After the Franco Prussian War in 1870.
France was defeated and Germany rose.
In order to keep the hegemonic position that Germany has achieved in the European continent and try its best to win over Russia and Austria Hungary, the three countries established the “alliance of Three Emperors” to isolate France and prevent it.
However, in 1877, Russia had sharp contradictions with the Austro Hungarian Empire in the struggle for the Balkans.
Therefore, the “Three Emperors alliance” collapsed rapidly.
In October 1879, Germany and Austria secretly concluded the German Austrian alliance treaty against Russia and France in Vienna.
Subsequently, Italy failed to compete with France for Tunisia and asked to join the German Austrian alliance.
In May 1882, Germany, Italy and Austria signed the German Austrian Italian alliance treaty in Vienna.
The treaty stipulates that if Italy is attacked by France and Russia, all German and Austrian troops must provide assistance.
Such as war between Russia and Austria.
Italy will remain neutral: if Germany is attacked by France, Italy will take part in the war on Germany’s side.
From then on, the Three Kingdoms alliance was officially formed and became one of the two major military groups in the imperialist war.
During the first World War, Britain, France and Russia formed an imperialist military alliance to fight against German, Italian and Austrian military blocs and strive for world hegemony.
In the 19th century, in the struggle for the Balkans, France and Russia signed a secret military agreement in 1893 to support each other when attacked or threatened by the alliance of the three countries.
In the 20th century, due to the development of contradictions between Germany and Britain, Britain and France are also close to Germany.
An agreement was signed in 1904 to reach an agreement on the contradiction between the two sides in dividing up colonies such as Africa.
Russia lost the war between Japan and Russia.
No longer a major competitor in the UK.
In 1907, an agreement between Britain and Russia was concluded.
So far, the Allies were finally formed and became one of the two major military groups in the imperialist war.
During the first World War, 24 countries including Japan, Italy, Romania and the United States successively joined the treaty.
After the October Revolution in 1917, Soviet Russia announced its withdrawal.
Since the beginning of 1918, imperialists such as Britain, France, the United States and Japan have launched three armed interventions against the Soviet Union in the name of allies.
Balkan War Balkan War is two wars that took place between 1912 and 1913 to compete for Turkey’s territory in the Balkans.
The First Balkan War was from October 1912 to may 1913.
It was the war of the Balkan alliance against Turkey.
After the Turkish war, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro formed a Balkan alliance.
In October 1912, the Balkan alliance declared war on Turkey, and the First Balkan War broke out.
The Balkan alliance soon won a series of victories.
The Turkish army suffered a tragic defeat and quickly retreated to the defense line covering the capital Istanbul.
Turkey lost almost all its territory in the Balkans.
At the end of October, Bulgarian troops approached Istanbul, and the Turkish government was forced to ask the big powers to mediate.
With the mediation of European powers, Turkey and four belligerents began peace talks in London.
On January 23, 1913, a coup took place in Turkey.
With the support of Germany, the new government took a tough attitude and the peace talks broke down.
On February 3, the war broke out again.
On March 5, the Greek army captured Yanina.
On March 26, the Allied forces of Bulgaria and Serbia captured the Adriatic fort.
On April 22, the Turkmen army of skutai surrendered.
Turkey seeks peace again.
On May 30, Turkey signed the London treaty with the four Balkan countries.
The treaty stipulates that Turkey’s territory in Europe will be handed over to the Balkan alliance except for Istanbul and a small area nearby.
The First Balkan war completely overthrew Turkey’s feudal rule and oppression of the people of all ethnic groups in the Balkans.
The Second Balkan war lasted from June 1913 to August 1913.
After the end of the First Balkan War, Serbia demanded compensation from the territory of Macedonia occupied by Bulgaria, that is, to amend the Treaty of the Serbian Union, because it did not have access to the sea in the Adriatic Sea.
On the basis of the partition of Macedonia, Serbia and Greece signed the Greek Cypriot alliance against Bulgaria on June 1, 1913, and Romania also participated in this alliance.
On the Bulgarian side, Austria Hungary promised to grant loans and guarantee its territorial integrity.
Instigated by Germany and Austria, Bulgaria, relying on its strength, launched an attack on Serbia and Greece in June 1913, provoking the Second Balkan War.
From both sides, this war is an unjust dynastic war.
Montenegro and Romania joined Serbia and Greece to fight against Bulgaria.
The war ended in Bulgaria’s defeat.
The Bucharest peace treaty was signed in August 1913.
According to the peace treaty, Bulgaria not only lost the fruits of the First Balkan War, but also lost part of its original territory.
Serbia has been strengthened.
This deepened the contradiction between Serbia and Austria Hungary, and finally made the Balkans the outbreak of World War I.
Sarajevo incident in June 1914, the Austro Hungarian Empire organized a military exercise in Sarajevo in order to show off its force.
On the morning of June 28, Prince Ferdinand of the Austro Hungarian Empire and his wife, Duchess Sophie, visited Sarajevo after reviewing military exercises in the suburbs.
Sarajevo station has long had a line of convertible cars waiting there.
In order to occupy this land for a long time, Ferdinand wants to give the Bosnian people some goodwill on the surface through this trip.
Therefore, he didn’t want to show off his military strength in this city.
He only took a few guards for defense.
He didn’t even care about the gendarmerie and police provided by the city, and the security measures were very careless.
The arrogant crown prince seems to underestimate the anger of the Serbian people.
After the Ferdinand couple got off the train, they got into the second car and headed for the city hall.
Sofia sat on the right of Ferdinand, general Oscar potiolek, governor of the Bosnian military government, sat on the left, and next to the driver was count harashi, an attendant.
On the way from the motorcade to the city hall, the Serbian youth chabrinovic, who was lying in ambush on the roadside, suddenly threw a bomb at the motorcade.
The driver saw the situation and accelerated his speed.
The bomb fell in front of the third car and cracked the front tire of the car.
The fragments of the bomb injured several deputies of the governor and the Archduke.
Chabrinovich was arrested on the spot.
The Ferdinands pretended to be calm.
Waved “move on”, went to the city hall to attend the welcome ceremony, then took a short rest and drove to the hospital to see the injured entourage.
The motorcade was back on the road and drove forwardGo.
The assassination of Ferdinand and his wife exploded the Balkan “powder keg” which was already full of gunpowder smell.
The imperialist countries are engaged in intense conspiracy activities and are ready to fight.
German Emperor William II shouted madly: “this is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity!” After gaining the support of Germany, the Austro Hungarian Empire put forward extremely harsh conditions to Serbia on July 23 and limited it to signing and replying within 48 hours.
In order to endure humiliation and seek perfection, Serbia was forced to accept all the other conditions except that Austria sent personnel to pursue and try the murderer.
Nevertheless, the Austro Hungarian Empire officially declared war on Serbia on July 28 on the pretext of not receiving a satisfactory reply.
That night, Austria Hungary shelled the Serbian capital Belgrade, killing more than 5000 residents.
Then Germany and Russia declared war, France and Britain declared war on Germany, and the Austro Hungarian Empire declared war on Russia.
In a few days, all the imperialist powers in Europe were involved in the war, and the first World War finally broke out.
In 1918, the first World War of colonialism and imperialism was fought for world hegemony.
The Sarajevo incident on June 28, 1914 was the fuse of the first World War.
On July 28, the Austro Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia.
In order to support Serbia, Russia announced the general military mobilization on July 30.
On August 1, Germany declared war on Russia.
On August 3, Germany declared war on France.
On August 4, Britain declared war on Germany.
Turkey and Bulgaria successively joined the alliance.
Japan, Italy, Romania, Greece, the United States and China joined the treaty.
The scale of the war continues to expand beyond Europe.
On November 7, 1917, Russia won the October Revolution and first withdrew from the war.
In early November, the German revolution broke out.
The monarchy was overthrown and surrendered on the 11th.
The war ended with the victory of the allies.
The war caused great losses to the world, changed the balance of power of imperialist countries, and promoted the revolutionary movements of various countries.
The bankruptcy of the “schrifen plan” inevitably led to the outbreak of the first World War.
It is an irreconcilable product of imperialist contradictions.
The empires have long been harbouring evil intentions and planning for a long time.
The German Austrian Group prepared for the war earlier.
As early as 1905, Germany formulated the plan of World War I by the then chief of staff, schrifen.
This plan is therefore called the “schrifen plan”.
The strategic idea of “schrifen plan” is to adopt “quick decision”.
Germany envisages that after the war with the Russian French bloc, it will strive to avoid fighting on the East and West lines at the same time.
First, it will concentrate its superior forces, adopt “lightning tactics”, attack the rear of the French army through Belgium within four to six weeks, quickly defeat France before the British Army gives strong assistance to France, cut off Britain’s ties with the European continent, and then turn around, He moved eastward to deal with Russia with Austria Hungary Empire, defeated Russia in 3 or 4 months and ended the war.
The “schrifen plan” was valued by the German Emperor.
After repeated demonstration, supplement and modification, it became the basic blueprint for Germany to launch the world war.
Mao Qi, the successor chief of staff, deployed the whole war and implemented it in World War I.
Mao Qi, the chief of general staff of the German army, basically deployed Germany’s strategy according to the “schrifen plan”.
While launching a fierce attack on the Belgian border, he built deep trenches in Alsace and Lorraine areas and stood still.
Only a small number of troops were arranged to wait for work, so as to attract the French forces and adopt the strategy of combining reality with reality to confuse the French forces.
This step is a key step in the “schrifen plan”.
Schrifen attached great importance to this step.
Before he died, he repeatedly told him: “don’t weaken my right-wing column!” However, general Maoqi repeatedly divided his troops to the left of the eastern and Western lines.
The forces of the 70 divisions originally planned to be placed on the right were weakened, which greatly affected the battle of the man river.
The battle of the man river began on September 5.
The two sides invested about 1.
5 million troops and more than 1000 light and heavy guns.
They launched a fierce positional battle on a 200 kilometer front, with heavy casualties.
In just a few days, more than 20000 French troops were killed and more than 120000 injured, and the German army suffered even more heavy losses, with a total of more than 40000 killed and more than 170000 injured.
On September 8, the German army was defeated and retreated to the front line of the Anna river.
This is the famous battle of the man river.
The German attack on the Western Front was stopped.
France kept Paris.
By the end of the year, the two sides turned to a stalemate and dug trenches to fight each other.
The battle of the man river also caused unprecedented heavy losses to the German army.
As soon as the battle was over, Maoqi lamented: “we lost the whole war!” The shriffin plan went bankrupt.
On September 14, Mao Qi was dismissed by the German Emperor.
So far, the original “perfect” schrifen plan was completely destroyed.
In the battle of Verdun, with the bankruptcy of the “schrifen plan”, the German army changed its strategy and decided to concentrate on defeating the Russian army first, force it to make peace alone, remove the threat from the East, and then deal with Britain and France.
However, due to the vast territory of Russia and the cold climate, the German army did not dare to go deep into the hinterland.
In 1916, the German Army decided to shift its strategic focus to the western line and focus on attacking the French fortress Verdun.
Fargenhan, the new chief of staff of the German army, called the plan to attack Verdun as the “place of execution”.
On February 21, 1916, the German army concentrated nearly 900 artillery, supplemented by aircraft, and launched a fierce attack on the French position on the left bank of Verdun MAS river.
The French were forced to retreat to the right bank of the Maas river.
Since February 27, France has used 3900 vehicles to transport reinforcements and weapons.
Organized effective defense.
The two sides continued to increase their forces and repeatedly rushed to kill, forming a seesaw battle.
The German advance was only 7 kilometers.
At the beginning of June, 20 German divisions made the second large-scale attack, but failed to break through.
In August, the French army launched an anti assault.
On October 24, it turned to counter attack and launched two attacks to recover the original defensive position.
The battle of Verdun ended on December 28.
The battle was the largest and longest in World War I, with more than 400000 French casualties and nearly 350000 German casualties.
The battle was a turning point in World War I.
The bankruptcy of the German strategic plan marked the decline of its military strength.
Battle of the Marne two battles in the Marne region of France during World War I.
The first was the battle of the man in 1914.
Previously, the British and French coalition forces failed in the border operation and withdrew and redeployed.
The first and second group armies of Germany entered the area of heavy military concentration of the French army due to chasing the enemy.
September 4, 1919.
The commander in chief of the French army Xiafei ordered a counter attack.
The two sides are on a land 200 kilometers wideLead to a fierce battle.
Due to the gap of up to 50 kilometers between the first and second group armies of Germany, the British and French coalition forces took advantage of the gap.
On October 14, the German army withdrew to the north of the ENA river.
A total of 1.
52 million people were invested by both sides in this campaign, including more than 220000 casualties in Britain and France and more than 250000 soldiers lost by the German army.
From then on, the war turned into protracted positional warfare and declared the bankruptcy of the German quick decision.
The second was the battle of the man in 1918.
From March to June 1918, the German army launched a series of attacks on the western line, forming a number of protrusions.
The protruding part of the man river is less than 70 kilometers away from Paris.
The German Army decided to make a detour in the direction of Paris.
From July 15 to 17, the German attack was blocked by the French army.
From July 18 to 20, the French army turned to counter attack.
The German army suffered heavy casualties, so it withdrew from the 21st.
By August 4, the French army had advanced 40 kilometers.
Lifted the German threat to Paris.
The battle ended in a disastrous defeat.
Since then, the western front has changed from a long-term stalemate to the gradual retreat of the German army.
The battle of Somme during World War I.
In 1916, the British and French allied forces launched an offensive campaign against the German army in the Somme river area of France.
The operational plan was formulated at the end of 1915.
On June 25, 1916, the British and French allied forces began shelling German positions.
On July 1, the British and French forces launched an attack.
The British army suffered huge losses and nearly 100000 casualties by July 10.
The French army made some progress in Henan and formed a war of attrition.
On September 15, the British army launched a powerful offensive with new weapons and tanks for the first time, and the German army resisted desperately, so that the British army failed to make a strategic breakthrough.
In mid November, due to bad weather and material depletion.
The fighting stopped.
Both sides invested 150 divisions, nearly 10000 guns and 1000 aircraft in the campaign.
The coalition forces recaptured 240 square kilometers of land.
The casualties on both sides were huge.
The French army lost 340000 people, the British army lost more than 450000 people and the German army lost more than 650000 people.
Although the coalition forces did not realize the strategic plan, they showed military and economic advantages, mastered air control and reduced the pressure on Verdun.
It was difficult to replenish the German soldiers, and the morale fell from then on.
The battle and the battle of Verdun became the turning point of World War I.
The battle of Jutland was a great naval battle between Britain and Germany near the Jutland Peninsula from May 31 to June 1, 1916 in the first World War.
After the outbreak of World War I, the British fleet, which controlled the sea, imposed a strict maritime blockade on Germany, which made German and Austrian warships besieged in the Baltic harbor for a long time.
In order to break through the blockade and reverse the passive situation, Germany decided to fight a decisive sea battle with the British won.
At about 22:00 on May 30, the British avant-garde fleet and the main fleet set sail from the base to the East.
At about 2:00 on the 31st, the German avant-garde fleet sailed north from Yade Bay, and the main fleet followed up.
At about 14 o’clock on the same day, the avant-garde fleets of the two sides met and the Jutland naval battle took place.
Soon, the main force of the German “high seas fleet” and the British main fleet came to the war.
After five or six hours of fierce fighting, Germany realized that the British army was strong and returned by night.
The British fleet was afraid of being ambushed in the deep area and also withdrew to the base.
The Jutland naval battle was the largest naval battle during the whole war.
Since then, almost all the shipping of Germany and Austria have been blocked, and Britain still holds the sea power.
The first World War of Paris peace conference ended with the victory of the allies.
The conference aimed at establishing a world peace system held at the palace of Versailles in Paris on January 18, 1919 was actually a feast for the imperialist powers to draw up a peace treaty with Germany and redistribute the world.
More than 1000 representatives from 27 victorious countries attended the meeting, including 70 plenipotentiaries.
As a victorious country, the Beiyang government sent five people, including Foreign Minister Lu Zhengxiang, to attend the meeting.
Soviet Russia was not invited, and Germany was rejected as a defeated country.
In essence, the meeting was controlled by the Supreme Council composed of two representatives from the United States, Britain, France, Italy and Japan.
Therefore, there is the saying of the “big ten” meeting.
On March 25, the 10 member meeting for decision-making was reduced to the “big four” meeting: US President Wilson, British Prime Minister Lloyd George, French Prime Minister Clemenceau and Italian Prime Minister Orlando.
Later, because Italy made little contribution in the war and its strength was weak, it was also ignored by the United States, Britain and France.
In fact, the “big three” control everything in the conference.
The three great powers, each at the expense of the United States and France, come to the meeting with a set of contradictions.
On June 28, 1919, the great powers reluctantly reached an agreement and signed the Versailles peace treaty in the mirror Hall of the palace of Versailles in Paris.
Amid the anti war wave of the people, the participating countries proposed to establish an international alliance.
The covenant stipulates that all countries except the countries of the German group can apply for accession.
The League of Nations has a general assembly and an executive yuan.
The Executive Yuan has the greatest power.
It is composed of five permanent members from Britain, France, the United States, Italy and Japan and four elected non permanent members.
The Treaty of Versailles consists of 15 parts and 440 articles.
According to the peace treaty, Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France.
The Saar region has been entrusted to the League of Nations for 15 years.
France has the right to mine the Saar coal mine.
The West Bank of the Rhine is occupied by the allies, and the zone 50 kilometers wide on the east bank is an undefended area.
The Poznan region in eastern Germany and part of Upper Silesia belong to Poland.
Danzig is a free city under the management of the League of nations.
All the colonies of Germany became the entrusted rule of the League of nations in form, but in fact they were the colonies of the victorious countries.
The meeting decided to hand over Tanganyika to Britain, divide Cameroon and Togo by Britain and France, hand over German Southwest Africa to the Commonwealth of South Africa, the British autonomous territory, and turn over the islands in the central Pacific to Japan.
Shandong, which was forcibly occupied by Germany, should be returned to China as a victorious country, but Anglo American law gave it to Japan through private transactions.
In this way, as a victorious country, China will certainly not agree.
Chinese representative Gu Weijun and others refused to attend the meeting and sign.
The peace treaty also stipulates that Germany will pay the first compensation of 20 billion marks before May 1, 1921, but the total amount of compensation has not been specifically determined.
Limitation of German armaments: the Army shall not exceed 100000 people and shall not have large caliber artillery.
The navy can only have six warships and a corresponding number of other ships, and shall not have submarines and military aircraft.
These provisions of the Treaty of Versailles are a true record of the imperialist re division of the world.
The so-called Paris peace conference did not really bring peace to the world.
The harsh extortion against Germany, the defeated country, planted the seeds of German revenge.
No wonder French Marshal Fu Xu said afterwards: “this is not peace, this is a 20-year break.