Section I Japan’s expedition to the Korean War
in the seven years from 1592 to 1598, Japan made two expeditions to Korea. The Lee Dynasty of Korea defeated Japan’s aggression successively with the support of the Chinese army of the Ming Dynasty. The victory of these two wars completely smashed the arrogant attempt of Japan to forcibly occupy Korea and meddle in China at that time, made great contributions to the maintenance of security and stability in Asia, and also wrote an indelible glorious chapter in the history of the Korean people’s anti aggression struggle in the middle ages.
in the second half of the 16th century, Japanese bushima Toyotomi Xiuji integrated the feudal lords and warlords. After a long-term scuffle, he successively ruled the territories of various vassal states with abundant force, conquered the Lords of all sizes, expanded his political, economic and military strength, and unified the whole country of Japan in 1590, An end to domestic chaos. As a result, Toyotomi Xiuji, who is in charge of the military and political power of the country, has expanded his ambition to expand abroad, trying to conquer Korea and invade the Ming Dynasty, so as to establish a “one-for-one” feudal empire including Korea, China and Japan and dominate the Asian continent. In order to consolidate its ruling class at home and abroad, the Japanese government did not hesitate to launch all sharp conflicts in order to consolidate its ruling class at home and abroad. Therefore, he made two expeditions to North Korea in 1592 and 1597 respectively.
(1) Japan invaded North Korea for the first time (1592 ~ 1594)
on May 21, 1592, the Japanese advance force dispatched more than 150000 army, 40000 Navy and more than 700 warships to cross the Strait of Kuala Lumpur, invade North Korea and attack Busan. The first army led by President Kobayashi first landed in Busan, followed by the follow-up troops led by Kato Qingzheng on the other way. Qingshangdao Korean Navy failed to stop the Japanese army from landing, and the Korean local army fought desperately in Donglai City, but also failed to resist the invading enemy. After landing, the Japanese army took advantage of its superior forces and adopted the tactics of “simultaneous advance of water and land”, advancing northward in three ways. The first army reached Zhongzhou through Busan, Miyang, Daegu, Shangzhou, Wenqing and Zhongzhou; The second army passed through Yanyang, Yushan and Yongchuan, and after meeting with the first army in Zhongzhou, it went straight to Lizhou and the capital; The third army passed through Jinhai and crossed qiufengling to the north. The invading Navy successively captured the coastal areas of Qingshang, quanluo and Zhongqing roads to ensure maritime transportation lines and the supply of military grain and strategic materials for the army.
North Korea’s big turtle ship
was on land. The Korean Lee Dynasty received an urgent report of the Japanese invasion and sent famous generals such as Li Yi and Shen L á to block the Japanese army going North. They personally led the Korean army across the natural danger of Wuling. On April 27, 1593, they set up a backwater array in Tachuan, Zhongzhou to resist the Japanese army. This was the first confrontation between the Korean and Japanese armies, but in the course of the battle, the Korean army was defeated by the Japanese army and Shen L á was killed. As soon as the news reached the capital, the whole city was in panic and chaos. Xuanzu and the Minister of the imperial court immediately fled to Kaesong and Pyongyang. Prince Linhai and Prince Shunhe went to Xianjing road and Jiangyuan road respectively. On the one hand, they recruited troops to resist Japan, and on the other hand, they sent an urgent report to the Ming Dynasty for reinforcements. Due to the weak defense and inability to resist of the Li Dynasty, the Japanese army captured the capital on May 3 in only 20 days. Then the Japanese army went north in two ways. One route led by President Xiaoxi passed Kaesong and attacked in the direction of Ping’an Road, closing in on Pyongyang; Another route, led by Kato Qingzheng, attacked in the direction of xianjingdao and reached Huining on the border between North Korea and China. At this time, xuanzu of the imperial court had fled to Yizhou.
on June 15, Ming counsellor Dai chaobian and vanguard guerrilla Shi Ru led 3000 vanguard troops of the Ming army to cross the Yalu River and stationed in Yizhou, Korea on June 16. At dawn on July 17, the Ming army launched an attack on Pyongyang. At that time, the Japanese army did not defend the city, but set up an ambush in the city. The Ming army rushed into the city at one stroke, and the ambush made a sudden counterattack. Shi Ru, Dai chaobian, Zhang Guozhong and Ma Shilong were shot and killed in the Ming Dynasty. Zu Chengxun, the deputy commander in chief, led the troops to withdraw, retreated to Dading River within one day, and then returned to China.
the main forces of the Japanese Army led by governor Koichi, Kato Qingzheng and Kuroda who invaded the hinterland of North Korea were forced to suspend the attack and give up the attempt to seize the sea power in the Korean Strait and the Yellow Sea due to the continuous frustration of the Navy and the difficulty of replenishing military grain and other strategic materials. Since then, various parts of North Korea have set off a volunteer movement with a broad mass base. Zhao Xian led 700 soldiers to attack Jinshan and fought bravely with tens of thousands of Japanese troops, killing and wounding many enemies. Finally, all 700 soldiers died heroically because they were outnumbered. Xiujing, a monk of Puxian temple in Miaoxiang mountain, organized 1500 monks and soldiers to carry out guerrilla struggle with Shun’an faxing temple as the base, and achieved fruitful results. The monk soldiers dealt a heavy blow to the enemy in the battle to recover Pyongyang.
on December 16, Li Rusong led 43000 Ming troops from Liaoyang to North Korea. On the morning of January 7, the joint forces of the DPRK and the Ming Dynasty launched a fierce attack on Pyongyang from the west, South and North, killing and injuring many enemy officers and soldiers. In the early morning of January 8, the Allied forces opened the city gate with cannons, and Li rushong’s whole army entered the city. All the troops swarmed in, and the cavalry gathered to kill everywhere, while the Japanese army shrank in the earth cave. However, the enemy troops in the seven star gate and the earth cave of the ordinary gate were tenacious. In the fierce battle, the Ming army killed countless enemies and killed and injured many of them. Commander Li Rusong set an example, stormed into the array, and his mount was shot to death. On the night of January 8, the little westbound leader led the defeated soldiers to flee out of the whole city of Pyongyang. He crossed the Datong River while the west of the river was frozen. Countless drowned people were drowned. Then the Japanese aggressors fled to the south of North Korea. The Ming army followed the enemy in pursuit, beheaded more than 600 enemy officers and soldiers, and captured 3 people alive. In addition, during the retreat, the Japanese army was constantly beaten and killed by the masses and monks.
on February 19, 1594, Li Rusong led the Ming army to garrison Kaesong. The Japanese army had slaughtered, plundered and burned the city, left an empty city and fled south quickly. The Ming army continued to move towards linjinjiang. On February 27, Li rushong personally led 2000 Ming troops to cross the Linjin River and March southward until they went deep into the Biti Pavilion, which is only 30 miles away from the capital, where they were suddenly attacked by the Japanese army. The Ming army could not support it, so it waved its troops to retreat.
in early March, Japanese commander Feng Chenps “At the beginning of 1598, in view of the defeat of Ulsan, the Ming army decided to continue to request additional troops to carry out a land and water attack on the enemy and completely wipe out the Japanese army entrenched in the south of Korea. On July 15, the Ming army led by Chen phosphorus entered Gujin Island and joined the Navy under the jurisdiction of General Li shunchen to form a joint fleet to firmly grasp the control of the South China Sea of Korea. On August 18, the enemy chief FengChen Xiuji repeatedly lost due to the Japanese invasion of the DPRK, Died of depression in vojicheng, Japan. After the Japanese army learned the news of the death of Toyotomi Xiuji, the Japanese army left in North Korea had no intention to fight again. In addition, the Japanese army had been heavily surrounded by the Ming and North Korean coalition forces and was besieged on all sides. To this end, the small westbound commander stationed in Shuntian put forward a proposal for armistice and peace talks, which was rejected by the Ming and Korean coalition forces. There was nothing to do and sat waiting for help.
on September 20, Liu Ji led the Ming army to attack the drag bridge. At this time, the joint navy of the Ming Dynasty and the DPRK approached the sea area near the drag bridge and prepared for a land and water assault. However, because the Japanese army defended with more than 13000 troops, the small westbound leader could not hold out. Several strong attacks by the land forces of the Ming army were ineffective. On October 2, Liu Ji led the army and Chen phosphorus led the navy to jointly attack the drag bridge, which was tenaciously resisted by the Japanese army, and the water land attack was fruitless.
on September 20, the Ming army attacked Jinzhou. The Japanese army retreated without war and fled to Kunyang and Sichuan. The Ming army occupied Jinzhou and continued to pursue the enemy. On October 2, the Ming and DPRK allied forces launched an attack on the Xinzhai village in Sichuan with a strong force of more than 29000 people. Just as the Allied forces opened the enemy’s city gate with artillery fire and all the troops rushed to the city, the gunpowder in the guerrilla Peng Xingu camp of the Ming army caught fire. Suddenly, the whole army was in chaos and scrambled to escape the danger. The enemy took the opportunity to pursue and kill, and the Ming army was defeated miserably, with 7000 or 8000 dead. The Ming army returned to Jinzhou.
in November, the Japanese army was hit hard by the Allied forces of the DPRK and the Ming Dynasty and the rebel forces around the DPRK, and was in a dilemma of domestic and foreign difficulties. On November 16, facing the fate of destruction, the little westbound leader sent seven ships loaded with guns, swords, horses and other things to Li shunchen’s camp and begged Li shunchen to accept the gift and let him lead the Japanese army home. Li shunchen sternly rejected the material temptation of the enemy. On November 17, ishihiro Shimatsu, the defending General of Sichuan, led more than 500 Japanese ships and a large number of troops to support President Xiaoxi by water in an attempt to break through the joint defense line of the Korean and Ming Navy and open the way back to China. According to the news of the enemy, the joint fleet of the DPRK and the Ming Dynasty immediately stationed in the Luliang Strait overnight. Li shunchen and Chen phosphorus led a joint fleet to guard Haikou, cutting off the retreat of the enemy and preparing for battle. In the early morning of November 19, the joint navy fleet of the DPRK and the Ming Dynasty launched a fierce attack on the enemy. Li shunchen first rushed to the enemy ships and was surrounded by Japanese ships. Seeing this, Chen phosphorus hurried into the encirclement for rescue. After a fierce battle, Chen phosphorus suddenly withdrew his troops. The Japanese army was suspected of deceit and dared not attack rashly and retreated a little. The Ming ship suddenly burst into flames. Many Japanese ships were hit and caught fire, and countless people were killed, dived and drowned. At this time, Li shunchen had rushed out of the siege. Deng Zilong, a veteran of the Ming Shui army over 70, marched forward bravely and led 200 warriors to chase the Japanese ships, throw fireballs and attack the enemy ships. During the fierce battle, unexpectedly, Deng Zilong’s ship was set on fire. The Japanese took advantage of the situation to siege. Li shunchen went to the rescue, and Deng Zilong died. Li shunchen and Chen phosphorus worked closely together to attack the Japanese army and bombard the enemy ship with tiger squatting guns. At this time, Li shunchen was shot in the chest and died. Li Guan, Li shunchen’s son, issued orders in accordance with Li shunchen’s will and continued to supervise the army until the Japanese army gradually lost support and ended in rout.
the Luliang sea battle, the joint fleet of North Korea and China destroyed and burned more than 200 Japanese ships, destroyed more than 20000 Japanese troops, captured 180 people, and drowned countless Japanese troops. It declared the end of the seven-year Japanese expeditionary Korean war with the complete failure of the Japanese aggressors and the final victory of the DPRK and China.
impact ` evaluation of
the war of Japanese invasion of Korea lasted more than seven years. It experienced a tortuous process of stopping fighting and fighting while talking. Finally, with the support of the army of the Ming Dynasty, the Korean people experienced setbacks and failures, and finally defeated the strong enemy and turned defeat into victory. Through this patriotic war, the Korean people safeguarded national independence, smashed the aggressive attempts of the Japanese aggressors to invade Korea and invade China, and made the Japanese aggressors never dare to trample on the territory of Korea again in the hundreds of years after the war, thus ensuring the long-term foreign security and peace of Korea. The seven-year war of
has not only brought great losses of life and property to the Korean people, but also caused extremely serious desolation of fields and sharp reduction of population. 13 years after the withdrawal of the Japanese army, the area of cultivated land restored to life in North Korea is less than 13% of the total area of cultivated land in the country before the war. In addition, a large number of historical relics have been destroyed and even stolen, many historical libraries have been burned, and a large number of valuable historical books have been turned into ashes, which is difficult to calculate their value. For the defeated Japan, it consumed a lot of domestic human and material resources, which greatly damaged the vitality of the newly unified country, economic decline and social chaos. As a result, the feudal princes of Japan defeated themselves and were soon subdued by Tokugawa Jiakang, the most powerful after the death of Toyotomi Xiuji, creating favorable conditions for the establishment of Tokugawa Shogunate.
the victory of North Korea in resisting the Japanese invasion is the result of the joint efforts of the people of North Korea and China, which has deepened the traditional friendship between the two peoples. China and the DPRK are separated by only one river, and the friendly exchanges between the two peoples have been extremely close since ancient times. Since the middle ages, exchanges between the two countries have become more frequent, especially cultural and economic exchanges. Such as writing, painting, printing, silk, porcelain, medicinal materials, etc. With the victory of this war, China DPRK friendship and exchanges have entered a new stage.