Netherland is a place name, meaning a low-lying country, which is equivalent to today’s Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and northeast France.
In the early 16th century, it was a territory of Spain, and the governor’s office of Spain controlling the Netherlands was located in Brussels.
One day in April 1566, the local noble William orange, the count of Patriot Egmont and the resolute and courageous soldier general Horne came to petition the Spanish governor in Netherland.
The content of the petition was to hope that the Spanish vampire could show mercy and give Netherland a breather.
The governor of Spain in Netherland was Margaret, a duchess.
At that time, Prince orange submitted a petition to her, asking the governor to repeal the decree of the inquisition persecuting Protestants, and convene a three-level meeting to withdraw the Spanish garrison.
However, the arrogant female governor not only refused these requests, but also scolded them in spite of the image, and finally ordered them to be driven out of the governor’s house.
In order to make the Spanish rulers make concessions, Prince orange also said in his petition that he would be willing to be loyal to the Spanish king from now on.
Who knows, the Duchess of Spain is so grumpy.
In desperation, they could only gather together to discuss new countermeasures, but the people set off a revolutionary storm at this time.
A large-scale iconoclastic Movement broke out in Netherland overnight.
Tens of thousands of angry people rushed to the Catholic Church and monastery with sticks, overturned the statue of the virgin in the shrine and destroyed the decorations in the church.
The Netherland revolution kicked off.
Facing the crazy actions of the people, Margaret finally dared not be arrogant and was forced to announce that she would stop all activities of the inquisition and pardon the members of the Netherland aristocratic League.
But Spain did not compromise with it.
King Philip II of Spain secretly dispatched troops to send Duke of alfa to Netherlands to quell the revolution.
The Duke of alpha led 18000 people to danieland in August 1567.
Immediately, Alfa established the “anti violence committee”, and he served as the chairman of the committee, and ordered that he would do anything to suppress the revolution.
Soon, more than 8000 insurgents were killed, and the count of Egmont, general horn and the mayor of Antwerp, the head of the bourgeoisie, were brutally killed.
In order to strangle the Netherland revolution economically, the cruel Alfa also formulated a new tax system, which stipulates that all movable and immovable property should be subject to property tax, and all goods should be subject to transaction tax.
He also put down his cruel words fiercely: “it is better to leave a poor Netherland to God than a rich Netherland to the devil.
” In the bloody wind and rain, the rich Netherlanders fled abroad, the poor Netherlanders fled to neighboring cities, and even Prince orange fled to Nassau, Germany.
Prince orange, who fled abroad, did not give up planning the struggle against Spanish rule.
He tried to get the assistance of German Protestant princes and French Huguenots.
But later, Prince orange organized his army to attack Netherland several times, but it never succeeded.
After a bloody crackdown, the revolution entered a low tide.
However, the vast people of Netherland not only did not shrink back, but became more frustrated and more courageous.
In the north, fishermen, sailors and dockers formed a guerrilla group called “sea beggars” and actively launched guerrilla warfare.
As soon as a Spanish transport ship was found, they cruised along the coast in light boats and unexpectedly fought back.
On that day, a guerrilla group composed of 24 small boats, after hitting the Spanish transport ship, knocked alpha’s army into the water one after another, and took the opportunity to capture brier on the island of Ceylon, which became the first base established by the Netherland maritime guerrillas in Netherland, and the Netherland revolution entered a climax stage.
By the end of 1573, the northern provinces were basically liberated from Spanish occupation.
At the joint meeting of the northern provinces, Prince orange was elected governor and declared independence.
At this time, the northern provinces had in fact become an independent country.
Alfa, who was forced to retreat to the south, actually had a hard time.
The people of Netherland in the South formed a guerrilla group of “forest beggars” in the dense forest.
They often haunted and attacked small groups of Spanish troops, and occasionally engaged in “pranks” to punish Spanish minions.
Alfa was fooled by these “forest beggars” and fainted.
He tried his best to deal with the attack of Prince orange and failed.
Then they sent troops to attack the uprising cities in all provinces violently and failed again.
Then the brutal looting of many cities could not reverse the defeat of the Spanish army.
Philip II had no choice but to recall alfa to Spain and send another man named coyson as governor of Netherland.
As soon as the new governor took office, he led a large army to surround the coastal city of laideng in the northern Dutch province.
One day three months later, the garrison soldiers who came to Deng suddenly opened the sluice.
In an instant, the outside of the city became a vast ocean.
The Spanish army besieged the city struggled desperately in the water, suffered heavy losses and withdrew in embarrassment.
The victory of the laideng campaign not only consolidated the victory of the northern revolution, but also promoted the struggle in the southern provinces.
On September 4, 1576, the Brussels uprising broke out.
The insurgents quickly occupied the governor’s office and overthrew the Spanish ruling institutions in Netherland.
Since then, the center of the revolution has shifted from the north to the south.
In October of the same year, a three-level meeting was held in Ghent, at which it was announced that all decrees issued by Alfa would be abolished and the original rights of cities would be restored.
Finally, the Ghent agreement was signed and the north and south United to fight against Spanish rule.
The rising revolutionary mood deeply affected the feudal nobles in the south.
They were frightened, so they formed the ARAS alliance.
They not only recognized Philip II as king, but also colluded with the Spanish army to attack the north.
The people of Netherland were angry, so they established the Utrecht alliance in the northern provinces to fight against the southern aristocrats.
In this way, the two forces are tit for tat.
The next year, Philip II declared Prince orange a criminal, and the Utrecht League announced the deposing of Philip II and the establishment of the inter provincial Republic.
Since then, Netherland has been divided into two parts.
The North forms an independent country, but the south is still under the rule of Spain.
The background of the outbreak of the Netherlands revolution was the development of capitalist economy and the oppression of feudal autocracy in Spain.
In fact, as early as the 14th century.