after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Russian political arena consists of two systems, one is the democratic system and the other is the oligarch KGB system. Putin attacked the old oligarchs, and the remaining oligarchs turned in time and combined with the KGB group.

after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Russian political arena consisted of two systems, one is the democratic system, and the other is the oligarch KGB system. Putin attacked the old oligarchs, and the remaining oligarchs turned in time and combined with the KGB group.

“I’m tired of caviar. It should be very expensive abroad.” Mikhail slipenchuk, President of Russia’s metropolis group, who has a big belly but full of confidence, often flies around the world by private plane to talk about business. This is the opening scene of the first episode of the NHK documentary Putin’s Russia.

with the sudden death of former tycoon Berezovsky in London, the “seven oligarchs” who assisted Yeltsin to power have disappeared, but this does not mean that the oligarchs have withdrawn from Russian history.

in 2008, on the global rich list published by Forbes magazine, Russia surpassed Germany with 87 billionaires to become the second most billionaire country in the world, and Moscow also became the city with 74 billionaires.

at that time, the total assets of 87 Russian billionaires were as high as US $471.4 billion, accounting for about 35% of Russia’s GDP in 2007. The companies they owned were basically leaders in their industry. Compared with the past, the oligarchs are still the main force of the Russian economy, and they are richer. They and the power institutions are jointly ruling the Russian economy in a new way of cooperation.

energy system is easy to get rich.

is different from the old oligarchs mainly concentrated in the field of Finance and banking. The rise and prosperity of the new oligarchs are related to oil. At present, many of the active oligarchs are from several major energy companies, among which Gazprom is the first. The oligarchs related to “Russian gas” can also be called “Russian gas oligarchs”.

,

,

,

and “Gazprom” are currently the largest companies in Russia and the largest natural gas mining enterprises in the world. It provides almost all the natural gas required by central and Eastern Europe and CIS countries. The company ranked 35th among the Fortune Global 500 in 2011.

Russian gas oligarchs include the current chairman alesei Miller and former president remvyakhirev. The former is a semi bureaucrat and the latter is an old Jianghu that has been very active since 1990. He has also been the president of Siberian oil company, Imperial Bank and Russian public television. In addition to the two of them, Victor Chernomyrdin, a famous politician in the former Yeltsin Era, is also a Russian gas oligarch.

under Putin’s pressure, Vasiliev transferred power to Miller in 2001. After the transfer of power, Vasiliev enjoyed wealth and wealth and died in February 2013.

although Rosneft is rich and powerful, vasiliov and other oligarchs have also made a lot of money, Rosneft is by no means a private company controlled by an oligarch as in the past, and its composition is basically semi state-owned. The Kremlin has a firm grip on the company. Victor Zubkov, the current chairman, was the first deputy minister of the Russian Ministry of Finance and director of the Financial Supervision Bureau of the Russian Federation. He was also the Prime Minister of Russia in 2007.

besides the Russian gas system are “Luke system” and “Siberian system”, both of which are oil companies. Lukoil is the second largest oil company in Russia and the second largest company with crude oil reserves in the world. The representative chaebol is vagit alekperov. The representative of the Siberian family is the famous Roman Abramovich.

looking at these oligarchs, the biggest feature is mainly from the energy system. Russia under Putin once became a dazzling BRICs power because of its oil and gas resources. But most importantly, although they earn money, most of their oil and gas enterprises are closely related to the government or simply controlled by the government.

in the past, Putin condemned some oligarchs as predators of state assets. After taking office in 2000, his strategy is to control basic industries such as resources and concentrate wealth in the hands of the state on the basis of completely eliminating chaebols that are detrimental to national interests. The loyalty of new oil tycoons to Putin is the best embodiment of Platts’ economic philosophy, and in turn, they can get rich through the control of this basic national wealth.

Rusal King follows Putin’s

. Compared with the oligarchs of oil and gas system, the leader of Rusal is unique.

at many international high-end summits, a thin middle-aged man with prominent cheekbones and a hooked nose can be seen behind Putin or Medvedev. He is Oleg Deripaska, the owner of Rusal.

in 2008, Deripaska’s total personal assets reached US $28 billion, surpassing Abramovich to become Russia’s new richest man. He and Abramovich have too much in common. They are still partners and have a good relationship with Putin. With Abramovich, who is keen to buy yachts or enjoy the game in the VIP seat of Stamford Bridge Stadium, Deripaska appears more in important political occasions and behind Putin.

Deripaska started by reselling white sugar, but the source of his first pot of gold is not clear. People only know that he works hard in the workshop of an aluminum factory in Siberia. Sometimes he sleeps directly next to the electrolytic furnace in the workshop at night. Deripaska became the factory director at the age of 26 and worked in the workshop with poor conditions every dayWork with workers. He bought a large number of shares in the factory with the money he made in the commodity trade.

by 2000, he and Abramovich jointly established Rusal and began to extend their tentacles to machinery manufacturing, energy, finance, media and automobile industry. By 2001, most of Russia’s auto factories were pocketed by Deripaska. After Abramovich gave up aluminum, Russia’s aluminum industry became Deripaska’s world.

catering to politics is also the magic weapon of Deripaska’s rise. He famously said: “cooperation with the authorities is the only way for any big business, especially in Russia.” In February 2001, “diamond king” Deripaska married Yeltsin’s granddaughter yumasheva and became Yeltsin’s grandson-in-law. Although Yeltsin had resigned at that time, the powerful influence of the “family” (Yeltsin family) at that time could not be ignored. Deripaska naturally entered the core layer of Russian power.

the flexible Deripaska soon established a good relationship with Putin, who was rectifying the oligarchy. Putin affirmed Deripaska’s position in the Russian economy and listened to his private investment plan in Central Asia in his private villa. Deripaska also said publicly that he was “very close” to the president.

but in the commercial war, Deripaska’s ruthless side is more familiar to people. In the autumn of 2001, the price of aluminum products in the world market fell, and the profits of Rusal were seriously affected. Deripaska immediately decided to lay off 14 workers, reduce workers’ wages by 21%, a number of large enterprises in the group went bankrupt, and many foreign companies suffered huge losses due to the failure of agreements signed with their companies. There are even rumors that the governor of the state where the company is located was assassinated. “No one can accumulate so much wealth without this ruthless quality,” said the editor in chief of Russia’s Caijing magazine

the young Russian Aluminum king has similar hobbies with other rich people, such as setting up luxury houses abroad. At the same time, Deripaska also has some “personal interests”. He invested a lot of money in the Institute of Biochemistry and physics of Moscow University to develop an elixir. Deripaska, who dreams of immortality, said: “aging is a disease that can be cured like myocardial infarction and cancer.”

businessmen must not fight against the state.

2008 is a year of unlimited scenery for Russia’s new oligarchy. Like the re rising Russia, they use the rolling gold dollar to expand rapidly all over the world. However, the subsequent bankruptcy crisis of Lehman Brothers had a great impact on these oligarchs.

due to the serious economic crisis in Europe and the United States, a large amount of funds flowing into Russia have returned. In addition, the demand for energy and raw materials has been greatly reduced under the world economic downturn, and Russia’s economy has also been seriously impacted. Many enterprises are heavily indebted overnight and need to make up for deficits of more than one billion or even billions of dollars. Whether it is Rusal, as big as Deripaska, or some oligarchs such as sripanchek’s metropolitan group, the red light is high.

the only one who has money and can act as a savior is the Kremlin. The Russian government has money, and the annual economic growth of 7% over the years has enriched its huge treasury. The government is also willing to rescue large enterprises, but it is selective and conditional.

when determining the rescue list, then President Medvedev made it clear that enterprises that maintain good relations with the country can survive, and those that cannot be done will be eliminated.

Sri pancek admitted that terrible situations may occur in the future. In exchange for financing, the state confiscates the assets of the chaebol. But for the rich, you can only ask humbly, and now only the country is the richest.

“we are moving towards state capitalism step by step. Only those who have good relations with the state can survive.” The former geography doctor of Moscow State University, who always believed that businessmen were businessmen and could not rely on the money of the state to do business, was helpless.

,

,

and

295 enterprises were finally listed in the rescue list. Deripaska’s Rusal naturally ranked on the list and received more than $5 billion in state aid, which is certainly not without cost. He must let government officials into Rusal’s management. The assistance of

,

,

and

to enterprises is not the fundamental condition for the realization of Putin’s state capitalism. Putin has already established his economic dominance by rectifying the “seven oligarchs”, which was further strengthened by the financial crisis in 2008.

back then, Berezovsky, a former oligarch, confidently declared: “it is we entrepreneurs who grasp the trend of the times. The government must give the greatest respect to the opinions of our entrepreneurs.”

Fang Liang, a Russian researcher, told the times: “after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russian politics consisted of two systems, one was the democratic system and the other was the oligarch KGB system. Putin attacked the old oligarchs, and the remaining oligarchs turned in time and combined with the KGB group.”

,

,

and

among the new oligarchs rising under Putin, many people rely on their relationship with the government to quickly develop their business. For example, Gennady dimchenko, President of gunvor group, Russia’s largest oil and gas service company, is Putin’s colleague in the KGB. The company is responsible for providing services for the oil and gas export of state-owned energy companies such as Rosneft and Gazprom, with an annual export of more than 55 million tons of oil. Yuri kovarichuk, who ranked 51st on the Forbes Global rich list in 2008, is one of the eight partners of Putin’s “Lake” villa consumer cooperative founded in 1996. He currently owns 30% of the shares of Bank of Russia and “Petersburg channel 5”.

“people who know Russian history know that businessmen must notAgainst the state. That’s what I’ve done since I first started doing business. Only in the same direction as the country and in step with the government. It was and will be. ” Sri panchick concludes.