I.

sectarian struggle before independence as mentioned above, sectarian struggle in India has appeared since ancient times.

At that time, it was mainly manifested in the struggle between Buddhism, Jainism, Brahmanism and Hinduism.

After the middle ages, with the introduction of Islam, the sectarian conflict in the Indian subcontinent was mainly manifested in the contradiction between Islam and Hinduism.

Before the British colonial invasion, this contradiction was quite acute.

After the establishment of British colonialism in India, sectarianism and sectarian conflict appeared in a new form.

As the British invaders brought severe disasters to all classes and religious groups in India, the sectarian struggle of various religious forces in India was reduced to a secondary position in the early stage of colonial rule (from the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century).

They aimed the main edge of the struggle at the common enemy – pagan Britons.

Here, Hinduism and Islam can live in harmony in the anti British struggle.

In the great uprising of 1857, the deeds of the people of the two religions in jointly resisting Britain are well known.

However, since the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, with the emergence and development of Islamic national and religious consciousness, that is, Islamic sectarian autonomy, the desire for autonomy has become increasingly strong.

At the same time, in order to undermine the process of the national liberation struggle of India, British colonialism used this sectarian autonomy to provoke the relationship between the two major religious groups and implement the policy of “divide and rule”, This has exacerbated the sectarian contradiction between Hinduism and Islam.

After the 1880s, some Islamic groups asked the British colonial authorities to give preferential treatment when electing candidates for posts in colonial administrative organs.

In 1882, the central Islamic Association submitted a memorandum containing the above requirements to the governor of India.

The British authorities immediately seized the opportunity to support the plan without hesitation.

They tried to find their support in Islamic groups, especially among their upper class figures.

In 1885, the British colonial authorities decided to recommend that local colonial administrations increase the number of Islamists when electing candidates for the post of colonial administration in Jiangjiang.

Since then, it has laid a curse for intensifying the conflict between Hindus and Islamists.

At the same time, in order to weaken the role and influence of the Congress party, the first all India bourgeois party just established in India, in the national liberation movement, the British authorities consciously portrayed the Congress party as a Hindu group and stirred up the relationship between Islamic groups and the Congress party.

Some Islamic sectarian organizations and factions began to show an obvious tendency of opposition or hostility to the Congress party.

For example, Sayid Ahmad Khan, the leader of aliga college, openly declared in his works that the main enemy of Hindu Islamists is not the British, but the Congress Party and other political groups of the Indian bourgeoisie.

Under the direct instigation of the colonial authorities, some Islamic religious groups put forward slogans to protect the rights of Muslims and oppose Hindu rule.

In 1893, there was a large-scale conflict between the two major sects in Mumbai, with heavy casualties on both sides.

After entering the 20th century, facing the climax of the Indian national liberation movement from 1905 to 1908, the British colonial authorities further adopted the policy of “divide and rule”, one of the most vicious of which was the partition of Bangladesh, the center of the Indian national movement.

Bangladesh province is one of the earliest capitalist economic development areas in India.

At that time, the province had a population of more than 75 million, of which half were Hindus and half were Muslims.

Islamists are concentrated in East Bengal and Hindus in West Bengal.

In 1905, the governor of the colonial government, corzon, decided to divide Bangladesh into East and west provinces.

His purpose was to incite hatred between the two major religions in order to weaken the national movement in Bangladesh and then the national movement in all India.

During this period, Islamic sectarian autonomy has further developed.

In February 1906, an All India Islamic political organization, the Muslim League, was established in Dhaka.

The upper Islamic delegation of the Agali college visited the governor and asked him to set up another electoral unit for the Islamists during the Legislative Council election and the municipal organ election, and increase the representation seats of the Islamists and the privilege of serving in the colonial government organs.

The British governor immediately agreed.

Assam Province in East Bangladesh first announced the priority of accepting Islamists as government officials.

In the elections of county government and Municipal Council, the amount of property of Hindus is five times higher than that of Islamists.

These new measures have won the favor of Muslims.

In East Bengal and other places, the upper Muslim class organized mass rallies and processions to express their loyalty to the British colonial authorities, support the partition of Bangladesh, and put forward the “religious protection movement” against the slogan of “promoting domestic products”.

British colonialists took the opportunity to preach that the national movement was a Hindu movement threatening the “happiness of Indian Muslims”, while the British colonial authorities acted as a “fortress against Hindu rule”.

In the spring and summer of 1907, under the instigation of British colonialism, there was a bloody conflict between Hindus and Islamists in East Bangladesh.

Temples were destroyed, shops were robbed and many people were killed.

The antagonism between the two sects has risen sharply, and sects everywhere have joined the two sects.

Sectarian conflict undoubtedly weakened the climax of the national movement from 1905 to 1908.

In 1916, the Muslim League and the Congress party held a conference in Calcutta to jointly oppose Britain and published the Lucknow Convention for self-government.

The Convention also recognizes the principle of sectarian autonomy.

However, the time of unity between the two religions is very short.

After entering the 1920s, the situation changed suddenly and the sectarian conflict further escalated.

From April 1926 to March 1927 alone, large-scale conflicts occurred as many as 40 times, 197 people were killed and 1508 injured.

The two religious organizations have constantly set off fanatical sectarian movements.

Such as “pagans joining the Islamic Movement”, “rebellious re-entry into Hinduism movement”, “protection of Hinduism movement”, and so on.

In addition to the sectarian hatred provoked by the British authorities, Hindu fanatics, especially the Hindu lent society, played an important role in this situation.

The organization was established in 1923.

It put forward slogans such as “Hindu country, Muslim conversion”, launched the “cow protection” campaign, promoted Hindi, promoted Hindu festivals and so on.

Haldayar Lal, one of the leaders of the conference, published a militant Hindu platform in the newspaper power: “I declare that the future of Hindu races in Hindustan and Punjab is based on the following four pillars: (1) Hindu groups.

(2) Hindu rule.

(3) Islamists join Hinduism.

(4) Conquer Afghanistan and the border areas and make them Hindu.

Before the Hindus complete these four tasks, the security of our future generations will be threatened, and it will be impossible for the Hindu race to live in peace “.

Another important factor is the increasing Hinduism of the Indian Congress party.

Its famous leaders used Hindu asceticism and non violence as a means of national liberation movement.

PAM Dodd once commented sharply: “in all Gandhi’s propaganda, advocating Hinduism and his religious ideas is inextricably mixed with advocating the overall political goal.

” Asked, “the selected leaders of the national assembly and its main representatives in the eyes of the public have always appeared as positive leaders of Hinduism and Hindu revival”.

Gandhi claimed to be a “sanatanist Hindu” believer.

He said: “I first believe in the Vedas, w righteousness, ancient Indian history and everything commonly known as Hindu classics, so I also believe in reincarnation and regeneration”.

“Second, I believe in the caste system and traditional way of life, and I advocate strictly following the meaning of the Vedic”.

“Third, I believe in the doctrine of protecting cows, which is much more significant than popular”.

“Fourth, I don’t believe in idolatry.”. The British colonial authorities used this weapon of extreme Hindu sectarianism to incite sectarian hatred and kill and deal with the people’s anti British movement, while Gandhi “helped to give that weapon to it”.

During the Second World War, Islamic sectarian autonomy developed into “religious nationalism”, that is, it called for the establishment of the Islamic state.

In March 1940, the famous “Pakistan resolution” (also known as Lahore resolution) for the formal establishment of the Islamic state was adopted at the Muslim League meeting.

In order to maintain the interests in the South Asian subcontinent and further split and unify the national movement, the British colonial authorities strongly supported the requirements of Islamic autonomy.

After the Second World War, the anti British struggle of the Indian people entered the final stage of realizing national independence.

The British authorities were forced to hold the election of the constitutional assembly and promised to establish an interim government with the participation of Indians.

In June 1946, after the election of the constituent assembly was concluded C, the leaders of the Muslim League refused to participate in the interim government and declared that the only way for Indian Muslims was to establish a Muslim state.

On August 16 of the same year, Muslims held a demonstration in Calcutta.

The British colonial authorities used spies to destroy Hindu shops and houses.

In retaliation, Hindu lent and other groups organized teams to attack Muslims, resulting in bloody clashes and many casualties.

After the refugees who fled Calcutta went to East Bengal and Bihar, there was a chain reaction, causing bloody conflicts in these areas.

In March 1947, the sectarian conflict further expanded.

In several cities in Punjab, rioters even used rifles and machine robbers.

More than 4000 people died in Rawalpindi alone.

Eight hundred people died in one township.

Sectarian violence spread across the country.

On June 3, 1947, the British colonial authorities dished out the infamous “Mongolia plan” and divided British India into two autonomous territories, Hindustan and Pakistan.

On August 14 and 15, 1947, the two countries were officially born, and India and Pakistan were officially divided.

After the partition of India and Pakistan, Muslim League, Hindu lent and other sectarian organizations publicized that Hindus moved out of Pakistan and Muslims moved out of Hindustan.

The migration of refugees from both sides led to an unprecedented scale of hatred and killing in Indian history.

In less than a few months, many cities became ruins and corpses were everywhere.

It is estimated that 500000 people were killed and 12 million people were homeless.

As many as 14 million refugees fled each other, and 25 million people suffered huge material losses.

This so-called “bloodless revolution” has caused more suffering than any civil war in history, and brought a series of serious economic, political and social difficulties and problems to the two countries after partition. II. After independence, the religious policy of the Indian government fought against Indo Hui sects.

After India’s independence, the leaders of the Congress party recognized the serious harm of sectarianism to a certain extent, and Gandhi and Nehru condemned sectarianism more than once.

Nehru once pointed out that “the religious and political alliance in the face of Hindu sectarianism is the most dangerous alliance, which will have the most serious consequences.

” Nehru also described Hindu sectarianism as “a variant of fascism in India”.

Indian Democrats also pointed out that sectarianism has become a serious danger to India’s national unity, so it is also a danger to India’s democracy and national independence.

In order to strive for a stable political situation, ease social contradictions and maintain the unity of Indian society, the Congress Party and its government generally adhere to the principle of separation of politics and religion and abide by the belief that modern India should become a secular country.

This secularism is clearly stated and stipulated in the constitution of the Congress Party and in Indian propaganda documents.

Its party constitution stipulates that all active party members “do not believe in or perform any form of inaccessible system, but should strive to eliminate it” and “believe in a unified society without class or caste differences”.

The Indian constitution published in 1950 sets “secularization” as the main goal of the Republic of India, and puts forward slogans such as religious equality, separation of politics and religion, and maintaining national integrity.

The Constitution stipulates that all citizens have the right to profess, perform and publicize religion.

No citizen is affected by gender, place of birth, religion, race or caste in terms of election, employment, employment and education.

The secularism of the Indian government is mainly reflected in three aspects: (1) freedom of religious belief, but religion shall not interfere in politics.

The state treats all religions equally and does not declare a certain religion as a state religion.

Nehru sought to establish a “free secular state” in India.

“The state should protect all religions, but not close to one religion and alienate other religions”.

(2) It advocates that in terms of social economy, the interests of minority groups should be deeply protected and taken care of.

Nehru called on people to “remember that the interests and welfare of minority groups are their sacred belief.

If they do not have this belief, they will harm not only the country, but also themselves”.

(3) It advocates that society is not dominated by caste, and holds that the existence of caste system is incompatible with the secular concept.

Based on the above guiding ideology, the Indian government has taken various legislative and administrative measures to weaken the influence of sectarianism and avoid sectarian conflict.

However, in the past 40 years after independence, sectarian disputes and conflicts have not been cleared up, but have further developed under the new situation, the most prominent of which is the conflict between Hinduism and MuslimsSectarian struggle.

After the partition of India and Pakistan, the dispute between Hinduism and Islam was temporarily eased.

From the early 1950s to the late 1950s, the dispute between the two sects was basically calm.

Since the beginning of the 1960s, there have been repeated sectarian conflicts of different scales.

According to incomplete statistics, there were 26 conflicts between Hindus and Islamists in 1960, increased to 92 in 1961, 132 in 1966 and 421 in 1980.

In 1977, 36 people died and 1122 were injured in religious conflicts (mainly Muslims).

The corresponding figures in 1978 were 110 and 1853 respectively.

In 1979, there were 258 and 2296.

In 1980, there were 372 and 2691.

These conflicts generally occur in urban areas where Muslims account for 20% to 40%.

The riots first occurred in the northern states, especially in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and less in the southern states.

With the passage of time, such conflicts have become more and more cruel, more and more bloodshed, and all kinds of killing weapons are increasingly used in conflicts.

There are many reasons why the dispute between India and Mu is continuous and growing: first, the activities of Hindu sectarian organizations are rampant after independence, trying to advocate that Hinduism is above all else.

The main organizations of Hindu sectarianism include Hindu lent, national volunteer group, Aryan society, Shiva army, people’s alliance, etc.

, among which the national volunteer group is the most active.

The organization was founded in 1925 by K. B. hechivo.

Its members wear uniform clothes, take political and military training courses every day, and have had bloody conflicts with Muslims many times.

It was banned by the Indian government in 1948 for the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi by its members.

After 1949, it resumed under the banner of cultural organization, and now has nearly 5000 branches and more than 600000 members.

In 1951, a large number of its backbones formed the “people’s alliance” to run for seats.

Most of its members were Hindu high castes, urban middle class and citizens.

Its power is mainly in Marathi speaking areas and Northwest China.

The leaders of the organization continue to advocate Hindu sectarian theory.

“Here in Hindustan, the Hindu race and its Hinduism, Hindu culture and Hindu language together constitute the Hindu nation,” they said They also stressed that “only those who praise the Hindu race and nation and do their best to achieve this goal are true nationalists and patriots.

” As for non Hindus, “if they refuse to give up all their different characteristics from Hindus and do not completely melt into the Hindu national caste, India will have no room for their national survival.

” The leaders of the national volunteer corps announced the elimination of small religions in India and made the establishment of a theocratic state in India their ultimate goal.

These sectarian organizations use various methods and means to create sectarian consciousness among the people of the whole country.

In January 1982, the national volunteer corps held a “training camp” in Bangalore.

21287 “volunteers”, aged from 14 to 80, were trained to instill the concept of religious chauvinism.

On the day after the training, a parade was held, with 20000 participants wearing traditional clothes – dark green shorts, white shirts and blue single hats.

Sectarian organizations instill religious awareness into the masses through printed publications and other news means.

The former chairman of the people’s League, chief B.

madho, admitted that the people’s League and the national volunteer corps now publish 10 daily newspapers and 50 weekly magazines.

They have their own news agency “Hindustan news agency” and several publishing houses.

There is also an academic research center in depa.

It is through these organizations, propaganda and activities that many Muslims know Hindus.

They gradually felt that the Indians could not protect their interests and property security, but had disgust and revenge for Hinduism.

Second, some religious organizations of Indian Muslims continue to advocate separatism.

After India’s independence, some Muslim organizations in India have always advocated that Muslims should organize independently to protect their own interests and maintain their original culture, language and religion.

On]0 29 June 1967, the All India Muslim League was established. ‘l.s. sait, the general secretary of the league, declared that the organization was “the only representative body of Muslims”.

It “speaks only for Muslims in India”.

In March 1971, Muslims from all over India held an All India Muslim political conference in New Delhi to participate in the general election.

The General Assembly adopted six resolutions on fighting for the interests of Muslims.

Since then, the activities of all India and Mu League organizations have become more frequent, and branch organizations have been established in Muslim residential areas and towns.

On August 5, 1973, the Mu League organization in Uttar Pradesh was established, and some local organizations in the state openly advocated the separation of Muslims from India.

On December 27, 1979, all India Muslim organizations held a meeting and formed the “Muslim National Front” in an attempt to obtain a majority of seats in the general election.

The organization’s Muslim leaders have repeatedly stated that their compatriots have been the most unfortunate victims since independence.

Their interests have been ignored by the national leadership.

They even said, “we have lost everything – government, honor, property and Urdu.

If we deprive our religion and the rights entrusted to us by Allah, we will decline with nothing.”. Such remarks and actions cannot fail to widen the inherent gap between India and mu.

Some Indian scholars believe that the above-mentioned “separatism” among Muslims is the first and most important reason for sectarian disputes.

Third, Pakistan supports the sectarianism of Muslims in India.

Muslims in India and Muslims in Pakistan were originally related by flesh and blood, and they separated in the two countries only after independence.

Therefore, Cheng Silin in India is close to Muslims in Pakistan outside the country, and they say the same thing from the same position.

As an Indian scholar said, “The existence of Pakistan is another factor contributing to or stimulating the emergence of sectarianism in India.

Whenever there is a conflict between India and Pakistan, Pakistani leaders, radio and newspaper departments do not ask anything, but talk freely, attribute everything here to the genocide of Indians against Muslims, and accuse the Indian government of” appeasing and supporting traitors “for this” crime “.

Although such comments are somewhat, they reflect the real situation to a certain extent.

For example, when there was a sectarian dispute in India in 1961, some important issues in PakistanTo quell the riots, Britain.

The Gandhi government had agreed to negotiate with Sikh leaders on the Punjab issue, but the two sides failed to reach an agreement.

Subsequently, the situation in the state worsened.

Sikh militants fought a gun battle with Indian security forces in Amritsar.

On June 1, 1984, some Sikh gunmen hid in the Golden Temple in Amritsar city and exchanged fire with the security forces for seven hours.

The akhali party also decided to launch a “non cooperation movement” on June 3 to prevent the transportation of food out of Punjab.

In the face of escalating riots, the Indian army was ordered to enter Punjab on June 2 and surround the golden temple.

On June 5, the Indian army launched an attack on the Golden Temple and occupied the golden temple the next morning.

According to the official announcement, more than 500 people were killed, more than 1500 injured and more than 7000 arrested in the Golden Temple incident.

Sikh spiritual leader s.

bingranwale and the president of the All India student union died in the golden temple.

The Indian army’s occupation of the Golden Temple caused strong opposition from Sikhs, which seriously hurt the religious and national feelings of Sikhs, further caused the great hatred between Sikhs and Hindus, and exacerbated the opposition and hatred between Sikhs and the central government.

On October 31 of the same year, three Sikh guards shot and killed Prime Minister Gandhi.

After the incident, there was a big vendetta against Sikhs by Hindus.

The capital New Delhi and some other cities were temporarily plunged into sectarian riots, thousands of dead and injured, tens of thousands of houses were burned down and about 30000 people were homeless.

“This is the most serious incident since 1947,” said the Indian newspaper statesman After Rajiv Gandhi became prime minister, he signed a Punjab agreement with the moderate leaders of Sikhs in July 1985, agreed to assign Chandigarh to Punjab, agreed to formulate the All India Sikh Temple law, and let the moderate of akali party take control of the state power, so as to ease the contradiction between Sikhs and the central government.

However, since the second half of 1986, the situation has deteriorated again.

Sikh extremists have never given up the requirement of establishing “kalistan”.

Terrorist activities continue to appear, and many Hindus are forced to move out of Punjab.

On January 26, 1987, they held a mass meeting at the Golden Temple, burned the Indian flag and raised the “kalistan” flag.

In April of the same year, Sikh terrorists launched a religious reform movement, targeting people who set up hotels, cigarette stalls, butchers and barbers, burning shops, shooting small vendors of tobacco and alcohol, and shooting Hindu passengers on buses.

Large numbers of Hindus were forced to migrate.

In May of the same year, the central government implemented presidential governance and dissolved the Punjab Parliament.

However, the conflict between Sikhs and the central government and Hindus has not been resolved, but has intensified.

The reasons for the growing self-government movement of Sikhs are summarized as follows: (1) with the improvement of their economic status, Sikhs’ religious and national consciousness have been growing, and the contradiction between Sikhs and India has been increasing day by day.

The climax of Sikh autonomy movement came into being when the “green revolution” in Punjab achieved remarkable results.

Due to the “green revolution”, Punjab has become the main commodity grain base of India, known as “India’s granary”.

The commodity rate of wheat and rice in the state is more than 90%, and Punjab accounts for more than half of the total grain purchased by the Indian government.

From 1975 to 1976, the state’s per capita income reached 1688 rupees, ranking first in all India, and further developed after the 1980s.

Sikhs in the state are mainly engaged in agriculture, nearly 70% of them live in rural areas, while Hindus in the state mainly live in cities and towns, accounting for more than 6.

7% of the urban population.

They control industry and commerce.

There are also a small number of Sikh capitalists in cities and towns, but their capital is generally small, unable to compete with Hindu businessmen, and they are excluded by Hindu businessmen everywhere.

The emerging farmers who have developed as a result of the “green revolution” are no longer satisfied with just operating agriculture and want to invest in industry and commerce.

They also encounter the obstruction of teaching, industry and Commerce in the city of India.

They hope to implement state autonomy, control state power, expand their economic power, and then monopolize this urban industrial and commercial market.

In addition, due to the economic development of Punjab, many poor farmers from foreign Hindus came to the state to find jobs and slowly settled down.

As a result of their continuous inflow and the increasing number of Sikhs going abroad to earn a living, the population of the state has changed greatly.

In 1971, Sikhs accounted for 60% of the state’s population, which fell to 52% in 1981, while the Hindu population increased from 40% to 48%.

The increasing number of Hindus has caused unease among Sikhs because they have reduced local employment opportunities.

In particular, some Sikh young people, although highly educated, have little employment opportunities in cities and towns due to the state’s near saturation of agricultural development.

They vent their dissatisfaction on Hindus, and some of them have become activists for independence.

(2) the akhali party makes every effort to use the religious and national sentiment of Sikhism to serve its desire for political power.

Akhali party is a political party with the integration of politics and religion established on the basis of Sikh reform movement in 1920.

Its leadership is mainly Sikh farmers in rural areas and the emerging industrial and commercial bourgeoisie.

It openly declared that it is the real embodiment of the interests and aspirations of Sikhs.

Since its establishment, it has been fighting for the maintenance and promotion of Sikhs and for the political, economic rights and social status of Sikhs.

Since the early 1960s, the party has gradually controlled the All India Sikh Temple Management Committee, which was originally controlled by the Sikhs of the Congress party.

In fact, the committee is the political Parliament of Sikhs, and all major decisions of Sikhs need to be approved by the Committee.

In 1960, the ruling party won 110 seats from the Sikhs.

Since then, the akali party has controlled the Committee.

Therefore, the akhali party has since taken full and direct control of all Sikhs in the country and Punjab, and its power and status have changed significantly.

With the improvement of the party’s political, economic and social status, its political appetite is also growing, and it is increasingly trying to govern alone in Punjab.

The party is mostly in opposition in Punjab.

In the state’s elections, it has never won a majority of seats, and only a few times it is in joint governance with other parties.

In 1967, he won 26 of the 104 seats, together with the people’s League, the Communist Party of India, the Communist Party of India (Malaysia) and the Republican PartyUnited Front government.

He won 43 seats in 1969 and organized a coalition government with the people’s League.

In 1972, he was defeated by the Congress Party in the state election.

In 1977, he formed an alliance with the people’s party and re united in power.

In 1980, it gave way to the Congress Party (UK) again.

It was not until July 1986 that it came to power alone for the first time in the State Council election.

Unfortunately, it was less than a year (until May 1987).

Due to the presidential governance of Rajiv government, the state power returned to the hands of the Congress party.

The akhali party is quite angry with this disgraceful political status, and the only way to change this situation is to incite the sentiment of Sikhs and promote the self-government movement of Sikhs as the most powerful weapon to truly embark on the political stage of Punjab.

It is a common fact that when the akali party was in power, the voice for autonomy in the state was relatively calm, while when the akali Party became an opposition party, the autonomy movement rose.

(3) the extremist forces in Sikhs are increasing day by day.

After 1962, Sikhs were officially divided into extremists headed by Tara Singh, chairman of the akali party, and moderates headed by Fateh Singh, vice chairman.

Since 1967, the akali party has been in power for several times in the state, and the moderates are generally in the ruling position, so they are in power and become the mainstream faction of the akali party.

However, the forces of extremists are also expanding.

They are not only represented by tarwandi in the akali party, but also outside the party, there are organizations such as karsa party, all India Sikh Student Federation and United akali party.

Moderates generally represent the interests of Sikh big landlords and businessmen.

They are the main beneficiaries of the “green revolution”.

They have strong economic strength and dominate the economic life of Punjab, while the social foundation and main components of extremists are the middle and lower class poor and low castes of Sikh.

They are the victims of the “green revolution”.

According to statistics, at the beginning of 1980, there were 660000 landless farmers in rural areas of Punjab, accounting for 34% of the total farmers.

With the intensification of class contradictions and polarization, they strongly demand to improve their situation and hope to be reborn in a new independent country.

Their wishes and demands are often used by some akhali party leaders.

Since the 1980s, the Sikh autonomy movement has mainly been played by extremists, and their forces have become increasingly dominant inside and outside the akali party.

In particular, since January 1986, when the Sikh Temple Management Committee was mastered, its activities have intensified unprecedentedly.

Terrorist organizations such as “kalistan commando” and “kalistan Liberation Force” have made public appearances, and terrorist activities have increased unabated, seriously affecting the stability of the Indian political situation.

(4) there are mistakes in the central government’s policy towards Sikh autonomy movement.

According to the analysis of some scholars, the improper policies of the Indian government are manifested in many aspects: first, before independence, the leaders of the Congress Party promised to establish a Sikh autonomous state in divided India.

On April 5, 1946, SA Bartel, an important leader of the Congress party, solemnly announced: “the sikestan issue will be considered in the legislative assembly after the transfer of power to India.

” At that time, Sikhs promised to stay within the scope of the Indian Federation.

However, when the central government formulated the Indian constitution, the constitutional assembly did not consider this commitment, and the Sikhs felt cheated.

Second, before 1966, the Indian government had refused the Sikhs to establish a language state in Punjab alone.

Even in i960, a large number of police were dispatched to arrest the leaders and staff of the akhali party, and Shuo Meimei ridiculed the office and organ newspapers.

It was not until the outbreak of the India Pakistan war in 1965 that Punjab was promised in order to obtain Sikhs’ support for the war.

Third, after the adoption of the resolution “anantupur Sahib” by the akali party in 1973, the central government has always regarded it as a separatist program and refused to recognize the national status of Sikhs.

In 1981, Punjab was even administered by the president, which declared the state a troubled area, and military courts were set up everywhere to arrest and interrogate civilians.

What’s more, the so-called extreme measure codenamed “operation Blue Star” was implemented in 1984.

In June, troops were officially dispatched to the Golden Temple of the Sikh temple, killing Sikh leaders and many Sikhs, resulting in the killing of prime minister Ying Gandhi and large-scale sectarian hatred.

Fourth, on the pretext that Punjab is at the border, the government has less support and investment in the state to help its industrial development.

Since 1951, the central government has invested only 9 billion rupees in Punjab, accounting for only 2.

5% of the total central investment in state-owned enterprises (400 billion rupees).

Two thirds of the bank deposits in Punjab are transferred to foreign countries, which can not but arouse the dissatisfaction of Sikhs.

(5) the party with Hindu color took a confrontational approach to the Sikh autonomy movement, which played a role in pushing waves and waves.

For example, when the akali party launched the language state movement in the mid-1950s, the people’s League and Hindi Association launched the “save Hindi movement”.

In the 1960s, when Sikhs of the akhali party launched a hunger strike to death to strive for the establishment of a language state, Hindu parties organized more than 100 leaders to threaten to hunger strike to death.