Kant (1724-1804) [biography] Immanuel Kant, German idealist philosopher and founder of German classical philosophy.

On April 22, 1724, Kant was born into a family of small craftsmen in gunnysburg.

At the age of 8, he entered Frederick school.

In the autumn of 1740, Kant was admitted to the University of cornesburg with excellent results and forged a close friendship with Martin knuzhen of the Wolfe school.

He systematically accepted the thoughts of German Enlightenment from knuchen.

Since 1746, he has been a tutor for many years.

In 1755, he obtained his master’s degree in Latin thesis on fire.

Soon after, he passed the reply of the Department of philosophy with the new interpretation of the basic principles of metaphysical epistemology and became a non staff lecturer at the University of gunnysburg.

In 1756, in order to apply for the position of Professor, he put forward the list theory of physics for defense.

He served as deputy curator of the Royal Library in 1766.

In 1770, he was promoted to Professor of logic and metaphysics at the University of gunnysburg.

In 1781, he published his main work critique of pure reason, which initiated the German classical idealist philosophy.

In the following 10 years, he successively completed two great works critique of practical reason and critique of judgment, which enjoyed a high reputation in Germany.

When Frederick the great died in 1786 and William II ascended the throne, the political atmosphere in Germany changed.

Kant published religion within the limits of reason in 1793, classified religion as morality, criticized the church, and was forced by the government not to teach and write religious issues.

Kant made a commitment to this end.

When William II died in 1797, Kant gave up his promise.

In 1804, Kant died in konisburg.

[influence] Kant lived in the era of transition from feudal society to capitalist society in Europe.

His philosophical thought reflected the dual nature and compromise of the German bourgeoisie yearning for revolution and cowardice at that time.

On the whole, Kant’s philosophical thought has experienced two different development periods, namely pre critical period and critical period.

The pre critical period is the period of Kant’s natural science research, which is roughly divided by 1770.

During this period, based on mechanics and surpassing Newton, Kant proposed that the world could be constructed as long as material was given to me.

In his book introduction to the history of cosmic development, he explored the law of celestial body motion and put forward the “nebula hypothesis”, which became famous in the history of science.

Kant has studied various fields of natural science, such as astronomy, geography, geology, mathematics and so on.

Kant’s turn to philosophical research is largely influenced by Rousseau and Hume.

In the study of human understanding, Hume questioned the law of universality and inevitability that can be summarized from empirical materials.

Hume’s skepticism promoted Kant to re investigate the dogmatism of metaphysics, prompted him to rethink the possibility of science, and tried to make a new philosophical interpretation of why Newtonian physics is universal and inevitable.

He appreciated Hume’s analysis of the origin of the concept of causality based on empiricism, but he opposed Hume’s conclusion of denying the inevitability of causality.

In Kant’s view, the “either or” dogmatism represented by Leibniz DD Wolff and the “skepticism” of empiricism in the field of philosophy at that time were different, which put philosophy in trouble.

In order to overcome the above two world views and two one-sided wrong ideas of cognition, he chose the only reasonable way, that is, the road of criticism.

Kant said, “my so-called criticism refers not to the criticism of any book or any philosophical system, but to the criticism of rationality itself in pure form, that is, without any experience.

” After more than ten years of gestation, Kant’s representative work of pure philosophy was published.

Through this book, Kant established a unique critical philosophy system.

Kant showed the characteristics of Transcendentalism, dualism and agnosticism in epistemology.

Kant starts from believing in the reliability of natural science, criticizes the one sidedness of rationalism and empiricism, and tries to integrate the two aspects.

He believes that all knowledge starts from experience, but it is not limited to experience.

Part of our knowledge is produced by the cognitive ability itself, which has an innate nature.

In Kant’s view, empirical knowledge is individual and therefore accidental.

Innate knowledge is universal and inevitable.

Materials derived from experience can not provide us with completely consistent knowledge about the world around us.

Kant put forward the inevitability and universality of knowledge, found another way and adopted the “a priori” method.

He divided the world into recognizable phenomena and “free things” that are impossible to know, thus showing the tendency of agnosticism.

In this way, although Kant has separated from metaphysics, he cannot completely abandon it.

Although he paid attention to experience, he still failed to become a thorough empiricist.

In the process of discussing the generation of knowledge, Kant believes that cognitive ability has three levels, starting from sensibility, then intellectuality, and finally rationality.

In the perceptual stage, space and time are the innate forms of human sensibility and the necessary conditions for understanding the perceptual stage.

No perceptual material without experience can exist in a purely intuitive form.

The pure intuition of human beings is space and time.

Space systematizes the external feeling and time systematizes the internal feeling.

The object of cognition is limited to phenomena rather than things themselves, which is the watershed between Kant’s critical philosophy and pre critical thought.

From the perspective of the formation of knowledge, Kant emphasizes that scientific knowledge should be the synthesis of sensibility and intellectuality.

Intellectuality is the ability to judge actively.

Its initiative is to contact ideas from different aspects, so as to obtain judgments in different forms and properties.

Without sensibility, we will not perceive any object.

Without knowledge, you can’t think of any object.

The synthesis of the two depends on a priori logic.

The new viewpoint on the relationship between sensibility and knowledge is an indisputable achievement of Kant’s epistemology.

Before that, the theory of sensation believed that perceptual knowledge played a major role.

Rationalism holds that knowledge is the main.

They argued and argued.

Kant’s “Antinomy of two laws” is the apex of transcendental dialectics.

Kant believes that the scope of knowledge can only be limited to the field of possible experience, and the pure reasoning beyond this field can not be reasonably demonstrated.

This kind of transcendental reasoning will inevitably fall into a state of ideological embarrassmentThis state is called “Antinomy of two laws”, that is, dialectics.

Kant put forward four antinomies in the “transcendental dialectics” in the critique of pure reason, which shows that man’s cognitive ability is limited and the world as a whole of the universe cannot be recognized.

“Antinomy of two laws” proves the correctness of the conceptual division of Transcendentalism between the unknowable “thing in itself” and the phenomenal world of empirical cognition.

Kant’s dualism is a unique attempt to defend the duality of human behavior in society.

Kant pointed out for the first time that rationality will inevitably encounter contradictions when trying to understand the world as a whole and try to reveal its essence.

Kant removed the illusion of randomness from dialectics and completed a great discovery, “which is the most important step in the process of modern philosophy.

” It is precisely because of Kant’s concept of dialectics and “Antinomy of two laws”, which is “corrected”, “expanded” and deepened, that a relatively complete theory of contradiction is formed, which provides a direct theoretical source for Marxist philosophy.

Just like Kant’s monotonous life and rigid life, the style of critique of pure reason is also very rigid, and it is too long, repetitive and obscure to be understood.

If in the critique of pure reason, Kant wants to solve “what people can know” from sensibility to knowledge and then to rationality, then the critique of practical reason published in 1788 solves “what people should do” from rationality to the concept of good and evil.

Critique of practical reason is Kant’s research achievement in ethics.

Like epistemology, his ethics was also established on the basis of criticizing the ethical concepts of rationalism and empiricism at that time.

The moral theory of empiricism happiness is represented by French materialist Albert Einstein.

He attempted to take the sensuality of the senses as the basis, starting from bitterness, happiness and interests, and take the social and public interests based on personal interests as the moral principle.

Rationalism takes God’s will as a moral principle.

Kant put forward a new concept “moral self-discipline”, and took the good will of self-discipline as the starting point of ethics.

In Kant’s view, the object of practical rationality is the supreme good, that is, what is needed to discover and realize human freedom.

“Critique of pure reason” and “critique of practical reason” respectively expound the cognitive ability and will ability, while “critique of judgment” published in 1790 expounds the evaluation ability, that is, teleology, that is, the theory of aesthetics.

Kant regards aesthetics as “the introduction of all philosophy”, and believes that judgment is between knowledge and rationality.

Criticism of judgment is a means to connect the two parts of philosophy into a whole.

By appealing to man’s artistic potential, Kant uniquely overcame the dualism of science and morality, and made his philosophical system of truth, goodness and beauty unified in man and man’s cultural works.

[Conclusion] Kant’s three criticisms are a unified whole and constitute a complete philosophical system.

In these three critical works, Kant’s thinking on the relationship between man and nature, nature and freedom runs through.

Critique of pure reason criticizes the nature of pure form rationality full of “essence” and “experience”, which involves the legislation of rationality for the natural kingdom.

The critique of practical rationality should criticize and prevent the “practical rationality”, which is originally a pure form, from becoming “impure” mixed with “substantive experience”, which involves how rationality legislates for the kingdom of freedom.

Critique of judgment is a bridge between nature and freedom.