Section VII Islamic Art in the 7th century, Islamic civilization rose in the vast areas on the East and south banks of the Mediterranean, which brought new confrontational factors to the unified Christian system in this region.

“Islam” means obedience.

Islam is the “monotheistic religion” founded by the “prophet” Muhammad (AD 570-632) and believes in Almighty Allah.

Muhammad was born in Mecca and took Medina as the center of his mission.

The Koran (meaning “recited scripture”) is the supreme code of Islam.

Fasting, chanting, worship and pilgrimage are all forms of their cultivation.

Its temple is called “mosque” in China (Qing is pure and true is the only), which is the crystallization of Islamic architectural art.

At first, Islam was mainly spread among poor and illiterate Arab nomads such as Bedouin, reflecting the urgent desire of the Arab nation to further realize political unity and form a centralized state.

When Muhammad was alive, he was committed to establishing a unified Arab Empire with Islam as the highest belief.

His image is depicted as a hero with the Koran in one hand and a sword in the other, which means faith and conquest.

In the 50 years after his death, successive caliphs (leaders of Arab unity of politics and religion, meaning “heirs”) continued to expand outward.

They seized Syria and Palestine from the Byzantine Empire, transformed Byzantine Christian churches into mosques, conquered the highlands of Iran, and defeated the Sassanian Dynasty of Persia (known as the “Sabbath” in ancient Chinese Books), In the Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 AD), it further expanded eastward into Central Asia, occupied Afghanistan and northern India, and once threatened China’s western border.

Tang history called it a “big food country”.

Westward into Africa, along Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, across the Strait of Gibraltar, into Spain (AD 711), thus stepping on the territory of Europe.

The Umayyad Dynasty established its capital in Damascus, Syria, where palaces and mosques were built.

Later, the Abbasid Dynasty (AD 750-1258) moved its capital to Baghdad, the capital of today’s Iraq.

The palaces and monasteries built here were obviously influenced by the Persian Art of the Sassanian Dynasty.

The Abbasid Arab Kingdom enjoyed economic prosperity and cultural prosperity, which was the golden age of Islamic architecture and painting.

In terms of architecture, the outstanding contribution of the Islamic world is the mosque.

It usually consists of a long colonnade, a pool for body purification and a wide main hall.

There are also one or several minarets.

The Imam stands at the top of the tower and calls the believers to hold worship services on time.

This design is produced according to the requirements of religious rituals.

Mosque, as a unique architectural form of Islam, has two characteristics: the first is the structural characteristics, that is, from the perspective of architecture, it has the characteristics of simplicity, lightness and rationality.

Its effective space is large and there is almost nothing superfluous.

The horseshoe shaped pointed arch is the unique appearance of Islamic architecture, which reasonably disperses the pressure of the superstructure, The dome of the Central Church is based on Byzantine architecture, but the dome of the mosque is mostly made of wood frames to reduce the weight of the top.

The second is the artistic characteristics, that is, in terms of artistic style, it also has its own characteristics.

There are no altars, holy images, and no paintings about the life stories of Allah and the prophet in the mosque.

Their tradition of opposing idol worship once influenced the idol destruction movement of Byzantine Empire.

For this reason, the decoration in the mosque is mostly deformed pattern decoration, most of which are geometric shapes and flower patterns.

Most of the colors are cold, bright and clean, which forms a strong contrast with the hot desert landscape.

The early mosques in Asia Minor were rebuilt from the basilica Church in Rome, with no independent characteristics.

In the Umayyad Dynasty, many mosques were built in Damascus, Medina, irsalam, Aleppo and Fustat (today’s Cairo).

Among them, the most magnificent is the omarha mosque with “stone dome” built in Jerusalem in 691.

Its octagonal main hall was built following the example of Byzantine architecture.

Another outstanding work is the Great Mosque in Damascus.

It was built in 705-711.

There are three main halls in a row, and the arch is semicircular.

The Abbasid Dynasty was a prosperous era of mosque construction.

From the quelavan mosque in Tunisia, the Sultan Hassan Mosque in Cairo (877-879 A.D.), to the ruins of the mosque in Samarra, a distant Turkish border, were built by the Abbasid Dynasty.

The Abbasid mosque is characterized by the emergence of spires and circular arches and the adoption of spiral minarets, which are needed to further solve the problem of load-bearing.

After the demise of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire of Turkey conquered Constantinople and renamed Istanbul (Islamic city) in 1453.

From 1609 to 1617, according to the will of Sultan ahumit, the famous “blue mosque” was built next to the Cathedral of St.

Sophia, which had been changed into a mosque.

In the 16th century, the savavid dynasty built many important mosques in Persia.

Among them, the Great Mosque with green black glaze spire dome in Isfahan is the best, which is praised as “the king of mosques” by the Islamic world.

In Spain, the earliest mosque was built in AD 785.

Its tall facade is full of abstract decorative patterns in Spanish style.

The main hall has 10 arranged columns, setting a precedent for the use of double arched columns.

Exquisite abstract patterns are carved on the niches facing the Holy Land Mecca, which can be seen to be obviously influenced by Byzantine mosaic art.

The same structure was applied to the nine dome mosque in Toledo, which was later transformed into a Christian Church.

Southern Spain was the jurisdiction of the Arab almoravid Dynasty in the 12th century.

Many high-level mosques were built in Cordoba, Seville and Granata, such as the Great Mosque of Cordoba built in 1171.

The whole body is covered with continuous patterns composed of arc lines, which is an example of the mutual penetration of Islamic Art and Spanish Moorish art.

In Granata, as the last territory conquered by Islam against Christianity, countless works of art from the narz Dynasty (A.D. 1232-1492) have been left.

The most famous is the Alhambra Palace in the 14th century, which has cutting-edge Islamic decoration.