Eurasian Stone Age sculptures in southwestern and central Europe, the earliest human sculptures have been found through archaeology.
The sculptures in these areas are mainly reliefs in Paleolithic cave art and some small sculptures.
Chinese pottery art, especially black pottery and painted pottery, has a history of about 8000 years.
It is one of the most important sculpture works in the primitive era.
Prehistoric works of art in Eurasia are of high artistic value and occupy an important position in the history of art.
The earliest sculpture found in Europe comes from cave art and appliance art.
European cave art is mainly concentrated in southwest France and northern Spain.
It belongs to the late Paleolithic period (30000-10000 BC).
There are a small number of rock wall reliefs in cave art.
The content of the performance is female nude and animal.
The best preserved of these female nude figures is the relief “women with horns” made in the ORENA culture period (an earlier stage in the late Paleolithic age) at the Roselle site in France.
This is a 40 cm high obverse image.
The naked woman holds a large horn cup in her right hand.
The body of naked women is plump, and the female characteristics such as breasts, lower abdomen and hips are exaggerated.
Traces of the original red paint can be seen faintly on the female figure’s body.
The relief “hugging statue” is also a precious original relief preserved at Russell site.
In this relief, two heads are close together, one of which is obviously a woman.
The other is already indistinct, and it is speculated that it may be a male figure.
In a deep valley in angulem, there is a rectangular square inferred as a sacrificial place.
On the rock wall of the square, there is a group of animal reliefs belonging to the sorut culture period.
The animals represented mainly include mammoths, horses, pigs, deer and cattle, which have their own forms,.
One of the most striking features of these reliefs is that most of them show pregnant female animals, and the other is that the images of all animals are almost inverted.
For the reason why the primitive sculptors handled this, the current explanation is that primitive humans prayed for the mass reproduction of prey animals and wanted to capture animals with the help of witchcraft and spells.
Similar reliefs, including seven horses, reindeer, mammoths and cattle, are also found on the rock wall in front of an open square in CACA bran, France.
The longest of the seven horses is 2.
3 meters, and the whole relief is 12 meters long, which looks very spectacular.
There are some clay reliefs deep in the caves of the madeglin culture period (20000-12000 BC), which are less left over because they are difficult to preserve.
Among the few such works, the clay relief mammoth found in the Kiku dauberbar cave in France is the best.
This work shows the excitement of two mammoths before mating.
The fierce movement of the two mammoths was shown very accurately.
This relief is a high relief, so the image is prominent and has a strong sense of volume and weight.
In a very large area of Europe, a large number of small round sculptures representing female statues and animal statues have also been found through archaeology.
They belong to the art of utensils, that is, the art forms created by primitive humans on daily utensils or works of art used for daily life.
The most famous works of utensil art are more than 60 round female nude figures found so far.
These small round sculptures were made during the orina period.
They are usually carved from soft limestone and marl, the size of a human fist.
Such a small volume may be convenient to carry.
In 1909, a limestone female nude Figurine, known as “Venus of villendorf”, was found in villendorf, Austria.
Although the woman shaped by this statue is small, her body shape is fat, strong and powerful, and has a magnificent monumental bearing.
It has no facial features.
The breasts are large and drooping, the hips are fat, the abdomen is bulging, and the pudenda is obvious.
The whole sculpture symbolizes vigorous fertility.
It is speculated that this goddess may be the sacred fertility god in the primitive tribe.
Its existence reflects the primitive people’s worship of human fertility.
In the later period of orina culture, female nude round carvings tended to be more concise in modeling style, but they still used exaggerated forms to emphasize their female characteristics.
In addition to female nude statues, there are many animal statues in the small round sculptures of this period, including mammoths, bears, rhinoceros, horses, deer and so on, all of which are less than 10cm in size.
Some are carved from sandstone, animal bones and ivory, and some are made from red clay after being kneaded and molded.
A spear throwing handle was found in the cave of madazier in France.
It was made of the shoulder blade of a reindeer.
According to the shape of the shoulder blade, it was carved into a lamb.
The sheep stood on four legs at a point and turned its head to look at its tail.
This kind of animal carving is expressive and reaches a high level in the accuracy of animal shape shaping.
It reflects the primitive people’s deep understanding of the body structure and habits of animals and their superb modeling ability.
At the end of the new era, many remarkable boulder structures appeared all over Europe.
The boulders used in these structures are usually huge, and some even weigh up to 100 tons.
The structures formed by them are very magnificent.
This kind of huge stone structure has many forms, most of which belong to the original architectural form serving religious purposes, while the simplest one is called “menhill stone column”, which is closely related to sculpture.
“Menhill style stone pillars” are slender natural stones erected vertically.
They are either erected alone or in rows.
The function of these boulders is presumably to mark the land boundary, and they are also the object of worship.
In addition, some tombs also have such boulders as Tomb markers.
Some of these “menhill style stone pillars” are not processed, while others are engraved with relief or human images, and the carving work is usually rough.
However, this kind of giant stone carving is considered to be the pioneer of later large-scale figure stone carving.
China has had relatively mature primitive pottery technology since the Neolithic age.
The pottery made at that time was mostly various utensils for daily use.
However, many pottery utensils are decorated with pottery sculptures with concrete shapes.
The shape of other utensils is the sculpture image of animals.
Some typical examples of this kind of pottery are the following: the cover button of pottery bird and beast shaped pottery unearthed in Banpo, Xi’an, Shaanxi, and the relief of coiled snake on the wall of pottery.
Unearthed in Miaodigou, Shaanxi county, Henan ProvincePottery gecko ornament fragments and bird head handle.
The animals decorated on the vessels are accurate in shape and vivid in appearance.
Chinese pottery sculptures mostly show animals.
Especially for poultry and livestock.
This is closely related to China’s early developed agricultural culture.
The famous animal shaped pottery are: Pig shaped and dog shaped pottery unearthed from Dawenkou in Ningyang County and Sanlihe in Jiaoxian County, Shandong Province.
Eagle shaped cup (tripod) and bird (animal) shaped pot unearthed in Huaxian County, Shaanxi Province.
The animal images created by these pottery utensils are simple and simple, but their faces are vivid and full of the sense of volume of sculpture.
And the aesthetic function is perfectly combined with practicality, which has been developed in the bronze ware of China in the future.
There are few examples of figures represented by ceramic ware components, but some famous works can also be cited.
A jar unearthed in Jiangxi village, Fufeng, Shaanxi Province, has an ugly and smiling face shaped by stacking plastic and pricking a cone.
The modeling technique is very sharp and vivid.
At the mouth of a painted pottery bottle in Dadiwan, Qin’an, Gansu Province, a girl’s head is roughly shaped.
This kind of headform seems to be popular in Gansu Province.
The pottery head unearthed in caijiaping, Tianshui, Gansu Province is a remnant of a humanoid.
This pottery head represents a young woman.
The technique of this pottery is relatively delicate, and the decent turning of her face is quite clear.
Her eyes seem to be staring at something.
Her mouth is open, and her expression is very natural.
China’s Neolithic age also had many independent pottery sculptures of animals and figures.
Pottery pigs unearthed in Hemudu, Yuyao, Zhejiang Province, are charmingly naive.
The pottery sheep unearthed in Shijiahe, Tianmen, Hubei Province is only 5cm high, but it is docile and lovely, with distinct form and spirit.
Few independent ceramic figures have been found.
The most important works are several nude female ceramic sculptures found in Hongshan cultural site in western Liaoning (about 5000 years ago).
(please keep the link for Reprint: lishi.
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Two of them are standing statues of pregnant women with a protruding abdomen and one arm on the stomach.
These female nude statues are believed to be the fertility gods worshipped in primitive tribes.
Stages of generation and development.
Most of the inhabitants of tropical Africa still live in clan and tribal societies.
These primitive nations can be regarded as the remnants of prehistoric society.
The art they create is usually studied as primitive art.
African prehistoric rock art mainly carries out line engraving and drawing on rocks, mostly showing the hunting and war of various animals and humans.
There are few independent sculptures and relief forms that go further than line carving.
The primitive peoples of Africa are mainly concentrated in tropical Africa.
Among these primitive nationalities, traditional wood carving is their most important form of sculpture art.
These sculptures serve villages and religions.
They are used to educate young people, praise the dead, appease evil gods and show gods, but sometimes only for entertainment.
There are two main types of wood carvings: one is mask and the other is figurine.
Africa has a hot climate, and few ancient wood carvings have been preserved.
The longest history of ancient wood carvings from archaeological excavations is no more than 200 years.
However, due to the slow development of primitive tribes in the long historical years, the ancient traditions are usually preserved more completely.
Therefore, it can be inferred that the wood carvings basically preserve most of the characteristics of primitive African art.
African wood carving is carved from a complete piece of wood.
Before creating wood carvings, the sculptor should first go to the woods to choose a suitable piece of wood, and then carve in a hidden place to make the wood carvings produce divine power.
Sculptures made of freshly cut wood will crack when the wood becomes dry.
In order to avoid this situation, sculptors should constantly oil the statue or dry the statue with fireworks, so as to make the surface of the wood carving extremely dark and smooth.
Some even have metallic luster.
Wooden figurines are regarded as sacred objects in tropical Africa and the residence of the souls of the dead.
Out of the worship of the dead, sculptors may be very nervous when creating such sculptures.
They strive to exaggerate.
Deformation and even grotesque techniques to create a shelter for the ghost of the dead.
Wearing masks to hold religious or witchcraft ceremonies is an important tribal collective activity in tropical Africa since the primitive era.
These masks are wood sculptures with strange shapes and exaggerated grotesque.
They are usually animal and character images expressed by stylized techniques.
African sculpture art is the most creative sculpture art in the world.
Its shape is concise, simple and has strong expressiveness.
African sculpture is surprisingly rich and colorful, from completely abstract to close to the human truth in the mirror.
Bambara people live in what is now Mali, Africa.
The prominent feature of the carved portraits of this tribe is that the breasts are conical, located in a prominent position of the upper body, and the body is slender cylindrical.
The body is decorated with metal nails.
Bambala people also have a kind of antelope mask.
The top decoration is very distinctive.
Antelope is the symbol of bambala people.
Its image is usually boldly deformed by bambala artists.
Dogon is an African tribe living in the Niger River Basin.
This tribe has a statue called “telum”.
The statue is a figure with arms raised.
This kind of statue is mostly made of hard wood.
More modern Duogong ancestor statues mostly use geometry to form the shape of statues.
The baga people migrated from the Niger River basin to Guinea, and their carvings were summarized and refined.
The Bajia people have a carved mask on their shoulders called “Bamba”, which is very distinctive.
Its surface is smooth and decorated with copper nails.
It is worn during the harvest season or at funerals.
Dans live in the West Bank of the Gulf of Guinea.
Dans’ masks are simple and moving.
Women’s masks are more exquisite than men’s masks.
Ashanti also live along the coast of the Gulf of Guinea.
This nation has a high level of civilization.
They are good at creating metals, especially gold crafts.
A gold mask preserved by King Kofi kakari has strong realism and expressive color, mature sculpture skills and exquisite workmanship.
Modern European colonists carried out cruel plunder on the area where this nation lived, which hindered the development of the tribe’s gold art.
Yoruba is a large black tribe living in the southwest of Nigeria.