The tone of European Society in the 16th-18th century can be summarized by the decline of the authority of the Catholic Church.

The atmosphere of decline and the results caused by decline are intertwined in all aspects of social life.

The revival brought by the anti religious reform movement can only be a relative revival in terms of the strong shock of religious reform, and its decline trend can be seen in the changes of political power, ideological control ability, the authority of spiritual guidance, knowledge monopoly ability and so on.

These changes constitute the background of Europe’s modernization, and we will see how the problem of ancient Chinese history once shone on such a curtain wall dividing the era, and what role it played on such a stage that will always excite future generations in the history of human civilization.

Section 1 from the change of power structure to the change of knowledge 1.

The change of social power structure itself includes the multi-level changes of political leadership, economic leadership, cultural leadership and personal control.

It can be said that it is the premise and support for major changes in the field of thought and knowledge, Because people engaged in ideological creation and knowledge creation must be limited by the social power structure, and whether their knowledge achievements can stand and have an impact in the society, and whether the current power structure provides enough accommodation space should also be a key factor.

In the European Society of the 16th-18th century, the main line of the change of power structure is the confrontation and strength growth and decline between religious power and various secular powers.

The period from 1485 to 1789 was called the autocratic era in Europe by some scholars.

Its importance lies in the establishment of the autocratic monarchy and the foundation of the modern state system.

These two changes are challenges to the power structure of the supremacy of religious power in the middle ages.

Nearly 1000 years after the fall of Rome, in the European countries west of the Byzantine Empire, the relationship between the king and his subjects was essentially the relationship between the Lord and the vassal.

The king had the highest ownership of the land of the manor, but he did not necessarily have the highest political authority over the people on the land.

At the same time, they are theoretically subordinate to the Holy Roman emperor who is considered to have universal secular authority over the Western Christian world.

This political pattern began to change due to the wars in the 16th and 17th centuries.

These wars are the most important reason for the emergence of autocratic government, and also promote the modern state system to become a political reality.

War itself is the product of many factors.

The decline of feudalism led to a fierce conflict between centralized power and localism.

After geographical expansion, the wealth of the colonies flowed into the royal family, which directly or indirectly consolidated the power of the monarch, and it was also the reason for trying to establish the Empire.

The Protestant revolution also made a great contribution to the development of the supremacy of kingship.

Sectarian disputes and riots brought long-term interference and uncertainty to the Catholic world, produced internal divisions on the method of recovering lost land and some doctrines, destroyed the unity of the Christian Church, weakened the power of the church, and finally abolished the Pope’s feudal rule over secular leaders and fostered nationalism, And encouraged the kings of northern Europe to extend their authority to all aspects from secular affairs to religious affairs.

The signing of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 marked the end of the 30-year war, and the treaty also highlighted and strengthened national sovereignty.

The treaty achieved the arbitrary transfer of territory between rulers.

The Dutch Empire and the Holy Roman Empire recognized its existence.

It confirmed the ruler status and power of the Germanic princes.

It also stipulates that all States, large or small, strong or weak, are equal before international law and have complete control over their territory and inhabitants.

In addition to the fierce external factor of war, there are also some internal changes in European countries, which promote the gradual tendency of the power structure to focus on kingship, which in turn is the manifestation of the strengthening of kingship.

The obvious sign is that the emerging administrative bureaucracy began to hold real power.

Since the 16th century, the increasing demand for political centralization in many countries has led to the emergence of new bureaucrats and nobles.

At first, this kind of paid bureaucrats appointed by the government was still a relatively small group compared with the aristocratic bureaucrats with fiefs.

The process of changing from aristocratic bureaucrats to paid bureaucrats was long and rugged.

During this period, the European continent was characterized by various forms of local self-government mainly composed of local celebrities.

France in the Louis XIV era took the lead in establishing a corporate bureaucracy, and the members of the French Supreme Court (Parlements) played an important role in this process.

Lawyers are important members of the administrative bureaucracy.

Lawyers from the middle class began to enter the administrative department, and the power core of the state gradually deviated from the hands of the nobility.

Later, Spain under the Bourbon Dynasty and Austria under Maria Theresa followed the example of France.

The transformation of Prussia took place during King Frederick William I (1713-1740).

The government had opened special schools to train administrative officials in the 18th century.

The state’s control over the church is another sign of the strengthening of kingship.

In both Catholic France and Protestant countries, the king tried to show that he was the master of his own church, promulgated religious rules on etiquette and behavior in his own edition, and set laws for dictation, appointment of new priests, time of prayer and rules of excommunication.

The Protestant church was controlled by the state administrative power from the beginning.

Protestant clergy classes are organized on the basis of the state.

The Protestant church does not enjoy the freedom of the Roman Catholic church that is not controlled by the government.

The government is not only the highest political authority, but also the National Christian authority and in charge of the church.

The clergy are more or less part of the administrative department.

The clergy has become an extension of political authority.

The government will be read out on the church pulpit, and the clergy have many responsibilities and great influence in the government.

Britain at the end of the 17th century went further.

The glorious revolution of 1688-1689 went beyond the confrontation between kingship and religious power, but the victory of Parliament over kingship and religious power, reflecting the strong control of the administrative bureaucracy over the country.

In 1689, Congress passed many bills to protect the rights of Congress from the infringement of kingship.

The first bill stipulated that the king should be allocated only once a year, and the second bill, the tolerance act, established freedom of belief.

The glorious revolution also dealt a fatal blow to the theory of divine power.

The succession law of 1701 emphasized that Congress had the right to decide the countryWang candidate.

The monarchs of Catholic countries also seized power from the Pope.

These monarchs have long been reluctant to obey the Vatican and have finally managed to obtain various privileges.

In 1563, the Council of tlantos planned to restore the power once possessed by the pope or the Holy See by sending clergy loyal to the holy see as bishops everywhere, but in the 17th century, the government used to carefully examine the Royal edicts of Rome before they were published.

In the 18th century, even the monarchs of Latin speaking countries became increasingly independent.

In France, the Sorbonne University has been the most important role in the intellectual world in the first half of the 16th century.

The king submitted every book related to religion to it for examination, but it declined due to the restriction of the Supreme Court.

Some prime ministers in Portugal, Spain and Sicily have tried to free schools from the control of the church in order to regulate priest training and return church property to the government as much as possible.

Austria and its territories were also affected by this trend against the Holy See.

However, the government’s efforts to tighten the control of the church did not suddenly hit the traditional church structure.

The Catholic church remained the image it had in previous times throughout the 18th century.

It was not until the late 18th century that the substantive decline of the Catholic Church became clear.

The long-term movement of seizing power by the monarch has accumulated so far, which makes the church organization as a whole subject to internal reconstruction.

As a result of the enlightenment movement, it became necessary for the government to interfere in religious and church affairs.

The Catholic government now began to assume the control functions that some Protestant countries have already exercised for 200 years, such as supervising seminaries, making way for schools, and encouraging the development of universities by supporting the scientific activities of universities.

At the same time, the dissolution of the Jesuit Church directly led to the rapid retreat of the Catholic Church at the end of the 18th century.

The once strong foundation of the Jesuit Church began to shake in the 18th century.

The strict loyalty of Jesuits to Rome and their strong intellectual and economic power were gradually considered incompatible with the hopes of the royal courts and prime ministers of various monarchies to get rid of the guardianship of the church.

In 1757, Pombal, Portugal’s plenipotentiary prime minister, ordered the dissolution of the Jesuit Church in Portugal and the colonies, and the exile of Jesuits had already begun.

The same shocking incident occurred in France in 1764, Spain and its colonial empire in 1767, and Parma followed in 1768.

In 1773, Pope Clement XIV succumbed to the pressure of the joint Bourbon monarchs and dissolved the whole Jesuit.

The order was implemented with different severity in various countries, and the persecution of Jesuits followed.

“The main dependence of a pope led by a Catholic monarch to depose the Holy See – no matter how reluctantly – shows how weak the power of the Pope has grown in this century”, “the Pope is only a little stronger than an Italian King, claiming to be the holy see in an inefficient and outdated fiefdom and boasting that he is a ruler with the highest papal title”, In the 18th century, the Pope could hardly control the academic world.

Therefore, when the Italian nobles represented the Holy See and tried to curb the monarchs’ resistance to the Holy See, the monarchs received them politely, but acted according to the suggestions of the prime ministers of the hostile holy see.

It is precisely because the status of the Pope has declined, and the loss of the Jesuit Church is a fatal blow to the power structure of the Catholic Church.

With the dissolution of the Jesuit Church, a strong education and administrative system has collapsed, especially in Latin America, because the Jesuits have built an effective economic and administrative structure in the local Indian villages.