Ethiopia is located at the southern end of the red sea passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.
It has always been a strategic place for strategists.
Although it is a plateau area, it has sufficient rainfall because it is located in the tropics, with the Red Sea in the north and the Indian Ocean in the East.
There are many rivers and lakes in the territory, enjoying the benefits of irrigation, fertile land, rich agricultural products and mineral resources such as gold, silver, precious stones, platinum, copper, iron, coal and oil.
Therefore, it has always been the goal of European powers.
Italy has long coveted Ethiopia.
As early as 1889, Italy adapted the word “can” in the “uchari treaty” in which “His Majesty the king of kings of Ethiopia can rely on his Majesty’s Government in all his negotiations with other powers or governments” into “must” in the Italian text, in an attempt to make it a protectorate, It failed because of the strong opposition of the Ethiopian people.
In 1895, Italy sent troops to invade Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian people rose up and defeated the Italian army in the battle of Adua on March 1, 1896, forcing Italy to pay compensation and recognize the sovereignty and independence of the Ethiopian people.
In 1906, Italy signed the agreement with Britain and France.
According to the agreement, Italy has also obtained the privilege of building a railway connecting Eritrea and Italian Somalia, using water sources and pastures in Ogaden, and developing cotton planting in the north.
In October 1922, after the Italian fascists seized power, they even faster the pace of invading Ethiopia.
Mussolini had prepared for the invasion as early as 1925, but he did not dare to act rashly due to financial difficulties and insufficient armaments at that time.
In 1928, Ethiopia tried to swallow the Treaty of reciprocity, but failed to succeed.
The great economic crisis sweeping the whole capitalist world from 1929 to 1933 dealt a heavy blow to the Italian economy.
Under the situation of crisis, in order to divert the attention of the domestic people and get rid of the domestic crisis, Italian fascists are more eager to find a way out from the war.
However, due to the limited strength of Italy at that time, it was difficult to compete with Britain and France in the Balkans, the Danube and the eastern Mediterranean.
Once it invades Ethiopia, Italy can connect several colonies in East Africa, hold the throat of the Eurasian waterway, cut off the connection between Britain and France and its Asian colonies, and facilitate the competition with Britain and France.
At the same time, it can also control the water source of the Nile and control the whole irrigation system of Sudan and Egypt in its own hands.
So Mussolini was bent on seizing Ethiopia.
On February 8, 1934, Mussolini said at a secret meeting: “because the four Nation Convention has not been ratified, Europe will go to war.
Therefore, Italy must take action against Ethiopia in 1935.
Before that, prevent all events from happening.
” In order to quickly create a fait accompli, Mussolini believed that “our action will be very rapid, so that there will be little risk of diplomatic trouble.
” He advocated a quick decision.
In order to achieve this, he instructed to make extensive use of modern technical weapons.
“In Eritrea and Somalia, at least 250 aircraft, 150 tanks, artillery and poison gas should be concentrated respectively to maintain absolute superiority and have sufficient ammunition.
” Then Italy stepped up preparations for the invasion.
Within three years, Italy’s army in its homeland and colonies expanded to 1.
In order to transport the expeditionary force, Italy has prepared more than 155 seagoing ships.
Before the outbreak of the war, 400000 troops, 100000 mules and horses, 20000 cars, a considerable amount of grain and other military materials were transported to the battlefield by sea ships.
It has also built and repaired seaports, airports and military bases in Somalia and other places, and paved roads to the Ethiopian border.
In order to carry out the war, Italy purchased weapons, aircraft, aeroengines, spare parts, oil, raw materials and other military products from the United States.
Britain has expanded its supply of coal, nickel and other strategic materials to Italy.
In order to create a pretext for waging war, Italy created the Val Val incident 100 to 150 kilometers away from Italian Somalia on December 5, 1934.
The Italian Army dispatched aircraft and armored vehicles to launch a sudden attack on the security forces of the British Joint Commission, which is protecting and investigating the grazing range of Somali nomadic tribes.
The Egyptian army fought back.
As a result, 152 Egyptian people were killed and injured and more than 60 Italian people were killed and injured.
However, Italy shouted to catch the thief, and the anti framing incident was provoked by Ethiopia, which demanded that Ethiopia: “make a formal apology, recognize the legitimacy of the Italian occupation of Val Val Val by paying tribute to the Italian flag locally, hand over Omar samanthal to Italy for punishment and pay 200000 Ethiopian silver dollars in compensation.
” In September 1935, the Italian army command decided to concentrate nearly 380000 troops in Eritrea and Somalia, under the command of General de Bono, the commander-in-chief of the Italian army in northeast Africa.
It was divided into three routes: North, East and south.
Taking the north route as the main attack direction, it carried out a centripetal attack on the hinterland of Egypt, in an attempt to defeat the Egyptian army in a short time, occupy the capital Addis Ababa and destroy the country of Egypt at one fell swoop.
The north road is commanded by de Bono as commander, with a total force of 250000.
The South Road was commanded by graziani and concentrated two battle clusters.
There is a campaign cluster in the direction of East Road.
The Ethiopian army participated in the war with about 370000 to 470000 troops.
Except for the royal guards and the central army, most of them were civilian groups of all provinces and tribes.
They are poorly equipped and lack training.
Under such a disparity in power, the Ethiopians are not intimidated by the powerful Italian army.
They are determined to defend their motherland and their homeland.
The supreme commander of the Egyptian army is Emperor Haile Selassie I.
The Anti Japanese war plan of the Egyptian army headquarters is to carry out mobile defensive operations in mountainous areas and create conditions for the subsequent transfer to counter offensive.
In the north, the army clusters of Dukes such as seum, guksa and murugeta were launched.
In the south, the army clusters of the two Dukes of nesib and desta were launched.
In the East, the Egyptian army and the reserve force are served by the forbidden guards and some local troops.
On October 3, 1935, the Italian army invaded on a large scale.
With the cooperation of 580 tanks and 120 aircraft, the Italian Army on the North Road commanded by de Bono invaded the territory of Egypt and carried out major raids in the direction of Desai and Addis Ababa.
With the cooperation of 70 tanks and 38 aircraft, the Italian Army on the South Road under the command of graziani invaded the eogaden area from Italian Somalia and attacked in the direction of gorahi and Harar, trying to cut off the Djibouti Addis Ababa railway and contain as many troops as possible.
On the east route, the Italian army tried to attack desier through the nakir desert from the Assab region of Italy, Eritrea, and contain the combat operations of the Egyptian army.
On the North Road, the Italian army attacked the city of Adua in two ways.
Because of Italy’s undeclared war, there was no resistance at first.
On October 4, after the Italian army captured the darotecker mountain road with heavy artillery fire, it entered the kasiyarsi mountain road.
The terrain here is dangerous.
It is only 10 kilometers away from the city of Adua.
The Egyptian army defended it with danger, and the Italian and Egyptian armies fought fiercely here.
On the 5th, the Italian army sent out planes to bombard indiscriminately.
The Egyptian army barracks and many facilities were shot and destroyed, and the Egyptian army was gradually out of support.
On the 6th, the Italian Army stormed the mountain road of kasiyarsi.
The Egyptian army resisted tenaciously and fought hand to hand with the Italian army, but the mountain road was occupied by the Italian army at 10:00 on the 6th because of its weak power.
The left and right wings of the Italian Army converged and went straight to Adua.
Duke seum led his army to resist bravely.
However, the Italian army had aircraft bombing and strafing, tanks under it to cooperate with infantry operations, and reinforcements came in a steady stream.
Although the Egyptian army fought hard, it was unable to support it and had to give up the city and retreat to makare, the capital of Tigre province.
The situation in makare is extremely dangerous.
Italy used 120000 troops to attack the city.
On November 6, an Italian army once broke into the urban area, but was forced to withdraw under the heroic counterattack of the Egyptian army.
Later, makare was occupied by the Italian Army on November 8 due to the rebellion of the Duke of Cusack, the emperor’s in laws.
The Italian Army on the South Road encountered tenacious resistance from the Egyptian army.
In the Ogaden area, the Egyptian army repeatedly attacked with a small group of troops, winning by surprise and defeating the powerful automatic convoy of the Italian army.
In mid October, general Gabriella led an Egyptian army to fight with the Italian army near anara city in Ogaden area.
Gorahi is the transportation hub of wojidan province and the main target of Italian attack.
Although the Italian army has carried out crazy bombing of the town for days, the Egyptian army still sticks to it.
Although the town fell into the hands of the Italian Army on November 8, the Italian army also paid a high price for it.
The Italian Army on the East Road was also bravely resisted by the Egyptian army.
Egyptian soldiers often attack by surprise at night.
When they retreated, they carried away the grain and filled the well, or put salt in it.
The Italian army was often forced to withdraw from the occupied areas because they had no food to eat and no water to drink.
Therefore, the Italian Army on the East Road has made little progress.
After the battles of makare and gorahi, the heroic Ethiopian people soon stopped the Italian offensive.
On November 23, the Ethiopian army on the South Road recovered gorahi in one fell swoop, and the Ethiopian army on the north road also dealt a heavy blow to the aggressors in Tigray mountain area.
At this time, Ethiopia was full of fighting spirit and unprecedented enthusiasm to resist the enemy.
The army and people all over the country unanimously expressed their determination to fight to the end and drive the aggressors out of their own territory.
Under the powerful attack of the Egyptian people, the morale of the invading army was low, the discipline was relaxed, and the supplies were insufficient, making it more and more difficult.
In order to get rid of the decline on the battlefield, Mussolini decided to replace de Bono with general badorio as the commander-in-chief of the Italian Army invading Egypt on November 16, 1935.
However, this practice of changing the commander in wartime can not help the aggressors.
In mid December, the armies of the two Dukes of IRUM and eyouru clustered in the Aksum region, carried out a sudden attack on the occupying forces and destroyed many tanks.
In late January 1936, Italy and Egypt launched a fierce battle in tampis.
After 10 days of fierce battle, the Ethiopian army seized 18 Italian tanks, 33 field guns, 720 machine guns and 3654 rifles, killed and injured more than 8000 Italian troops and liberated the border city of Asia.
During the counterattack of the Egyptian army, some groups of the Italian army fell into siege and suffered serious losses.
Since February 1936, the battlefield situation has changed dramatically.
Relying on its air superiority, the Italian army carried out indiscriminate bombing on the Egyptian army, killing a large number of Egyptian troops and turning the peaceful residential areas into ruins.
The Italian army also wantonly trampled on public international law and used a large amount of toxic gas in the war, which poisoned a large number of soldiers and civilians and greatly affected the combat effectiveness of the Egyptian army.
Under the new offensive of the Egyptian army, the Egyptian army lost one after another.
On March 31, Egyptian Emperor Haile Selassi I personally led a large army to block the Italian Army approaching the capital in Meiqiu near Lake Assange.
Although the Egyptian army officers and soldiers fought bravely, they could not withstand the dive bombing and poison gas attack of the Italian plane, and the whole line collapsed in a few days.
This battle dealt a fatal blow to the main force of Egypt, while the Italian army opened the way to the capital of Egypt.
On April 15, Desai, the gateway of the capital, was forced to give up.
On April 26, the Italian Army on the South Road broke through the line of defense around sasabana and approached Gerar.
At the end of April, the Italian Army approached Addis Ababa.
On May 3, Egyptian Emperor Haile Selassie went into exile.
On the 5th, the Italian army occupied Addis Ababa.
On the 9th, Mussolini announced the annexation of Ethiopia.
Badorio was appointed governor plenipotentiary.
Subsequently, Eritrea and Italian Somalia merged into Italian East Africa.
Ethiopia has fought bravely, both military and civilian, and has received extensive sympathy, strong solidarity and support from peace loving and justice upholding peoples all over the world.
Despite the final fall of the enemy, the people did not yield.
They still carried out heroic and ingenious guerrilla struggle behind the enemy and fought to recover their lost land.
The armed invasion of Ethiopia by the Italian army has aroused strong repercussions in the world.
However, due to the acquiescence and even connivance of imperialists such as Britain, France and the United States, this shameful act has not been effectively stopped.
Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia was an important event for fascist forces to invade and expand and promote the threat of war before the Second World War, which had a very important impact on international relations.