According to the order of the Japanese army to send troops to China, in 1945, in addition to ensuring the existing occupied area, the Japanese north China front army also needed to prepare for the attack on Laohekou and the war against the United States and the Soviet Union.
In addition, according to the “outline of coastal combat preparations for the United States” issued by China’s dispatched troops, it is scheduled to transfer 7 of the existing 9 divisions of the North China front army to Shanghai, and the 12th field supplementary team will be adapted into an independent mixed brigade and transferred to Xuzhou.
To this end, beginning in early 1945, the Japanese north China front army stepped up the integration of troops to enrich the troops scheduled to fight against the United States.
In order to take over the defense of the troops scheduled to be transferred out, the third to seventh independent police forces have been newly established.
In order to prepare for the anti US landing operation on the Shandong Peninsula, the 43rd group army was newly built in Jinan from March to April 1945, under which the 59th division, the fifth and ninth independent mixed brigades and the first independent infantry brigade were under the jurisdiction.
In the spring of 1945, the Japanese north China front army had about 125 battalions with 190000 people, and more than 400000 puppet troops.
The Japanese troops were obviously insufficient and their morale decreased.
Except for launching a large-scale “sweep” of the Eighth Route Army in Shandong to prepare for the war against the United States, they were basically on the defensive.
In order to carry out the strategic task of “expanding the liberated areas and narrowing the enemy occupied areas”, the Eighth Route Army launched a larger-scale counter offensive against the Japanese army in the spring of 1945.
The Shandong military region of the Eighth Route Army issued the operational deployment for 1945 on January 17, 1945, and put forward that the main direction of our army’s operation in 1945 is to open up a wide area on the north and south sides of the eastern section of Jiaoji Road, so as to further shorten and consolidate the connection between Jiaodong, Bohai Sea, central Shandong and Binhai.
The areas opened up in 1944 mainly strive for consolidation.
Accordingly, in the spring of 1945, the Shandong military region carried out campaigns against the puppet forces Rong Ziheng and Zhao Baoyuan and attacked Mengyin.
On February 2, the Lunan military region raided Surabaya County, which was garrisoned by the rongziheng Department of the tenth provisional army, attacked the city at one fell swoop, killed rongziheng, his chief of staff and Japanese advisers, and wiped out the enemy in the city.
At the same time, the Eighth Route Army conquered Yangzhuang, Yanggong village and other strongholds outside Surabaya city to repel the Japanese and puppet reinforcements.
More than 2000 troops were killed in this campaign.
Zhao Baoyuan, formerly the commander of the 12th division of the Kuomintang’s Shandong Soviet war zone, publicly surrendered to the enemy in August 1944 and entrenched in the middle reaches of Wulong River and Dagu River in the north of Jiaodong Jiaoji Railway with play bottom as the core.
On the night of February 11, Jiaodong military region concentrated five regiments and five battalions of the main force, mobilized 50000 militia and the masses, first launched an attack on the bottom of the puppet army headquarters, conquered it on the night of February 12, and Zhao Baoyuan led the remnant south into Jimo.
On the 14th, the Eighth Route Army conquered another important stronghold, Zuo village.
On the 19th, the battle ended successfully.
This battle killed and wounded more than 2000 enemies, captured more than 7370 people, defeated more than 2000 people, and dealt a devastating blow to the Ministry of Zhao.
On the night of March 8, the central Shandong military region concentrated four main regiments and some local armed forces and militias to attack Mengyin County.
By the 10th, they completely annihilated the defending enemy and wiped out an enemy assisted by Xintai.
In April and may, the Japanese army carried out a big “sweep” of the Anti Japanese base areas behind the enemy lines in Shandong.
After the anti “mopping up”, the Shandong military region of the Eighth Route Army launched a summer offensive against the Japanese army and carried out campaigns against the puppet forces Li Wenli, Zhang Buyun and Zhang Jingyue.
Li Wenli is the puppet “commander of the east Shandong peace and founding army”, with more than 10000 people, entrenched on both sides of the Jiaoji Railway centered on Wei County, Changle and Anqiu.
On the evening of June 5, the central Shandong military region concentrated more than 10000 troops and launched a fierce campaign.
It successively conquered more than 60 Japanese and puppet strongholds such as xiapo and Jingzhi Town, annihilated more than 7300 Japanese and puppet troops, and the campaign ended successfully on June 27.
This campaign liberated more than 1700 square kilometers of land and controlled important areas in the south of the eastern section of Jiaoji railway.
Zhang Buyun is a puppet “commander in chief of the first group army and commander of the first army of Shandong national self defense army”, with more than 10000 people, entrenched in Zhucheng area in the north of Binhai District.
From the night of July 15 to 30, the Binhai military region and the central Shandong military region concentrated the troops of four regiments to launch the battle against Zhang, conquered Xiangzhou, Shuangmiao, Zheng Gong, shuangyangdian, Zhuma and other strongholds, annihilated more than 5000 enemies and liberated 2500 square kilometers of national soldiers, making the enemy strongholds in various cities more isolated.
Zhang Jingyue Department of the puppet third front army entrenched in the north and south areas of Shouguang, covered the Jiaoji Railway and blocked the connection between the Bohai military region of the Eighth Route Army and the Jiaodong military region.
On July 31, the Bohai military region, with the cooperation of the first Department of the Jiaodong military region, launched the battle to discuss Zhang, focusing on tianliuzhuang, a fortified outpost in Zhang north of Shouguang, and conquered it on August 12.
After that, taking advantage of the victory to eliminate the remaining enemies and conquer 12 strongholds, Zhang Jingyue led the remaining troops to escape into the Japanese strongholds on the Jiaoji railway line.
This battle further opened up the links between the Bohai Sea, Jiaodong and central Shandong.
While focusing on the operation of the eastern section of the Jiaoji railway, the troops of the Shandong military region also carried out offensive operations against the Japanese and puppet forces in other areas.
Since the middle of May, the southern Shandong military region, with the cooperation of the central Shandong military region and the Binhai military region, has successively launched campaigns such as Linyi Feixian border and ministerial Ma Tou, annihilated more than 7700 Japanese puppet troops, recovered Tancheng, Zoucheng, Feixian and other counties, and further approached the Longhai and Jinpu railways.
Since early June, the Bohai military region has carried out Putai Binxian and other campaigns north of the Xiaoqing River, annihilated more than 3400 Japanese and puppet troops, recovered six counties including Putai, Binxian, Nanpi, Zhanhua, Deping and Qingyun, and further isolated Huimin, the central stronghold of the Japanese and puppets in the Bohai region.
While the Shandong military region attacked cities and land and dealt a heavy blow to the Japanese invaders, the Taihang military region of the Eighth Route Army determined that the focus of operations in 1945 was along the peace Han railway in Northern Henan.
From Wenxian and Mengxian to Yuanwu and Yangwu in Northern Henan, we can eliminate all Japanese puppet forces before the wheat harvest and turn them into guerrilla base areas or base areas.
Along the pinghan railway, they organized constant attacks to destroy the third Japanese puppet blockade line and force the Japanese puppets to shrink to a narrow area about 10 kilometers away from the pinghan line.
In addition, the camera seized Xiyang, Heshun, Liao County, Lingchuan and other counties, and pulled out some strongholds deep into the base areas.
In terms of operational implementation steps, the first step is to focus on attacking and eliminating the puppet army, and resolutely crack down on the disturbing Japanese army at the same time.
The second step is to capture the weak strongholds of the Japanese puppet joint defense and the Japanese army’s separate defense.
From January 21 to April 1, the Taihang Military Region conducted the Daoqing campaign, annihilated more than 2500 Japanese puppet troops, recovered more than 2000 square kilometers of land and liberated 750000 people.
While the New Fourth Army of Northern Jiangsu and central Jiangsu wiped out the Japanese puppet army and expanded its base areas, the Huaibei and Huainan military regions of the New Fourth Army successively occupied Longgang, Jingou and jiangba to the north of Tianchang, Shuanggou and Fushan to the east of Wuhe, shunheji to the south of Huaiyin and other places in order to control the traffic on the lower reaches of Huaihe River and Sanhe River from early February.
In the course of operations, the troops of the Huaibei and Huainan military regions of the New Fourth Army cooperated with each other to actively crack down on the Japanese puppet invaders.
By mid April, the Japanese puppet army was forced to give up its attempt to open up the traffic between the Huaihe River and the three rivers and retreat from jiangba, Jingou, Fushan and other places to Gaoyou and Wuhe.
During this period, the Huainan military region alone fought 24 times, killing and wounding 260 Japanese and puppet troops, capturing 4 Japanese and 525 puppet troops.
The Huainan military region wounded 52 people and killed 32.
From April 15, Huaibei military region launched an assault on the roads of Yanghe Zhongxing, Guzhen Lingbi and Si county Lingbi.
Then it attacked the Japanese and puppet army between Lingbi and Suining, and besieged the Japanese and puppet army strongholds in Woyang and Yongcheng areas.
In the past month, the Huaibei military region annihilated more than 3000 Japanese puppets and conquered 21 strongholds in Sixian county and Dadian, Qiuji and tombs, further isolating the Japanese puppets in Suining and other places.
While the Su Huai new Fourth Army gradually expanded its base areas and liberated the occupied territories, the Wanjiang military region of the New Fourth Army carried out the instructions of the central China Bureau on mainly developing to the south of the Yangtze River in the future and made great progress to the south.
In March, the office of Southern Anhui High Commissioner and the Anti Japanese democratic government of Tongling County and Fanchang County were established, and the Anti Japanese guerrilla areas of Tongling, Fanchang, Wuhu and Xuancheng were basically connected.
In the spring of 1945, the CPC Dongzhi County Committee was established, and the Anti Japanese guerrilla areas from Guichi, Dongliu, Zhide to Pengze, Jiangxi Province were basically connected.
The riverside detachment of the seventh division once again established contact with the Eastern Hubei force of the fifth division of the New Fourth Army through Pengze.
In April, the independent brigade of the third division of the New Fourth Army was led by the brigade commander from northern Jiangsu to the South and under the command of the seventh division.
On June 20, the seventh division reconstituted the 19th brigade based on the independent regiment of the riverside detachment, the Baihu regiment and the “nest” regiment.
Lin Wei was the former brigade commander and Huang Mars was the political commissar.
On July 25, the 56th regiment of the 19th brigade launched an attack on the Japanese puppet army strongholds along the shengjiaqiao road in Chaoxian County on the South Bank of Chaohu Lake.
After a fierce battle day and night, Lianke scattered troops, changgangjing, shengjiaqiao and other strongholds wiped out more than 600 Japanese puppet troops.
At the same time, the Hubei Henan Anhui Hunan Jiangxi military region (the Fifth Division) of the New Fourth Army determined in early February that the task of the fifth division area is to focus on development and take care of the consolidation of the original areas.
The development is mainly in the South (South Hubei).
In order to develop southward, the two regiments of Zhang tixue Department of the Fifth Division cooperated with the southward detachment of the Eighth Route Army to enter the Hunan Hubei Jiangxi border and jointly established the Hunan Hubei Jiangxi border base.
After the southward detachment of the Eighth Route Army went south to southern Hunan and northern Guangdong, Zhang’s Department of physical education continued to adhere to the struggle between southern Hubei and Northern Hunan.
The Party committee of the border region instructed the third military division to rely on the Honghu Lake in Xiangnan, first continue to develop southward based on the Taohua mountain base, establish a base area in Northern Hunan and Western Hubei centered on Dongting Lake, and gradually connect with the base area in Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi.
In mid April, the Japanese attacked the Kuomintang troops in Nanyang and Laohekou.
The fifth division of the New Fourth Army mobilized nearly six regiments from Dawu Mountain and Queshan mountain to suixian and Xinyang respectively, restoring the Baizhao mountain base in the south of suixian and the Siwang mountain base in the southwest of Xinyang.
To sum up, the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army annihilated more than 160000 Japanese and puppet troops, conquered and recovered 61 counties, expanded the liberated area by more than 240000 square kilometers and liberated a population of nearly 10 million in the spring and summer offensive operations of 1945.
The Japanese puppets were further pushed back around large and medium-sized cities, major transportation lines and important coastal areas.
They gained valuable experience in regular warfare, mobile warfare, critical warfare and urban warfare, creating favorable conditions for turning into a major counter offensive.
Behind the enemy lines, in addition to the bloody Anti Japanese War of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army, guerrillas everywhere also achieved extraordinary results.
South China People’s Anti Japanese guerrillas have been established since the fall of Guangzhou in October 1938 and Hainan Island in February 1939.
In the nearly seven years to August 1945, we worked hard, developed from hundreds to 27000, organized more than 50000 militia, established Anti Japanese guerrilla bases such as Dongjiang, Zhujiang, central Guangdong and QiongYa, fought more than 2000 times and wiped out more than 14000 Japanese and puppet troops.
In August 1945, according to the instructions of the CPC Central Committee and the orders of the chairman and commander-in-chief, the Eighth Route Army, the New Fourth Army and the Anti Japanese guerrillas in South China, taking advantage of their favorable situation in the forefront of Anti Japanese, immediately launched a large-scale attack on large and medium-sized cities, towns and traffic arteries occupied by the Japanese puppet forces in North, central and South China, and cooperated with the Soviet Red Army to liberate the northeast.
The troops of the Shanxi Chahar Hebei military region marched into Peiping and Tianjin, occupied Zhangjiakou and other cities and towns, and controlled the traffic arteries.
The troops of the Shanxi Suiyuan military region approached Taiyuan, invaded Guisui and seized the urban strongholds occupied by the Japanese puppet army.
The troops of the Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan border region pressed on Taiyuan, Kaifeng, Anyang and other cities, cutting off Tongpu, Longhai, pinghan and other railway lines.
The troops of Shandong military region marched into Jinan, Qingdao, Xuzhou and other places and cut off the railway lines of Jinpu, Jiaoji and Longhai.
All units of the New Fourth Army captured enemy occupied villages and counties in Jiangsu, Anhui and Zhejiang.
In addition, the troops of the Shanxi Chahar Hebei military region marched into re Chahar, and Huang Kecheng led his troops to the Northeast successively.
The above measures have laid a solid foundation for completely defeating the Japanese aggressors and establishing people’s power.