In the spring and summer of 1945, Japanese fascists were in a desperate situation of being besieged on all sides.

After the defeat of Germany, the focus of the Allied forces moved eastward quickly and made every effort to deal with Japanese fascism.

In the Pacific battlefield, the allies have captured the Mariana Islands and Wright island in the Philippines.

The US strategic bombers and shipborne aircraft taking off from Mariana have stepped up the bombing of important cities and targets in the coastal areas of Japan.

On April 1, the US army landed on Okinawa Island and captured the whole island at the end of June.

The war is approaching Japan.

Britain, the US military and the Chinese expeditionary force also launched a counter offensive in Myanmar.

On the Chinese battlefield, the Anti Japanese armed forces such as the Eighth Route Army, the New Fourth Army and the South China Anti Japanese column under the leadership of the Communist Party of China are increasingly expanding local counter offensive operations, forcing the Japanese army in China to shrink on the dotted line of large and medium-sized cities.

The Anti Japanese armed struggle of the people of Southeast Asian countries has come to a climax one after another, and Japan’s “Greater East Asia co prosperity circle” has fallen into collapse.

After the surrender of German fascists, the Soviet government accelerated its preparations for the war against Japan and increased its troops in the Far East of the Soviet Union on a large scale.

The demise of Japanese fascism is just around the corner.

However, the Japanese militarist ruling group is not reconciled to failure.

Despite the fact that the political and economic crisis caused to Japan by the long-term war of aggression is getting worse, the financial and material resources are on the verge of exhaustion, the supply of foreign resources is cut off, the domestic industry is on the verge of paralysis, food is scarce, and the people are tired of war and dissatisfied, they still decide that the Empire will continue to fight a decisive battle, Strive for the improvement of the war situation, quickly establish an active defense posture based on Japan, Manchuria and Huawei, and resolutely realize a long-term and lasting war.

It is the consensus of the US government and military to end the war against Japan as soon as possible.

On April 25, 1945, after taking office, President Truman listened to the comprehensive report of secretary of the army Stimson and groves on the development of a new weapon – a powerful atomic bomb for the first time at the White House.

Stimson said with confidence: within four months, the trial production of the atomic bomb will be successful.

Once it is used, the war can be ended.

According to Stimson’s suggestion, Truman then appointed an interim committee composed of military and political leaders headed by Stimson and an advisory committee composed of scientists to study and decide whether to use atomic bombs against Japan after Germany’s defeat and how to use atomic bombs.

The United States can neither give a warning in advance on the nature of an atomic bomb demonstration in a certain area in early June nor give a consensus on the nature of an atomic bomb.

The atomic bomb should be used against Japan as soon as possible, and the target should be in a place that can show the strong destructive power of the atomic bomb and close to the munitions production center of first-class military significance.

Truman fully agreed with the consultants’ suggestions.

On the contrary, another group of atomic energy scientists headed by James frank and Leo silard, as well as dozens of other scientists engaged in the development of atomic bombs in Oak Ridge and other places, jointly wrote in late June and submitted a report to Stimson, strongly opposing the use of atomic bombs.

However, the opposition of some scientists did not shake President Truman’s determination to use the atomic bomb against Japan.

He wrote confidently: I think the atomic bomb is a weapon of war, and no one has ever doubted that it can be used.

We must attack the enemy with atomic bombs.

As for when and where to throw atomic bombs, it is up to me to make the final decision.

On July 16, the first atomic bomb in human history was successfully tested and exploded in Alamogordo, a desert area in New Mexico, with a power equivalent to 20000 times that of a ton of high explosive trinitrotoluene.

That morning, Truman, who was attending the Potsdam Conference in Germany, received a telegram that “the baby was born safely”.

On the 17th, Stimson flew to Potsdam to report the details of the success of the atomic bomb explosion to Truman.

In the next few days, Truman and his military and political dignitaries further studied the specific details of the use of the atomic bomb against Japan.

The decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan was made almost simultaneously with the signing and publication of the Potsdam Proclamation.

On July 23, general groves, the head of the Manhattan Project, drew up the final written order for the upcoming military operation of atomic bomb raid on Japan from Tinian island in the Mariana Islands in the Pacific Ocean.

On July 24, Truman immediately approved the order and, in the name of the U.S. Army Department, instructed general Carl spotz, commander of the strategic air force of the U.S. Army, to send the 59th mixed brigade of the 20th air force to immediately witness the bombing in Hiroshima, xiaocang Select a target from four cities in Niigata and Nagasaki to drop this special bomb.

The 59th mixed brigade of the US 20th air force, which is responsible for this special task, is all on standby.

On the day Truman decided to use the atomic bomb against Japan, Truman, who attended the Potsdam meeting, consciously revealed to the United States that the development of the atomic bomb had been successful: “we have a new weapon with particularly great destructive power.

” Stalin did not show any abnormal reaction, but replied coldly that he was very happy to hear the news and hoped that the Americans would “make good use of it against the Japanese”.

The attempt of the United States to use the atomic bomb to exert political pressure on the Soviet Union and force the Soviet leaders to make concessions on the issue of post-war world arrangements failed to be achieved.

On July 26, 1945, China, the United States and Britain issued the Potsdam Proclamation in the form of a joint declaration to promote Japan’s surrender.

The announcement solemnly warned the Japanese government: Japan must decide the way, and will it continue to be controlled by the soldiers whose willful and wrong estimation has plunged the Japanese empire into complete destruction, or move towards the road of reason? Inform the Japanese government to immediately announce the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces and provide appropriate guarantees for such actions in good faith.

In addition, Japan will soon be completely destroyed.

At the same time, Truman also instructed the intelligence agencies of the US government to quickly make the contents of the Potsdam announcement known to the Japanese by all possible means.

From July 27 to August 1, allied planes distributed 1.

5 million leaflets and 3 million Potsdam announcements over large and medium-sized cities in Japan.

The leaflet warned these cities that if Japan did not surrender, they would be subjected to large-scale heavy aerial bombardment.

After each leaflet was distributed, the US aircraft followedA conventional bomb bombing.

After the publication of the Potsdam Proclamation, the Japanese ruling groups have always had different opinions on the issue of war and peace.

A group of important civil servants headed by foreign minister Dongxiang maode advocated that it should depend on whether the Soviet Union participated in the war or not.

The army chief of staff and the deputy chief of staff of the Japanese Navy, led by Japanese admiral masuro, insisted on fighting the war to the end.

On the afternoon of July 28, when receiving reporters, Prime Minister Suzuki guantaro issued a statement on the attitude of the Japanese government towards the Potsdam Proclamation, saying that the Potsdam Proclamation has no major value.

“Only by ignoring it, we will resolutely carry out the war to the end”.

Moreover, the Japanese government was afraid that the contents of the Potsdam Proclamation would affect the morale of its people and army.

It deleted some of it before it was published in the newspaper.

Japan’s public refusal to accept the Potsdam Proclamation prompted Truman to decide to use the atomic bomb against Japan as planned.

At 2:45 on August 6, 1945, U.S. Air Force Colonel tibbetts piloted the B-29 heavy bomber “Enola Gay” loaded with atomic bombs, escorted by two aircraft, and took off from Tinian island in the Mariana Islands.

It flew at an altitude of 9760 meters at a speed of 456 kilometers per hour.

At about 8 o’clock, it flew over Hiroshima, Japan and dropped an atomic bomb with a weight of 9000 pounds and an equivalent of 20000 tons of TNT.

Hiroshima had a total population of 343000 at that time.

Its south has long been used as the marine base of the army, and there are many logistics factories and warehouses in the east of the city.

Since April 1945, the headquarters of the second general army of the Japanese army has been set here.

At 8:15 a.m., the atomic bomb exploded over the city center.

Most of the residents near the center of the explosion were killed.

Fortunately, those who escaped were also groaning in burns.

More than 780000 people were killed and more than 51000 were injured or missing.

The total number of buildings in the city is more than 76000, with 48000 completely destroyed and more than 22000 half destroyed.

The number of people affected by the disaster reached more than 177000.

On the day when the United States used the atomic bomb against Japan, the news media released the press release of the atomic bomb and President Truman’s statement on the atomic bomb: the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on the 6th will revolutionize the war.

If Japan still does not accept surrender, it will throw it elsewhere.

After the US broadcast, the Japanese army and Navy headquarters began to receive slightly detailed reports on the new bombs from Hiroshima and wuzhenfu.

However, in the announcement of the 7th of the Japanese base camp published in major Japanese newspapers on August 8, it only said: “Hiroshima suffered serious losses due to the bombing of new bombs.

” “This kind of bomb is not terrible.

We have a way to deal with it.

” The Japanese government still refused to surrender.

From August 6 to August 8, the Japanese government authorities did not even hold a cabinet meeting, and the scheduled supreme military meeting was cancelled.

There was no discussion on the emergence of an atomic bomb at all.

The focus of their concern or hope is the result of the meeting between Ambassador Sato and foreign minister Molotov scheduled to be held in Moscow on the night of the 8th.

On August 8, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan.

At 0:00 on the 9th, the Soviet army launched a general attack on the Japanese Kwantung Army from Northeast China.

At 10:30 a.m., Japan’s supreme war guidance conference studied the issue of peace and war.

At 1130 hours, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki.

At that time, the population of Nagasaki was about 270000.

More than 24000 people died and more than 43000 people were injured, accounting for more than 67000 people, accounting for 25% of the total population of Nagasaki.

The use of atomic bombs by the United States against Japan and the participation of the Soviet Union in the war against Japan accelerated Japan’s surrender.

On the afternoon of August 6, the emperor of Japan told the foreign minister of Dongxiang that since the enemy had used this weapon, it was more and more impossible to continue the war.

Fight for favorable conditions and don’t miss the opportunity to end the war.

On the morning of August 9, Japan’s supreme war guidance conference was held, “which made the emperor, the Minister of interior, Prime Minister Suzuki, the foreign minister of Dongxiang, the Prime Minister of Minai, the public Minister of near Wei, the former Foreign Minister of Chongguang and other dignitaries who have always supported an early armistice more determined, believing that there was no other way but to quickly accept the Potsdam Proclamation to end the war.

” On August 10, the Japanese government sent a note to the United States, Britain, China and the Soviet Union that if the status of the emperor remained unchanged, it was ready to accept the terms listed in the Potsdam Proclamation.

On August 11, after consultations, the Allies decided to let Japan retain the emperor, but the emperor must authorize and ensure that the Japanese government and the imperial base camp sign the conditions of surrender necessary for the implementation of the Potsdam Proclamation.

The emperor and the Japanese government must obey the order of the supreme commander of the Allies, and the US State Department sent the reply of the Soviet Union, the United States, Britain and China to the Japanese declaration through the Swiss government.

On August 15, Japan broadcast to the whole country the imperial edict that the emperor accepted the Potsdam Proclamation and implemented unconditional surrender.