they had to work by themselves and reclaim wasteland. In order to make the environment more humane, they planted flowers and made furniture from waste wood. Traditional Japanese cultural features such as patriarchy disintegrated in detention. In the harsh environment, some old and weak people died, including Hu liyuzi’s mother. Someone went on a hunger strike or tried to escape and was shot. But more people showed an amazing perseverance and loyalty to the United States.
perseverance and loyalty
Japanese doctors charge only $19 for examinations and minor surgery for local Americans, while a white intern costs $500 to do the same. They plant trees, improve the local environment and draw posters for the army without pay.
American sentinels, armed with live ammunition, watched these “Japanese ghosts” gather to raise the Star Spangled Banner and flag raising ceremony every morning, and the boy scout’s drum band (one in each battalion) played the American National Anthem. There are two courses for Japanese Americans, one for Japanese Americans and the other for Tobago Americans. Every Saturday night, they sing “beautiful Americana”.
on January 28, 1943, Stimson announced that he would accept Japanese Americans to join the army, and more than 1200 people immediately signed up. Throughout World War II, a total of about 33000 Japanese Americans participated in the U.S. military in various ways, including Igawa and Fukuhara. The 442 regiment composed of pure Japanese and the 100 Infantry Battalion (composed of Japanese in Hawaii) were sent to the cruelest battlefield in Europe. There they became the most honored force in World War II and the history of the U.S. military.
throughout World War II, no Japanese soldiers deserted or defected. They won 9486 purple heart medals, 4000 Bronze Star medals, 560 Silver Star medals and 56 Army Special medals. 9000 people were killed. As one of the most representative battle heroes, Inoue Jian lost his right hand in the battle with the German army on April 21, 1945, the night before the victory of the European war. He met and became close friends with 1996 presidential candidate Bob Dole and Senator Philip Hart in the hospital, which was later named the Hart Dole Inoue federal medical center.
in the Pacific battlefield, many Japanese are engaged in translation and intelligence work. Fukuhara Keji became one of the best. While enduring the discrimination of some colleagues who “don’t want to be with Japanese ghosts”, he accomplished all kinds of intelligence work excellently. Even in the POW camp, he met his friends in Japan and successfully eliminated his idea of suicide. The performance of Japanese Americans is reminiscent of Pershing and who led the United States to defeat Germany in two world wars.
on the other hand, huliyuzi is famous. Stranded in Japan, she has been trying to return to the United States, but occasionally because she speaks fluent and authentic English, she was appointed by the Japanese army as an announcer to shout at the American army, trying to arouse the American army’s homesickness and arouse their resentment against their superiors. Over time, her gentle, witty, witty and humorous broadcasting style and sweet English were even loved by the American soldiers. She won the nickname of “Tokyo Rose” and became the “lalie Anderson” of the Pacific battlefield (German singer and singer of the famous World War II field song “lily Marlene”).
even if they fight bravely, discrimination is still difficult to eliminate. When the first Japanese soldiers returned to the United States from Europe, they found that barber shops and restaurants still refused to serve them. A soldier who lost a leg was beaten in public. The Army Department couldn’t stand it anymore. It sent some white officers who had fought with Japanese soldiers to the west coast to make a speech tour to businessmen and farmers. A thin farmer asked a lieutenant, “how many Japanese ghosts in your company have been killed?” The lieutenant replied, “except for two Japanese soldiers who fought together in my platoon, they all died.” The farmer replied, “it’s a fucking pity that you didn’t kill those two.” Others looked up at the ceiling, some looked at the ground, some looked at their knees. In short, no one said a word.
however, the mainstream society in the United States cannot ignore it. The president, who issued an arrest warrant in 1942, publicly defended the loyalty of Japanese Americans in 1944. By the end of 1944, the Supreme Court finally declared that it was unconstitutional to detain those Japanese with American citizenship.
attorney general bidell issued a confession after the war, regretting that he had not tried his best to stop it. Even California Attorney General Warren wrote in his autobiography that I was completely wrong and I deeply repented. Although governor Carl was attacked for his humanitarian position, he was highly praised by later generations in the United States. Because of his righteous deeds, Colorado named a public holiday after him.
in 1976, President Ford publicly stated that compulsory detention is absolutely wrong, and the United States will never make such a mistake again. In 1980, President Carter set up a special committee to re investigate the detention in that year. In 1988, President Reagan signed the National Freedom Act, formally apologized to Japanese Americans in the name of the state and paid US $20000 to each person. In 1992, President Bush again paid an additional $20000 per person. In 11 years, the United States paid a total of $1.6 billion to Japanese Americans. Marked by the National Freedom Act, the detention of Japanese Americans in World War II came to an end.
the historical conscience of Japanese Americans
if it were not an atomic bomb, Keiji Fukuhara, who was assigned to the planned landing force in Japan, almost fought face-to-face with his late brother Frank (Fukuhara Kerry) who remained in Japan. Frank who remained in Japan was enlisted and assigned to the front line of xiaocang. Later, koji Fukuhara returned to Hiroshima, his hometown destroyed by the atomic bomb. The Fukuhara home was only 4 kilometers away from the atomic bomb explosion point. Finally, his eldest brother Victor (koji Fukuhara) died of radiation disease. The famous American intelligence officer of World War II finally retired from the military rank above the University. His legendary life was written by the famous Japanese writer toko Yamazaki in the novel “two motherland”.
lost his right hand on the well