H.

wolfling, a famous Swiss artist of Greek Renaissance architecture, pointed out that if at that time – about 1800 – in the neoclassical era, art once again became simple, chaos gave way to order, and straight lines and right angles were restored to their reputation again, it is obviously related to people’s renewed respect for simplicity.

But at the same time, the artistic foundation as a whole has been changed.

Architecture once again obtains its effect from the pure cube, from the clear palpable proportion, and from the clear shape in the shape, while the whole art of drawing is despised as pseudo art.

In the history of Europe, the classical revival has experienced three stages.

The Renaissance was the first climax of learning from classical art.

In the 17th century, France regarded classicism as a model for the second time.

However, with the development of Rococo art, the classical spirit has completely changed.

However, in the second half of the 18th century, there was the third movement to learn classical art.

In the history of art, people call the works that tended to this trend in this period “neoclassicism”, and in architecture, it became the classical revival, which was initially expressed as the revival of ancient Greek architecture.

The reason for the revival of Greece is the study of Greece.

In 1650, Roland freartde chambray called Greece “the holy kingdom”.

In 1752, Richard Dalton re studied the origin of ancient Greek temples and wrote the monuments of Greece and Egypt.

In 1758, Julien David Le ray completed his “magnificent monumental sites of Greece” after visiting Greece.

After visiting Athens in 1762, James Stuart and Nicholas revett published the first volume of Athenian antiquities.

In 1764, Johann Joachim winchelmann completed his on ancient art in Germany.

Although winckelman has never been to Greece, he announced from the beginning: “the elegant taste that is becoming more and more popular in the world was originally formed in the Greek sky.

” He felt that architects should strive to achieve the high style shown by the Greeks – elegant simplicity, quiet gorgeous, precise outline.

When the autocratic monarchy and the rule of feudal aristocracy are decaying day by day, the yearning of the cultural circles for classical art often has varying degrees of democratic consciousness.

Winckelman said: the main reason for the outstanding achievements of ancient Greek art is freedom.

“The way of thinking of the whole nation bred in freedom is like the excellent branches and leaves on a strong trunk.

” German poets Goethe, Schiller and Lessing have successively discussed ancient Greek art.

Later, Lord Eyre was keen to ship the marble statues from the Parthenon to London.

The second is because of archaeology.

In the excavation of Greek sites, the British made the most outstanding achievements in the archaeological work in Greece.

For the first time, the Greek sites were displayed in front of Europeans, or the amazing beauty of ancient Greece in front of the world.

As we said earlier, the British archaeologist Evans excavated the ruins of ancient Greece.

Therefore, the Greek Renaissance has become a quite powerful trend in Britain.

Its main feature is the use of Greek Doric and Dionysian orders, and the pursuit of physical simplicity.

Thirdly, it was because at that time, Britain was engaged in a war against.

In order to compete with the architectural style of the ancient Roman Empire advocated by Napoleon, it deliberately respected the architectural style of ancient Greece.

The struggle for independence and liberation of the Greek people aroused the sympathy of the European bourgeoisie and some literary artists.

Byron, an outstanding English poet, participated in the Greek War of independence and gave his life.

In the second chapter of his long poem “chard Harold”, he wrote that the beautiful Greece was once a splendid and desolate relic! You disappeared, but immortal.

Collapsed, but great! The Greek War of independence further promoted the fanatical worship of ancient Greek culture.

As Europeans gradually enriched their knowledge and deepened their understanding of ancient Greek architecture, Greek Renaissance architecture rose in Britain at the beginning of the 19th century.

Greek Revival architecture occupies an important position in Britain.

The first example is a Greek Doric temple (1758), located in the garden of Hagrid building near Birmingham, designed by James Stewart.

In 1816, he exhibited a large number of relics collected from Athens, Greece, which formed the climax of Greek Revival in Britain.

The most typical example is the British Museum.

London (1823-1847) designed by Sir Robert Smirke.

Its south facade is covered with colonnades, with outstretched wings on both wings.

The Ionian column is designed in front of the central Colonnade to construct mountain flowers with character stories.

(please keep the link for Reprint: lishi.

zhuizue.

net, thank you!) The most important base for the revival of Greece is Edinburgh, Scotland.

Edinburgh is called the new Athens, and its Carlton hill is comparable to the Acropolis of Athens.

Carlton Hill once built a national memorial imitating Parthenon.

The south slope of the mountain is the school building of Edinburgh School (1825), which was designed by Thomas Hamilton (1784 ~ 1858).

The front of the building is very wide.

In the middle, a gallery building sits high on the steps, a bit like the Mountain Gate of the Acropolis of Athens.

In addition, there are works designed by John soanel (1817 ~ 1757) and John soaner (1817 ~ 1757) in London.

In addition, there are works designed by John soanel (1817 ~ 1757) in London.

The best classical buildings in the Greek Doric style are in Germany, where colonnades and old columns are well used.

Architect Geely once designed the memorial hall for Frederick the great and the Berlin National Theater.

The forms are relatively novel, with less traditional classical charm and noble quality.

The classical revival in Germany is also dominated by the Greek revival.

For example, the Berlin Opera House (1818 ~ 1821) designed by the famous architect K.F. Schinkel is also a representative work of Greek Revival architecture.

He strongly advocated the construction of the theater according to the type of the amphitheater occupying the Greek open air.

The auditorium is a five story box type, with a total of 1821 seats, and the stage is also a box type.

The central auditorium and itsIn the front hall, there are mountain flowers on the facade, resulting in changes in the outline.

The front six pillars are Ionian colonnades, which have the characteristics of public performance architecture and do not appear as solemn as a temple.

Das Brandenburger (1789 ~ 1791) in Berlin, Germany, was designed by C.G. Carl Gothard Langhans (1732 ~ 1808) according to the Mountain Gate of the Acropolis of Athens.

As he himself said, “there is no dispute that the location of the Brandenburg gate is the most beautiful in the world.

In order to obtain more convenience and open as many doors as possible, I chose the city gate of Athens as an example when building a new city gate.”. This building “is not only the gateway to Berlin, but also the road to German neoclassicism to some extent.

” Now it has become a symbol of Berlin.

There is also the Altas Museum (1824-1828) in German Greek Renaissance architecture.

The United States also has Greek Revival buildings, Edith Hamilton commented on Greek architecture in the United States: “Greek architecture is a familiar architectural style.

We are satisfied that the sharp triangular roof is set up on a thick and strong column like a flute.

This is the style of public buildings in all cities in our country.

Wherever we see such a building, we can be sure that it is the office of an official organization .

” British architect B.

latrobel (1764 ~ 1860) designed a series of federal government buildings with typical new Greek style in Philadelphia, but the most famous is Baltimore cathedral.

Like the Greek Renaissance, the Roman Renaissance also benefited from the study of ancient Rome.

Colbert sent Antoine desgoderts to Rome and published the magnificent architecture of ancient Rome in 1682.

Giambattista Piranesi (1720-1778) was shocked and then deeply moved when he saw the ruins in Rome.

In 1748, he published Rome in the Republican era and the early days of the Empire.

In 1756, he published “his greatest and most shocking” monuments of Rome.

In 1761, he also published the magnificent ancient Roman monuments.

In 1765, he published articles debating with others, such as “views on architectural style”.

Another important reason for the revival of Rome is the excavation of Pompeii ancient city.

The ancient Roman city of Pompeii, which was buried by the lava of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, was excavated in the mid-18th century (starting in 1784) after nearly 1700 years.

European scholars were once again shocked by the simplicity and vigour of ancient art.

Even Mrs.

pombadou, the “art protector” who advocated the “Rococo” style at that time, sent a team to Pompeii to “investigate and study”.

Italy has become a place where young poets often stop.

They visit the Roman oval arena or Pantheon, think hard, and feel thousands of feelings for the fleeting glory and fame.

It was such a tourist that his trip to Italy (1786-1788) made him a world-famous poet.

His trip to the ancient Earth provided direct inspiration for some chapters of Faust and William Meister.

However, it is worth pointing out that there is a huge difference between modern classical revival architecture and classical architecture, that is, classical architecture is represented by temple and palace architecture, while classical revival architecture replaces temple with bank.

In a sense, it is the conversion of faith in God into “money fetishism”.

In Britain, the most typical representative of Roman Revival architecture is the Bank of England.

“The Bank of England is not only a financial institution, but also a symbol of the power of a new class.

The Bank of England is a symbol and symbol of the transfer of power from the old aristocracy to the emerging bourgeoisie”.

The designer of this building is John Thorne, whom we have mentioned earlier.

There are 16 imitation Roman skylights in the hall of irim, but there are 16 imitation Greek skylights in the hall of irim.

The significance of this bank building lies in the use of cast iron and a large number of glass, which have been used to create a variety of new patterns of skylights and daylighting kiosks.

The pantheon in Paris, France, is a model of infiltrating “Greek style” into Romanesque architecture.

From the late 18th century to the early 19th century, France was the stronghold of the European bourgeois revolution and the center of the classical revival movement.

Before and after the French Revolution, classical buildings such as the Pantheon (1775 ~ 1792) in Paris have appeared, which was designed by J.G. soufflot.

The Pantheon is a church dedicated to Saint schnevieff, the guardian of Paris.

In 1791, it became the cemetery of important national figures and was renamed the Pantheon.

It is the largest building in France in the 18th century.

An architectural model of enlightenment.

It is located on Mount Saint schneviev.

The plane is Greek cross and 84 meters wide.

There are six Corinthian columns in the west corridor, 19 meters high, with triangular mountain flowers on the top.

The lower part of the central dome is supported by thin columns.

The dome has three layers.

The diameter of the inner layer is 20 meters.

There is a round hole in the center.

You can see the pastel paintings on the second layer.

The outer dome is also made of stone, with a thickness of 70cm at the lower edge and only 40cm above.

The highest point of the daylighting Pavilion at the tip of the dome is 83m high.

The dome imitates St.

Paul’s Cathedral in London, but it does not have the mysterious religious atmosphere of St.

Paul’s Cathedral, but has a secular and magnificent style.

The main purpose of the Roman Renaissance architecture in France is to show off Napoleon’s government achievements.

This part of the architecture is basically in accordance with the shape of ancient Rome.

It is a typical classical retro work, which is called “lestyle Empire”.

“The political symbolism of these buildings is far greater than the actual functionality.

” (Wang Shouzhi’s words).

Its main representative works include the Madeline church designed by P.

Vignon and the military Temple designed by Barthelemy Vignon (1762 ~ 1829).

Jungong temple was rebuilt in 1799 according to the base site of l’eglise ste Marieh Madeleine in Paris to display booty.

Napoleon specified that it “should be a temple, not a church”.

After the fall of Napoleon’s empire, it was renamed Magdalene church.

It’s typical of RomeCorridor temple.

The column type of Jungong temple is Roman Corinthian, with 8 columns on the front and 18 on the side.

If measured from the outside of the column base, the temple is 44.

9 meters wide and 101.

5 meters long.

The column is 19 meters high and the base is 7 meters high.

The column spacing is exactly the same.

Behind the colonnade are large thick wallstones, and the lines are rigid.

The hall of Jungong temple is covered by three flat domes, which are made of cast iron.

The Arc de Triomphe is the most Roman style.

During this period, there were altor Arc de Triomphe (1806-1836) designed by palgrin and Napoleon’s “Arc de Triomphe de la parade”, which were typical representative works of Roman style, and the grand master Arc de Triomphe was the most famous of them.

The arcde Triomphe is located in the square at the west end of the Champs Elysees (formerly known as the star square), also known as the star square arc de Triomphe.

In 1806, Napoleon I decided to build the Arc de Triomphe in memory of the French army’s defeat of the Russian Austrian coalition in the famous battle of Austerlitz, which was completed in 1836.

The designers were Jean Francois Chalgrin (1739-1811) and broet.

In 1854, alpander designed and built the circular road, where 12 forest vaginas meet.

The Arc de Triomphe is the gateway to the Champs Elysees.

It is 48.

8m high, 44.

5M wide and 22.

2m thick.

The front ticket door is 36.

6m high and 14.

6m wide.

Such a tall building adopts the simplest square composition, which is composed of eaves, wall body and base.

The “Marseille” group carvings on the front and north sides of the outer wall were made by the French sculptor F.

rude (1784 ~ 1855).

The scale is very large.

A portrait is 5 ~ 6 meters high.

The inner wall of the Arc de Triomphe is engraved with reliefs of Napoleon’s 96 victories.

This makes the Arc de Triomphe a particularly solemn and magnificent monument like building.

After that, the architectural trend of Roman revival flourished in France.

One of the most important buildings is the Bordeaux theater.

Le Grand th é atre, Bordeaux (1775-1780), 46.

5 meters wide and 85 meters long, has 12 Corinthian columns.

Like La SCA La, 1776 in Milan, Italy, it marks the maturity of the horseshoe shaped multi-storey box auditorium.

Before the independence of the United States, the architectural modeling was in European style, so the classical revival architecture was very popular in the United States, especially the Roman revival.

The houses of Parliament, built in 1793, was originally designed by W.

Thornton (1759-1828), presided over by Stephen Harriet, and later replaced by James Hoban (1762-1831).

This building is an example of the revival of Rome.

It imitates the shape of the pantheon in Paris and tries its best to show its majestic commemoration.

It was built in 1828, but due to the destruction of the war, it was rebuilt and expanded from 1851 to 1867.

Thomas U.

Walter (1804-1887) was responsible for adding two wings and the dome of the central hall.

It is a cast-iron shell to express the solemn meaning of the power organs of the Senate and house of Representatives.

This government building fully shows the national self-esteem and self-confidence, creating a new scale and huge complete building complex.

Gothic Revival architectural romanticism is another main trend of thought active in the field of European literature and art from the second half of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century.

It has also been reflected in architecture.

On the one hand, romanticism advocates “going back to the Middle Ages” and is associated with Gothic architecture in the field of architecture.

Therefore, romanticism is also known as Gothic revival.

From the late 19th century to the late 1930s, Gothic revived.

Italian architect L.

benevog said that since the mid-18th century, there has been the possibility of imitating Gothic architecture rather than classical form in architectural thought.

Its phenomenon appears in the marginal part of the whole neoclassicism circle, looming and looming, implicitly determining the customary characteristics of neoclassicism.

In the 18th century, the use of Gothic form seems to be part of the pursuit of exotic, and has a strong literary meaning.

In 1742, Langley published an exploratory paper entitled “the revival and improvement of Gothic architecture”.

The article tried to introduce a new French style from the medieval form, but his attempt had no impact.

Debret praised the Gothic style in the Encyclopedia of modern times in 1842.

But he sees it as a “strong and crazy imagination that seems to have turned dreams into reality.

” Chateau Brion, a French romantic writer, is very fond of Gothic architecture.

The novel Notre Dame de Paris, written by Victor in 1831, was republished in the second year with three additional chapters.

The book is considered “a declaration of Catholic national creed and the restoration, if not revival, of Gothic architecture”.

What he wants to arouse is his feelings for national architecture.

Gothic architecture is opposite to classical architecture, which is clearly understood in Somerset’s classical architectural language.

However, according to Patrick newkins, the central problem and common situation for architects who follow the trend is to find a style that reflects the changes of the times.

They inherited the clarity of their formal language from the understanding and experience of classicism 100 years ago, especially the expression of authority by classicism and neoclassicism architectural art.

Each of them needed authority, and Gothic became the opponent of the classical system.

After the romantic movement in literature, people finally found that the towering spire form of Gothic style is the appropriate background to arouse imagination and mystery.

At that time, there were many other styles, such as Renaissance style, Baroque style, Chinese style and Saxon style, and new styles appeared every year, but classical style and Gothic style were the main rivals in this style war.

In particular, Gothic, which is popular again, has grown and matured as usual – from superficial curiosity to in-depth understanding, and then to handy free expression.

Indeed, Gothic architecture can “evoke imagination and mystery”.

At the same time, its re popularity does not mean that people are negative or reactionary, but a cycle and resurgence.

Gothic Revival architecture is the most obvious embodiment in Britain, Augustus WelbyPoint.

In addition, a comment on these historical styles is also given to facilitate the purchase of owners, for example: Classicism represents justice, Gothic represents piety, Renaissance represents elegance, Baroque represents wealth, and so on.

In the second half of the 19th century, the architectural history of Europe and North America joined together, and the significance of national boundaries has been very small.

At this time, on the front stage, from ancient Egypt and Greece to India and Islam, to Baroque and classicism, and even the Greek Revival and Gothic revival, all kinds of buildings are staged at the same time, like a gala performance for thousands of years.

At the end, all the characters in all the programs come together to perform the finale of the curtain call.

In this historical style conference, various styles have their own true meaning.

For example, churches are built in Gothic style, government buildings or banks are built in classicism, clubs are built in Renaissance style, while houses are Spanish style, theatres are Baroque, and so on.

At this time, there was an understanding of the character of various buildings in architecture, which obviously benefited from people’s familiarity and comparative study of various historical styles.

There are also some architects who deliberately seek novelty and mix different styles into a building.

But to succeed, we must transform it in order to achieve harmony.

Later, such works gradually increased, and there were fewer works with pure historical style.

German roof, French pilaster and Italian Baroque mountain flowers are mixed together, and there is no lineage in one continuous line.

In 1836, de muse, a French poet, playwright and novelist, wrote: we have no form of our own in this century.

We have not left the mark of our time in our houses, nor in our gardens, nor anywhere.

We have everything except our own century.

In architecture, in terms of the performance of the front stage, this phenomenon continued until the 1920s.

The most typical representative of eclecticism is the Paris Opera House.

The Paris Opera House (oprade Paris) broke ground in 1861 and was completed in 1874 due to the Franco Prussian War and the uprising of the Paris Commune.

It is an important monument of the first empire of France and one of the strongholds in the planning of Ottoman reconstruction of Paris in Napoleon’s third era.

The building was designed by the architect Charles Garnier (1825-1898).

The composition skeleton of its facade is the style of the Louvre, but with the late Italian Baroque style, mixed with some classical techniques and cumbersome Rococo carving.

The entrance and lounge are magnificent and colorful.

The staircase is very full, with three folding halls.

Its stage is relatively perfect, 32 meters wide, 27 meters deep and 33 meters high above.

The auditorium is very luxurious.

It is a horseshoe shaped multi-storey box.

Its top is like a crown.

There are 2150 very comfortable seats distributed in the pool seat and the surrounding four storey boxes.

This building shows not only aristocratic taste, but also the luxury of the emerging class.