Pompeii is an ancient city with a long history in Italy and a great pride of ancient Rome.
It is located in the bay of Naples in the southwest corner of Italy.
Few places in the world have such rich natural resources as the bay of Naples.
It enjoys abundant water resources, mineral rich volcanic ash and the most fertile land on the Italian peninsula.
It can have two or more harvests in a year.
The climate here is mild, the winter is short, the spring and autumn are long, and the summer is not too hot due to the sea breeze.
The bay provides an excellent anchorage, and fishermen gain a lot from it.
About two thousand years ago, on the fertile land of the Gulf of Naples in Italy, in the south of Mount Vesuvius, there was a small town called Pompeii.
The first people to live here were the osks.
In the 6th century BC, the Greeks came here and brought advanced Greek civilization.
Then came a group of people from Tuscany in central Italy, who brought the oldest Etruscan civilization in Italy.
Pompeii grew up under the common nurturing of Greek culture and Etruscan culture.
In the 3rd century BC, Pompeii belonged to the Roman Republic.
In the period of Augustus Empire, Pompeii has become a very prosperous commercial city and tourist attraction.
In the first century AD, the domestic and foreign trade of the Roman Empire was developed, and Pompeii became an important place for berthing and loading ships.
By 62 ad, the population of Pompeii had increased to 25000.
Although it has been buried for more than 1700 years, the old style of Pompeii can still be seen through these remaining columns.
Pompeii has beautiful scenery with its back to the mountain and the sea.
The richest and noblest families in Rome have built extremely luxurious country villas here.
Cicero, a famous politician and speaker, owns three real estate nearby.
The ancient city of Pompeii was built on an oval platform with an area of about 63 hectares.
It was 1200 meters long from east to west, 700 meters wide from north to South and 3800 meters long.
The city wall is made of stone.
The masonry city wall is 3 kilometers long and is surrounded by 8 gates, including 2 in the East and 2 in the south, 1 in the West and 3 in the north.
There are also 14 city towers.
At that time, “the gate to the city of Marina” was the most important gate to the sea.
The streets are paved with stone slabs, on which two deep ruts are left, showing the prosperity of Pompeii city.
The main street is about seven meters wide with sidewalks on both sides.
On the sidewalk, a stone higher than the road is buried every other step.
This is convenient for pedestrians to walk in rainy days.
At the intersection of each large street, a half person high stone pool with statues is installed.
The ground mosaic of marine life, which is located in Pompeii city, depicts the images of various creatures in the sea, which is inlaid by a large number of small stones, glass, black pottery and so on.
They are connected with a long brick aqueduct, which introduces the spring on the top of the mountain outside the city to the city for residents to drink.
The streets of the whole city are straight, and the four main streets crossing into a “well” shape divide the whole city into nine districts.
The first and second districts are in the south, with the famous Pompeii arena.
The third, fourth, fifth and ninth districts are undeveloped areas in the Northeast.
The sixth, seventh and eighth districts are close to the west, and the Sixth District is in the northwest.
It is the political, economic and religious center of the ancient city.
Eight districts are in the southwest, and seven districts are between six and eight districts.
These three districts belong to the downtown area of the city, and the large and small theatres are in the eighth district.
Not far along Marina Avenue is the famous Pompeii square.
Pompeii square is the center of urban public life, religious activities and commerce.
It covers an area of about 15000 square meters, 142 meters long from north to South and 83 meters wide from east to west.
It is surrounded by a covered colonnade.
The column is more than ten meters high and thick for two people to hug.
In the middle of the north end is the temple of Jupiter, the main Roman god.
At the two corners are the two triumphal arches of emperor turius and gelmanicus.
In the south is the City Council, as well as the statues of emperors such as Augustus, Claudius and Nero.
In the southeast of the square, there is a public meeting place.
In the East, there is the temple of the emperor of Weber Township and the auction house.
In the northeast, there is the market.
There is a rectangular two-story building at the south end of the west side of the square.
To the north of the building is the temple of the famous sun god Apollo.
There is also a public bathroom in the northwest corner of the square.
Pompeii ancient city there are two large and small open-air theaters in the eighth District of the downtown area of Pompeii.
The Grand Theater, which can hold 5000 people, was built in the style of ancient Greek theater in the third century BC.
The small theater is located opposite the Grand Theater and has about 1200 seats.
In ancient times, it was a place for performing drama and music.
The arena is located in the East and south corner of Pompeii.
It was built in 15 BC.
It can accommodate 12000 people and has boxes.
It is considered to be the earliest building of this style in ancient Rome.
There is a commercial flower bed near the competition.
There are plant specimens, watering appliances, pollen and perfume bottles.
They are used to make perfume and topical oil.
The three public bathrooms excavated in Pompeii are basically complete.
In ancient Rome, bathrooms were not only hygienic places, but also important places for public gatherings.
There are also places for reading books and sports activities, so the construction cost is high.
The municipal authorities appeal to wealthy citizens to contribute and engrave the names of all donors on the bathroom wall.
The public bathroom is arched with large stone blocks, and the walls are polished tuff.
Each bathroom is divided into two rooms for men and women, with dressing rooms, cold water bathrooms, warm water bathrooms and hot water steam bathrooms.
The furnishings and decoration of the whole bathroom are very particular.
There are reliefs, murals and statues on the eaves of the colonnade, as well as stone reclining chairs.
Surprisingly, there is also a small fountain dedicated to washing lips in the women’s bathroom.
These public baths use unified and centralized boilers to boil water, and then send the water to men’s and women’s bathrooms.
The ceiling of the bathroom is built into a circular arch, so that the indoor water vapor rises to the ceiling and condenses into water droplets, and then flows down slowly along the circular arch and into a small sink specially dug out on the wall, rather than dripping on the bathers.
Luxury residential buildings were popular in Pompeii at that time, among which the most representative were Vitti’s house and Funo’s house.
Vitti’s house is famous for its opulence.
Its architecture imitates the style of the 4th century BC and strives for ancient elegance.
Funo’s house is also very magnificent.
There are large bronze statues showing the happy dance of master Funo and an arched ring supported by 28 stone columns.
In his living room is a famous large mosaic《”The battle of isiu”, the painting vividly shows the fighting scene between the king of Macedonia and the king of Persia in the battle of isiu in 333 BC: the painting is 6.
5 meters wide and 3.
8 meters high.
It is said to be inlaid with about 1.
5 million pieces of colored glass and marble.
There is also a “secret instrument villa”, in which 29 women live.
They all have strong bodies and are holding a religious ceremony to worship Dionysus, the God of wine.
An indoor theater with a seating capacity of 1200 people, some of which were destroyed by the earthquake of 62 A.D. In Pompeii, in addition to Marina street, there is also a famous “abundance Street”.
There are workshops for woolen fabrics, jewelry, spices, glass, stone carvings, ironware, etc.
there are many shops, and shops, hotels and inns are all over the streets.
A wide range of goods and booming business.
In a small hotel, the boss is calculating today’s turnover and the amount of money on credit of some customers.
On the counter of a drugstore, a box of pills turned into crumbs, and there was a small round medicine strip that the pharmacist had no time to put away when rubbing the pills.
In the oven of a bakery, there is also a piece of baked bread with the name of the Baker.
At the end of “Fengyu Street” is the largest building in the city, the court building.
The court building is also the seat of the chamber of Commerce.
Local products, Chinese silk and African ivory are negotiated here.
At that time, the dignitaries and nobles living in Pompeii used “wax books” to communicate.
In fact, the production of “wax book” is very simple: first, use a needle made of ivory, bone and metal to write on the wax plate embedded in square wood, and then thread and bind multiple wood plates with ropes to form a volume of board book.
The bustling Pompeii city, even the air, is filled with an atmosphere of leisure and pleasure.
The people here live so comfortable and comfortable, but they never dreamed that bad luck is quietly coming to them, and this bad luck comes from the Vesuvius volcano, which has been sleeping with them for centuries.
Mount Vesuvius, whose eruption destroyed Pompeii’s prosperity.
Mount Vesuvius is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, with an altitude of 1280 meters, located more than ten kilometers northwest of Pompeii city.
The first recorded volcanic eruption on earth was Mount Vesuvius.
However, in early AD, the famous geographer Strabo concluded that it was an dead volcano according to the geomorphic characteristics of Vesuvius.
At that time, Pompeii people fully believed Strabo’s judgment and didn’t care about Vesuvius.
Green crops are planted on both sides of the volcano, and the plain is full of lemon and orange forests, as well as other orchards and vineyards.
Although sometimes the temperature is relatively high, it is not considered an unknown sign.
People planted orchards on the hillside, reclaimed pastures, and animals ran through the bushes on the top of the mountain.
Before the disaster in AD 79, the residents around the volcano had been safe with it for more than 1000 years.
However, since its birth, the earth has been in constant motion and change.
Over the years, the huge pressure from the earth’s interior has accumulated day by day, causing the continuous compression and collision between the two plates constituting the earth’s crust – the African continent and the Eurasian continent, which makes the edge of the seabed of the middle sea sink deep into the earth’s interior, Vesuvius volcano and a series of volcanoes on the West Bank of Italy are the products of this geological movement.
Therefore, although it is called “Millennium dead volcano”, Mount Vesuvius still has the possibility of waking up and erupting at any time, and its power and lethality are unpredictable.
In AD 62, the first major earthquake occurred in Pompeii and its surrounding areas.
Houses and villas collapsed, the urban pipeline system was damaged, many people died in the rubble, 600 sheep were swallowed by the earth, statues fell from their bases and were smashed.
Panic stricken people were everywhere, so that the then Roman Emperor considered abandoning the place.
The earthquake is actually a precursor to the awakening of Mount Vesuvius.
The long imprisoned pressure inside the earth is finally about to be released.
However, people didn’t realize this.
They just worked hard to rebuild their homes after the earthquake and were as busy as ever.
Unknowingly, the haze has enveloped this land.
As the pressure inside the earth gradually increased, the area around Mount Vesuvius trembled many times, the water wells dried up, and the animals on the ground were restless.
Some people who had experienced the earthquake in A.D. 62 packed up their belongings and fled the place.
In the early morning of August 24, the devastating disaster finally came.
Volcanic ash began to overflow from the crater, and the demon who had been sleeping for thousands of years slowly stretched out.
At about 1 p.m., a strange cloud rose slowly from the top of the mountain and spread around.
Then there was a deafening explosion.
Mount Vesuvius was like a skyrocketing gun, spraying thick molten slurry up to 17 miles at about twice the speed of sound.
The molten slurry was crushed into small particles in the air and diffused into a large cloud.
With the airflow moving to the southeast, it soon shrouded several nearby cities.
The rain formed by a large amount of hot steam from the volcano poured down, the mountain torrents washed away the rock, soil and volcanic ash, the huge earth rock flow rushed down the valley, and the air was filled with choking sulfur and thick smoke.
Seeing the disaster coming, Pompeii city on the edge of the volcano fell into a panic.
Most people chose to flee with various means of transportation, but more than 1000 people still stayed.
Some of them were to find their relatives, some were nostalgic for the property of their hometown, and some were old, weak, sick and disabled with limited mobility.
Only two or three hours after the end of Pompeii, the pumice and stones covering the surface of Pompeii have reached a foot thick, and the buildings began to collapse.
People were either hit by pumice, pressed under collapsed buildings, or buried in fire and explosion.
Pliny, then commander of the Roman Cavalry and fleet, was stationed with his fleet at miserno in the northwest corner of the Gulf of Naples.
After the eruption of the volcano, he led several subordinates to take a large ship to inspect it.
He was hit by volcanic rocks surging rapidly and died of poisoning and suffocation.
His nephew, stepson and author Pliny Jr.
As more rock particles fall, the thickness of pumice on Pompeii’s ground is also increasing at an alarming rate, reaching a rate of thickening of six feet per hour.
Panicked people crawled on the accumulated pumice, while others clustered under the ridge that had not been crushed by the rock.
This is a time of disaster.
In oneThis is a rich man’s residence.
The house is under repair.
The owner’s family and craftsmen hid in an aisle during the disaster and all died together.
In a villa in the suburb, 20 owners and slaves hid in the cellar during the disaster, and they died together.
The scene was very tragic.
Everything seemed to have happened yesterday.
In the next few hours, the volcano ejected violently six times, and the hot volcanic cloud swept the whole Pompeii.
No human or animal was spared wherever they went.
People on the verge of death shouted and struggled to beg for the coming of the God of protection.
Unfortunately, this darkness really came to the world.
The last eruption of ash covered almost all the pain of the remaining cities.
After 18 hours, the momentum of Mount Vesuvius began to weaken, and Pompeii had long disappeared from people’s vision and became a piece of ruins.