointed out that Baroque was even praised by contemporary aestheticians, who extended it as an artistic concept to oppose classicism.
According to Patrick newkins, Baroque is more connected with dramatic art.
He summarized Baroque architecture into three aspects.
The first is to abandon symmetry and balance and turn to the experiment of new vitality blocks.
The second is to abandon the static form of square and circle and replace it with vortex and dynamic: S-shaped, curved, wavy facade and plane based on ellipse.
The third is to take the form of extreme dramatization, resulting in many hallucinations.
On the one hand, Baroque architecture breaks through the rules and regulations of classicism, on the other hand, it is often combined with classical architecture.
Baroque architecture is first reflected in cities and squares.
Christian Norberg Schultz points out, “Sixtus V’s plan made Rome the prototype of the basic unit of Baroque Architecture – the capital city.
The role of Rome is naturally regarded as the center of the magnificent system of this era.
Similarly, its glorious past has become the birthplace of the ancient world.
The development of the capital city has thus become the first tangible expression, which is in line with the visible concrete expression of the Baroque world structure The whole city is permeated with the value of ideology.
It became a truly holy city (citt Santa) “.
As for the square, he added, “the focus of the city as a whole can also be defined in pure spatial terms, that is, the square.
” Of course, the square has a long history as a real urban core, but its function is usually public and Civic.
The Baroque era turned it into a part of the general ideological system.
This is most evident in the French Royal Square, where the symmetrical space is centered on the statue of the monarch.
This prototype was created in 1605 by Henry IV in the square of dovener.
Of all the “ideological” squares, the largest is St.
Peter’s Square in Rome. St. Peter’s Square is designed by Bernini, a famous Baroque architect.
It adopts the shape surrounded by a dome, which has symbolic significance in modeling.
From the perspective of architecture, the Roman Jesuit Church (1568 ~ 1584) designed by G.B. veneola, an Italian Renaissance architect, is considered to be the earliest Baroque architecture.
From the perspective of architects, the representative figures of Baroque architecture are Bernini and Borromini. G. Bernini (1598 ~ 1680) was a painter, sculptor and architect.
His early buildings were St.
Peter’s Cathedral, St.
Andrea’s church, St.
Mary’s church and so on.
Bernini made a new design based on Bramante and others.
He designed a gorgeous canopy under the dome of St.
Peter’s church to cover St.
At the same time, around an ancient wooden throne of St.
Peter, a sudden illusion of “divine heaven” was created.
Then turn an open space into a spectacular passage.
He built two colonnades around the obelisk, and the huge columns bent on the left and right sides to form a huge oval, as Bernini himself said, like two arms embracing welcome.
In Bernini’s design, he wanted to build an imaginary human arm, and the dome was its head: this universal tolerance of the church became the preface to the revelation of the monarch.
In the sense of ceremony, St.
Peter’s church has more intoxicating poetry.
Bazin said: in the 17th century, it can be said that there were two kinds of liturgy, one tended to be classical and the other tended to be Baroque.
“In order to appreciate the poetry of Baroque, one must look at the mass held in St.
Peter’s church or the European Jesuit Church.
Due to the solemnity of the liturgical ceremony, what people see in the sound of cigarettes and organ music is no longer just a world of marble and color, a human world, but a great combination – the activities of colorful people and the values pursued by priests The ceremony formed a brilliant symphony.
The sacred smoke in the censer floated between the columns, and from the pulpit came the sound of the preacher to the apostles and martyrs, whose statues were decorated with columnsAn eloquent response to urging an apology.
In the depths of the altar, the illusion seemed to shake in the candlelight of the high altar, and the incense mist rose slowly into the dome, blending with marble and white clouds, in which groups of angels spread their wings and fly.
Different from the monotonous clothes we wear today, we can imagine the costumes of people in those times, colorful and dazzling.
The Catholic Church, which has known since ancient times how to use the feelings of believers to stimulate their enthusiasm, provides Christians in the religious reform movement with an image that can enter the Afterlife: a spectacle of opera.
” St Andre’s Church in Bernini is a church of a different style.
The facade of St.
Andre’s church was built from 1658 to 1670.
It was developed from Michelangelo’s thought, like a bay of capitore.
The Ionian column was processed with dynamic, circular ellipse, protruding beyond the giant Corinth and forming a porch.
In addition, Bernini also designed the Trevi Fountain in Rome. F. boromini (1599-1667) designed the Church of San Carlo in Rome.
It adopts an oval plane to form a wave wall with strong concave convex feeling, and then adopts a semicircular arch on the cornice board to make the wall ridge oval, and the dome decorated with a caisson is arched from this, emphasizing curve decoration.
Other churches include philippincha church, sabiencha church, etc.
The establishment of an architectural style is really completed by an architectural master.
Sammerson pointed out that Bernini and Borromini, two Baroque masters, changed the classical language in completely unexpected ways during the Renaissance, but similarities can also be found in some late Roman buildings.
Baroque architecture is also very popular in Germany, Austria, Spain and other places.
In other words, Baroque has become a phenomenon in Europe and the last great universal “style” in European art.
Christian Norberg Schultz said that all Baroque systems actually have universal basic characteristics.
These features are mainly derived not from special content, but from more general concepts.
To describe these, we use two types of concepts: spirit and space.
Therefore, the operation of all Baroque systems is embodied through spiritual persuasion, participation and transmission, and through spatial concentration, synthesis and expansion.
There are various types of space for us to talk about, and there is a basic reason for us to ignore these types of space.
At the same time, there is a basic reason for us to ignore these types of participation.
This space can be used to identify this era, just as we can point out the basic analogy between its great philosophical systems.
In this sense, Baroque is the result of the development of the times.
Rococo architecture with the death of Louis XIV, the “Baroque” style of pretending to be magnificent and solemn in French art also declined.
In the Regent era (1715-1723), a trend of pursuing elegance and refinement began to grow, which was the beginning of the Rococo style.
This style first appeared in the design of Louis XIV by the classicist monsha.
In 1701, it appeared in the glass corridor and a barrel vaulted room in the palace of Versailles.
The ceiling is richly painted.
There are 17 windows on one side of the arcade and 17 mirrors on the other side.
The so-called “Rococo” is a pun, namely “Baroque” in Italian and “rocailles” and “coquilles” in French.
The shapes of rocks and shells are widely used in Rococo decorative patterns.
Such Rococo art must be regarded as a variant of Baroque rather than a style opposite to Baroque.
The effect is a home baroque style, which is more suitable for fashionable urban houses than for the court, but both adopt this style.
Gombrich commented on Rococo’s art that the freedom pursued by Rococo’s spirit is to achieve aesthetic effect without any utilitarian purpose – an abstract art, “art for art”.
As long as it is still limited to decorative art, it is not only harmless, but also can give people a lot of pleasure.
Rococo art is developed due to salon culture, which is advocated by Mrs.
Therefore, she is known as the “art protector” of Rococo style.
Firstly, Rococo style emphasizes the interior of architectural decoration.
The decoration of the Belvedere palace in Vienna shows that Rococo art has suddenly shifted from the outside of the building to the luxurious interior of the building.
Rococo style pursues elegant fashion and privacy.
Unlike baroque style, Rococo style rejects all architectural motifs indoors.
Where pilasters were used in the past, panels or mirrors were used instead, surrounded by delicate and complex frames.
Concave moldings and soft scrolls replace cornices and small mountain flowers, etc.
Secondly, Rococo style pays attention to the naturalness of decorative themes.
Rococo style is represented by continuous leaf patterns.
Its favorite decoration is the curling, entangled grass leaf style and ocean style.
Grass leaf type, including rose and palm.
There are shells, waves, corals, seaweed, spray, foam and scroll in the ocean.
And most of them adopt C-shape and S-shape.
The main representatives of Rococo architecture are messoni and povran.
Meissennier (1639 ~ 1750) broke the decoration principle of left-right balance since the Renaissance.
In the interior decoration design of villa Brito, he used the bending of the surface to organically connect the wall and the ceiling.
The wall decoration was naturally transferred to the ceiling decoration, which was very beautiful in painting, creating a flowing, light and approachable space.
In 1730, G.
boffrand (1667 ~ 1754) refitted and refitted the interior of the Duchy of subiz.
With the help of sculptor Adam, architecture, sculpture and painting were integrated into a whole decoration, and many charming rooms were built.
Among them, the oval salon used by the Duchess upstairs is the most representative.
It is known as “the masterpiece of Rococo art in France” and “one of the most charming rooms in Europe”.