In October 1918, when the German government sought peace from its sworn rival allies, the German naval command, which insisted on carrying out the war to the end, ordered that the ocean fleet go to sea to fight a decisive battle with the British navy and “sink with honor” if it could not win.
The order immediately aroused the great indignation of the sailors.
This adventurous act of killing 80000 sailors made the sailors in Kiel port angry.
They refused to anchor to sea, and anti war leaflets appeared on all warships.
In order to quell the commotion, the naval command ordered the arrest of all the troubled sailors and mobilized the third fleet from Port William to port Kiel overnight.
On the night of November 1, the sailors of the Third Fleet who had arrived at Kiel port held a meeting to discuss how to rescue their arrested companions and how to prevent the fleet from going to sea again.
On the afternoon of the 3rd, sailors gathered in the training ground and shouted the slogan of ending the war and demanding peace, freedom and bread.
Shortly after the meeting, the sailors held a parade, which won the support of Kiel port workers and became part of the parade.
When the procession arrived at Dakar street, it was shot and suppressed by the government military and police, killing and wounding more than 30 people.
The demonstrators were angry, so they fired back and fired their first shot against the imperial regime.
The next afternoon, the sailors and workers of the uprising soon disarmed the reactionary officers and successfully occupied the railway station and other important buildings.
The soldiers who were ordered to suppress the riots also turned to the insurgents.
In the evening, the whole KIR was in the hands of the newly established Soviet.
The Kiir uprising changed the current situation overnight, which shocked the ruling authorities.
In order to prevent the insurgents from triggering a civil war, Prime Minister Max and sherdman (the right-wing leader of the German Social Democratic Party) signed an appeal, and sent congressman and Social Democrat Norsk to Kiel to maintain and restore order.
In fact, the reason why Norsk was sent was to use his relationship with the navy to calm the incident.
However, things are not as simple as they thought.
What Norsk “met is not the strikers, but 30000 insurgents”.
It was completely impossible to stop the uprising.
Norsk retreated and agreed to some of the requirements put forward by the sailors in order to gain the trust of the sailors.
Subsequently, Norsk was elected Soviet President of the Kiel sailors.
After the Kiel uprising, the German revolution began.
With the rapid expansion of the uprising wave from north to south, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich and other cities have won revolutionary victories one after another.
The monarchs and princes of all States were cast off their thrones.
By November 8, only Berlin remained in the hands of the reactionary government in the big cities of Germany.
In order to lead the revolutionary struggle to the track of peaceful transfer of power, Albert, the leader of the right-wing Social Democratic Party, advocated that William II abdicate to the crown prince and implement a constitutional monarchy.
However, on November 7, Albert saw the irresistible trend of the revolution, which sent an ultimatum to Prime Minister Max: ask the German emperor to abdicate, the crown prince to give up his inheritance and establish a new government.
However, William II refused to abdicate.
In order to “liberate” Berlin, the Spartak regiment has repeatedly asked for the immediate start of the Berlin uprising, but it was rejected.
With the vigorous development of the revolutionary situation, the Central Council of the independent social democratic party decided to hold an armed uprising in Berlin on November 9.
Early in the morning of September 9, the call for uprising had been distributed to all factories.
Soon, hundreds of thousands of workers with red flags flocked to the center of Berlin.
Libknessy was in charge of leading the people to seize the palace, William pike was in charge of leading the people to attack the municipal building, and eichhorne, an independent social democrat, was in charge of leading the people to occupy the police station.
Everything went according to plan.
By noon, the whole of Berlin was under control.
Before that, the insurgents had hardly encountered any resistance.
Spartak regiment Spartak regiment is a revolutionary organization of the left-wing Social Democrats in Germany.
Its main leaders include Carl lipknessy, Rosa Luxemburg, Franz Merlin, zeitkin, etc.
The Spartak regiment carried out propaganda against the imperialist war among the masses, exposed the aggressive policy of German imperialism and the mutiny of the right-wing leaders of the Social Democratic Party, and organized and led the workers’ struggle and anti war movement.
After the Berlin uprising, William II urgently summoned the army generals at the spar base camp and asked them whether they could return to the army from the front line to suppress the uprising.
However, he got the answer that there was nothing he could do.
William II was desperate and finally announced his abdication and fled to the Netherlands.
So far, the rule of the hohensoren Dynasty in Germany completely collapsed.
Less than an hour after William II abdicated, Max handed over the post of prime minister to Albert.
At 2 p.m. on the 9th, after hearing the news that the Spartak regiment was brewing the establishment of a Socialist Republic, without discussing with anyone, sherdman announced “long live the German Republic”, hoping to limit the revolution to the scope of bourgeois democracy.
At 4 p.m., lipknessy officially declared Germany a free Socialist Republic and called for the establishment of a government of workers and soldiers.
Subsequently, Albert invited the independent social democratic party to jointly discuss the organization of the government, and especially invited lipknessy to participate in the government.
However, the leader of the Spartak regiment asked the Soviet to take charge of all power.
After being denied, he refused to enter the government.
After consultation, the Social Democratic Party and the independent social democratic party (the workers’ political party split from the Social Democratic Party and dominated by the leaders of the middle school) reached a consensus.
Each party sent three representatives to form a coalition government, namely the people’s plenipotentiary Committee, which was co chaired by Albert and haaz.
On the 10th, about 3000 people attended the engineering Soviet Congress held in Berlin.
Lipknessy pointed out at the meeting that “only by transforming the revolution into a socialist revolution can we win”.
However, this view has not been accepted by the general assembly.
Finally, the General Assembly approved the establishment of Albert government.
As soon as the new government was established, it implemented a series of democratic reforms: lifting the state of martial law, ensuring the freedom of speech, assembly and association, amnesty for political prisoners, restoration of labor protection laws, implementation of the eight hour working system, etc.
However, the establishment of the new government did not prevent the transformation of Juncker’s bourgeois party (the party representing the interests of landlords, nobles and bourgeoisie): the National People’s party was the original conservative party, the people’s party was the original National Liberal Party, and the Democratic Party was the original Progressive Liberal Party and the left wing of the National Liberal Party, only the Central Party retains its original name.
The Soviet system was not recognized by the Albert government, so the Albert government was very hostile to it.
Albert’s government wanted to secretly mobilize 10 divisions through the German general staff to go to Berlin to eliminate the engineer Soviet at one stroke, but in the end, the plan was stranded for various reasons.
The government is the most afraid of any military change.
The reason why mutiny is terrible is that the soldiers are well-trained and have guns in their hands.
The terrible thing about the military change is that the army is the organization that knows how to obey.
If even they don’t obey, it can only prove that the government is not far from collapse.
The same is true for an enterprise.
The boss should have this understanding: employees really work for you and listen to you.
But if the treatment is not generous and they can’t see the future, sooner or later they will “mutiny” and leave you.