according to the pastoral decree of June 10, 1794, the punishment method is all death penalty. If there is no material evidence, it can be inferred and sentenced according to “conscious basis” and inner concept. During the whole period of terror, about 300000 to 500000 people were imprisoned as suspects.

Jacobin leader Robespierre

as the child of the French Enlightenment, the main leaders of Robespierre, St. juster and other Jacobins have a strong pursuit of political ideals such as democracy and freedom and sincere faith in revolution, However, as the highest stage of the French Revolution, the rule of Jacobins is called “free autocracy”. This contradiction between ideal and practice is the significance of talking about Jacobin dictatorship.

the origin and development of Jacobin

the Jacobin dictatorship was developed by the Jacobin Club in the revolutionary struggle. Its predecessor was the Brittany club formed by some representatives discussing issues outside the meeting during the three-level conference. Its official name is “Friends of the constitution of the Jacobin conference in Paris”. Its members include bourgeois political activists with various colors from all provinces, mainly including four political factions: the liberal aristocracy represented by mirabo and Lafayette, the constitutional big bourgeoisie represented by the big banker and farmer diodor ramet brothers, the industrial and commercial bourgeoisie represented by brisso, and Robespierre The Democratic bourgeoisie represented by St. juster and Coutton.

in February 1790, Jacobin Club passed the constitution, which stipulates that its purpose is to “promote the success of the revolution”, “let the voice of truth spread everywhere” and “let the light of truth illuminate the people”. At the same time, it is stipulated that participants must apply, be recommended by introducers and pay membership fees. In this way, the Jacobin Club has the rudiment of a modern political party. By the summer of 1790, Jacobin Club had more than 150 branches in all provinces. In June 1791, it reached 406, and then it grew to more than 2000 at most.

with the development of revolutionary struggle, Jacobin Club continues to divide and combine. Faced with the choice of a republic or a constitutional monarchy, the Jacobin Club was divided. Banaf and other constitutional monarchies withdrew on July 16 and formed a Feiyang club. On the question of whether to continue the revolution or consolidate order, how to treat the Paris Commune and how to deal with the former King Louis XVI, the Gillen mission within the Jacobins split with the left-wing mountain faction, and the leader of the Gillen mission, brieso, was expelled on October 12, 1792. Subsequently, all members of the Gillian mission left the Jacobin Club, and the mountain faction became the owner of the Jacobin Club. On May 31, 1793, the Jacobin led uprising began. On June 2, under the threat of force, the National Assembly passed the proposal of Jacobin representative Kutong and decided to arrest 29 special representatives of Gillen, including brisso, vinho and pedion. At this point, Gironde fell, and the national assembly was dominated by Jacobins.

in early 1794, when domestic and foreign troubles had been basically eliminated and faced with the problem of whether to continue and strengthen terrorist rule, the Jacobins were divided into three factions: Ebert, Dandong and Robespierre. As a middle school, Robespierre used terrorist means to use the Dandong faction to overthrow the Ebert faction, and finally the Dandong faction. Robespierre’s tyrannical dictatorship was finally established in April 1794. Since then, the Jacobins have specifically referred to the robespierres. With the internal division and the implementation of more terrorist and radical policies, the Jacobin dictatorship not only lost the mass base – the revolutionaries and the lower class people in the urban and rural bourgeoisie, but also lost the support force within the regime – the majority members of the national assembly.

on July 27, 1794, the National Assembly passed a resolution to arrest Robespierre. At the same time, St. juster and Coutton were arrested, which is the famous “hot moon coup”. It was the hot moon coup that ended the terrorist rule of Jacobins and began to restore and establish the normal order of capitalism. As Marx said when talking about the social situation in France after the hot moon coup: “the real representative of bourgeois society is the bourgeoisie, so the bourgeoisie began its own rule.” This is the objective requirement of historical development and reflects the inevitable law of the transition from feudalism to capitalism.

Jacobin dictatorship – the full implementation of the terrorist policy. The situation of the

revolution determines the inevitable implementation of the terrorist policy. The implementation of terrorist policy was determined by the social environment and revolutionary situation at that time. “It must attack all existing powers, destroy all recognized forces, remove various traditions and renew customs and habits at the same time.” the political, economic and military situation before and after Jacobin’s administration forced it to adopt a “terrorist” policy to continue the revolution. According to the report of the Commissioner of the National Association abroad: “public utilities are on the verge of extinction. Only the fastest and most resolute measures can save them. The rich hate them, and the poor lack bread… The revolution is tired.” The Jacobin regime, which was almost in trouble, was forced to start reviewing its policies and considering making greater concessions to the masses. On September 5, 1793, the National Assembly passed a resolution agreeing to establish the revolutionary army, reorganize the revolutionary court to speed up the trial, accept the slogan of the Paris Commune “put terror on the agenda” and formulate a comprehensive price limit decree. The resolution of September 5 marked the beginning of the Jacobin regime’s transition to terrorist rule.

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terrorist policies have evolved from moderation to excesses. Robespierre successively suppressed the Ebert faction and Dandong faction within the Jacobin faction. Then he insisted on his own way and intensified it. Under the pretext of stopping “murder and new slander”, he forced the national assembly to pass the pastoral decree of “punishing the enemies of the people” proposed by kuton on June 10, 1794. The law of herding the moon has greatly expanded terror. From June 10, 1794 to July 27, when the hot moon coup took place, 1376 people were executed in Paris alone in just 48 days. Until July 26 before the coup,